# Man1 - gcc.1




## NAME

gcc - GNU project C and C++ compiler

## SYNOPSIS

gcc [*-c*|*-S*|*-E*] [*-std=*/standard/] [*-g*] [*-pg*] [*-O*/level/] [*-W*/warn/…] [*-Wpedantic*] [*-I*/dir/…] [*-L*/dir/…] [*-D*/macro/[=/defn/]…] [*-U*/macro/] [*-f*/option/…] [*-m*/machine-option/…] [*-o* outfile/] [@/file/] /infile

Only the most useful options are listed here; see below for the remainder. g++ accepts mostly the same options as gcc.

## DESCRIPTION

When you invoke GCC, it normally does preprocessing, compilation, assembly and linking. The overall options allow you to stop this process at an intermediate stage. For example, the -c option says not to run the linker. Then the output consists of object files output by the assembler.

Other options are passed on to one or more stages of processing. Some options control the preprocessor and others the compiler itself. Yet other options control the assembler and linker; most of these are not documented here, since you rarely need to use any of them.

Most of the command-line options that you can use with GCC are useful for C programs; when an option is only useful with another language (usually C++), the explanation says so explicitly. If the description for a particular option does not mention a source language, you can use that option with all supported languages.

The usual way to run GCC is to run the executable called gcc, or machine/*-gcc* when cross-compiling, or /machine/*-gcc-*/version to run a specific version of GCC. When you compile C++ programs, you should invoke GCC as g++ instead.

The gcc program accepts options and file names as operands. Many options have multi-letter names; therefore multiple single-letter options may not be grouped: -dv is very different from -d -v.

You can mix options and other arguments. For the most part, the order you use doesn’t matter. Order does matter when you use several options of the same kind; for example, if you specify -L more than once, the directories are searched in the order specified. Also, the placement of the -l option is significant.

Many options have long names starting with -f or with -W—for example, -fmove-loop-invariants, -Wformat and so on. Most of these have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo is -fno-foo. This manual documents only one of these two forms, whichever one is not the default.

Some options take one or more arguments typically separated either by a space or by the equals sign (=) from the option name. Unless documented otherwise, an argument can be either numeric or a string. Numeric arguments must typically be small unsigned decimal or hexadecimal integers. Hexadecimal arguments must begin with the 0x prefix. Arguments to options that specify a size threshold of some sort may be arbitrarily large decimal or hexadecimal integers followed by a byte size suffix designating a multiple of bytes such as kB and KiB for kilobyte and kibibyte, respectively, MB and MiB for megabyte and mebibyte, GB and GiB for gigabyte and gigibyte, and so on. Such arguments are designated by byte-size in the following text. Refer to the NIST, IEC, and other relevant national and international standards for the full listing and explanation of the binary and decimal byte size prefixes.

## OPTIONS

### Option Summary

Here is a summary of all the options, grouped by type. Explanations are in the following sections.

Overall Options
-c -S -E -o file -dumpbase dumpbase -dumpbase-ext auxdropsuf -dumpdir dumppfx -x language -v -### –help[*=*/class/[*,…*]] –target-help –version * -pass-exit-codes -pipe -specs=/file/ *-wrapper * @/file/ *-ffile-prefix-map=*/old/*=*/new/ *-fplugin=*/file/ *-fplugin-arg-*/name/*=*/arg/ *-fdump-ada-spec[*-slim*] *-fada-spec-parent=*/unit/ *-fdump-go-spec=*/file/
C Language Options
-ansi -std=*/standard/ *-fgnu89-inline * -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=/standard/ *-aux-info filename -fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions * -fno-asm -fno-builtin -fno-builtin-function *-fgimple -fhosted -ffreestanding -fopenacc -fopenacc-dim=/geom/ *-fopenmp -fopenmp-simd * -fms-extensions -fplan9-extensions -fsso-struct=/endianness/ *-fallow-single-precision -fcond-mismatch -flax-vector-conversions * -fsigned-bitfields -fsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -funsigned-char
C++ Language Options
*-fabi-version=*/n/ *-fno-access-control * -faligned-new=/n/ *-fargs-in-order=*/n/ *-fchar8_t -fcheck-new * -fconstexpr-depth=/n/ *-fconstexpr-cache-depth=*/n/ *-fconstexpr-loop-limit=*/n/ *-fconstexpr-ops-limit=*/n/ *-fno-elide-constructors * -fno-enforce-eh-specs -fno-gnu-keywords -fno-implicit-templates -fno-implicit-inline-templates -fno-implement-inlines -fmodule-header[*=*/kind/] *-fmodule-only -fmodules-ts * -fmodule-implicit-inline -fno-module-lazy -fmodule-mapper=/specification/ *-fmodule-version-ignore * -fms-extensions -fnew-inheriting-ctors -fnew-ttp-matching -fno-nonansi-builtins -fnothrow-opt -fno-operator-names -fno-optional-diags -fpermissive -fno-pretty-templates -fno-rtti -fsized-deallocation -ftemplate-backtrace-limit=/n/ *-ftemplate-depth=*/n/ *-fno-threadsafe-statics -fuse-cxa-atexit * -fno-weak -nostdinc++ -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -fvisibility-ms-compat -fext-numeric-literals -flang-info-include-translate[*=*/header/] *-flang-info-include-translate-not * -flang-info-module-cmi[*=*/module/] *-stdlib=*/libstdc++,libc++/ *-Wabi-tag -Wcatch-value -Wcatch-value=*/n/ *-Wno-class-conversion -Wclass-memaccess * -Wcomma-subscript -Wconditionally-supported -Wno-conversion-null -Wctad-maybe-unsupported -Wctor-dtor-privacy -Wno-delete-incomplete -Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor -Wdeprecated-copy -Wdeprecated-copy-dtor -Wno-deprecated-enum-enum-conversion -Wno-deprecated-enum-float-conversion -Weffc++ -Wno-exceptions -Wextra-semi -Wno-inaccessible-base -Wno-inherited-variadic-ctor -Wno-init-list-lifetime -Winvalid-imported-macros -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Wno-literal-suffix -Wno-mismatched-new-delete -Wmismatched-tags -Wmultiple-inheritance -Wnamespaces -Wnarrowing -Wnoexcept -Wnoexcept-type -Wnon-virtual-dtor -Wpessimizing-move -Wno-placement-new -Wplacement-new=/n/ *-Wrange-loop-construct -Wredundant-move -Wredundant-tags * -Wreorder -Wregister -Wstrict-null-sentinel -Wno-subobject-linkage -Wtemplates -Wno-non-template-friend -Wold-style-cast -Woverloaded-virtual -Wno-pmf-conversions -Wsign-promo -Wsized-deallocation -Wsuggest-final-methods -Wsuggest-final-types -Wsuggest-override -Wno-terminate -Wuseless-cast -Wno-vexing-parse -Wvirtual-inheritance -Wno-virtual-move-assign -Wvolatile -Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant
(no term)
Objective-C and Objective-C++ Language Options :: *-fconstant-string-class=*/class-name/ *-fgnu-runtime -fnext-runtime * -fno-nil-receivers -fobjc-abi-version=/n/ *-fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors * -fobjc-direct-dispatch -fobjc-exceptions -fobjc-gc -fobjc-nilcheck -fobjc-std=objc1 -fno-local-ivars -fivar-visibility=[*public*|*protected*|*private*|*package*] *-freplace-objc-classes * -fzero-link -gen-decls -Wassign-intercept -Wno-property-assign-default -Wno-protocol -Wobjc-root-class -Wselector -Wstrict-selector-match -Wundeclared-selector
Diagnostic Message Formatting Options
-fmessage-length=*/n/ *-fdiagnostics-plain-output * -fdiagnostics-show-location=[*once*|*every-line*] *-fdiagnostics-color=[*auto*|*never*|*always*] -fdiagnostics-urls=[*auto*|*never*|*always*] -fdiagnostics-format=[*text*|*json*] *-fno-diagnostics-show-option -fno-diagnostics-show-caret * -fno-diagnostics-show-labels -fno-diagnostics-show-line-numbers -fno-diagnostics-show-cwe -fdiagnostics-minimum-margin-width=/width/ *-fdiagnostics-parseable-fixits -fdiagnostics-generate-patch * -fdiagnostics-show-template-tree -fno-elide-type -fdiagnostics-path-format=[*none*|*separate-events*|*inline-events*] *-fdiagnostics-show-path-depths * -fno-show-column -fdiagnostics-column-unit=[*display*|*byte*] *-fdiagnostics-column-origin=*/origin/
Warning Options
Static Analyzer Options
*-fanalyzer * -fanalyzer-call-summaries -fanalyzer-checker=/name/ *-fno-analyzer-feasibility * -fanalyzer-fine-grained -fanalyzer-state-merge -fanalyzer-state-purge -fanalyzer-transitivity -fanalyzer-verbose-edges -fanalyzer-verbose-state-changes -fanalyzer-verbosity=/level/ *-fdump-analyzer * -fdump-analyzer-stderr -fdump-analyzer-callgraph -fdump-analyzer-exploded-graph -fdump-analyzer-exploded-nodes -fdump-analyzer-exploded-nodes-2 -fdump-analyzer-exploded-nodes-3 -fdump-analyzer-feasibility -fdump-analyzer-json -fdump-analyzer-state-purge -fdump-analyzer-supergraph -Wno-analyzer-double-fclose -Wno-analyzer-double-free -Wno-analyzer-exposure-through-output-file -Wno-analyzer-file-leak -Wno-analyzer-free-of-non-heap -Wno-analyzer-malloc-leak -Wno-analyzer-mismatching-deallocation -Wno-analyzer-null-argument -Wno-analyzer-null-dereference -Wno-analyzer-possible-null-argument -Wno-analyzer-possible-null-dereference -Wno-analyzer-shift-count-negative -Wno-analyzer-shift-count-overflow -Wno-analyzer-stale-setjmp-buffer -Wno-analyzer-tainted-array-index -Wanalyzer-too-complex -Wno-analyzer-unsafe-call-within-signal-handler -Wno-analyzer-use-after-free -Wno-analyzer-use-of-pointer-in-stale-stack-frame -Wno-analyzer-use-of-uninitialized-value -Wno-analyzer-write-to-const -Wno-analyzer-write-to-string-literal
C and Objective-C-only Warning Options
Debugging Options
*-g -g*/level/ *-gdwarf -gdwarf-*/version/ *-ggdb -grecord-gcc-switches -gno-record-gcc-switches * -gstabs -gstabs+ -gstrict-dwarf -gno-strict-dwarf -gas-loc-support -gno-as-loc-support -gas-locview-support -gno-as-locview-support -gcolumn-info -gno-column-info -gdwarf32 -gdwarf64 -gstatement-frontiers -gno-statement-frontiers -gvariable-location-views -gno-variable-location-views -ginternal-reset-location-views -gno-internal-reset-location-views -ginline-points -gno-inline-points -gvms -gxcoff -gxcoff+ -gz[*=*/type/] *-gsplit-dwarf -gdescribe-dies -gno-describe-dies * -fdebug-prefix-map=/old/*=*/new/ *-fdebug-types-section * -fno-eliminate-unused-debug-types -femit-struct-debug-baseonly -femit-struct-debug-reduced -femit-struct-debug-detailed[*=*/spec-list/] *-fno-eliminate-unused-debug-symbols -femit-class-debug-always * -fno-merge-debug-strings -fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm -fvar-tracking -fvar-tracking-assignments
Optimization Options

-faggressive-loop-optimizations * -falign-functions[=/n/[:*/m/*:[*/n2/*[:*/m2/*]]]] * -falign-jumps[=/n/*[:*/m/*:[*/n2/*[:*/m2/*]]]] * -falign-labels[=/n/*[:*/m/*:[*/n2/*[:*/m2/*]]]] * -falign-loops[=/n/*[:*/m/*:[*/n2/*[:*/m2/*]]]] * -fno-allocation-dce -fallow-store-data-races -fassociative-math -fauto-profile -fauto-profile[=/path/*] * -fauto-inc-dec -fbranch-probabilities -fcaller-saves -fcombine-stack-adjustments -fconserve-stack -fcompare-elim -fcprop-registers -fcrossjumping -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks -fcx-fortran-rules -fcx-limited-range -fdata-sections -fdce -fdelayed-branch -fdelete-null-pointer-checks -fdevirtualize -fdevirtualize-speculatively -fdevirtualize-at-ltrans -fdse -fearly-inlining -fipa-sra -fexpensive-optimizations -ffat-lto-objects -ffast-math -ffinite-math-only -ffloat-store -fexcess-precision=/style/ *-ffinite-loops * -fforward-propagate -ffp-contract=/style/ *-ffunction-sections * -fgcse -fgcse-after-reload -fgcse-las -fgcse-lm -fgraphite-identity -fgcse-sm -fhoist-adjacent-loads -fif-conversion -fif-conversion2 -findirect-inlining -finline-functions -finline-functions-called-once -finline-limit=/n/ *-finline-small-functions -fipa-modref -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-clone * -fipa-bit-cp -fipa-vrp -fipa-pta -fipa-profile -fipa-pure-const -fipa-reference -fipa-reference-addressable -fipa-stack-alignment -fipa-icf -fira-algorithm=/algorithm/ *-flive-patching=*/level/ *-fira-region=*/region/ *-fira-hoist-pressure * -fira-loop-pressure -fno-ira-share-save-slots -fno-ira-share-spill-slots -fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference -fisolate-erroneous-paths-attribute -fivopts -fkeep-inline-functions -fkeep-static-functions -fkeep-static-consts -flimit-function-alignment -flive-range-shrinkage -floop-block -floop-interchange -floop-strip-mine -floop-unroll-and-jam -floop-nest-optimize -floop-parallelize-all -flra-remat -flto -flto-compression-level -flto-partition=/alg/ *-fmerge-all-constants * -fmerge-constants -fmodulo-sched -fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves -fmove-loop-invariants -fno-branch-count-reg -fno-defer-pop -fno-fp-int-builtin-inexact -fno-function-cse -fno-guess-branch-probability -fno-inline -fno-math-errno -fno-peephole -fno-peephole2 -fno-printf-return-value -fno-sched-interblock -fno-sched-spec -fno-signed-zeros -fno-toplevel-reorder -fno-trapping-math -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss -fomit-frame-pointer -foptimize-sibling-calls -fpartial-inlining -fpeel-loops -fpredictive-commoning -fprefetch-loop-arrays -fprofile-correction -fprofile-use -fprofile-use=/path/ *-fprofile-partial-training * -fprofile-values -fprofile-reorder-functions -freciprocal-math -free -frename-registers -freorder-blocks -freorder-blocks-algorithm=/algorithm/ *-freorder-blocks-and-partition -freorder-functions * -frerun-cse-after-loop -freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops -frounding-math -fsave-optimization-record -fsched2-use-superblocks -fsched-pressure -fsched-spec-load -fsched-spec-load-dangerous -fsched-stalled-insns-dep[=/n/*] -fsched-stalled-insns[=*/n/*] * -fsched-group-heuristic -fsched-critical-path-heuristic -fsched-spec-insn-heuristic -fsched-rank-heuristic -fsched-last-insn-heuristic -fsched-dep-count-heuristic -fschedule-fusion -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2 -fsection-anchors -fselective-scheduling -fselective-scheduling2 -fsel-sched-pipelining -fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops -fsemantic-interposition -fshrink-wrap -fshrink-wrap-separate -fsignaling-nans -fsingle-precision-constant -fsplit-ivs-in-unroller -fsplit-loops -fsplit-paths -fsplit-wide-types -fsplit-wide-types-early -fssa-backprop -fssa-phiopt -fstdarg-opt -fstore-merging -fstrict-aliasing -fthread-jumps -ftracer -ftree-bit-ccp -ftree-builtin-call-dce -ftree-ccp -ftree-ch -ftree-coalesce-vars -ftree-copy-prop -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse -ftree-forwprop -ftree-fre -fcode-hoisting -ftree-loop-if-convert -ftree-loop-im -ftree-phiprop -ftree-loop-distribution -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns -ftree-loop-ivcanon -ftree-loop-linear -ftree-loop-optimize -ftree-loop-vectorize -ftree-parallelize-loops=/n/ *-ftree-pre -ftree-partial-pre -ftree-pta

• -ftree-reassoc -ftree-scev-cprop -ftree-sink -ftree-slsr -ftree-sra

-ftree-switch-conversion -ftree-tail-merge -ftree-ter -ftree-vectorize -ftree-vrp -funconstrained-commons -funit-at-a-time -funroll-all-loops -funroll-loops -funsafe-math-optimizations -funswitch-loops -fipa-ra -fvariable-expansion-in-unroller -fvect-cost-model -fvpt -fweb -fwhole-program -fwpa -fuse-linker-plugin -fzero-call-used-regs –param name/*=*/value -O -O0 -O1 -O2 -O3 -Os -Ofast -Og

Program Instrumentation Options

-p -pg -fprofile-arcs –coverage -ftest-coverage * -fprofile-abs-path -fprofile-dir=/path/ *-fprofile-generate -fprofile-generate=*/path/ *-fprofile-info-section -fprofile-info-section=*/name/ *-fprofile-note=*/path/ *-fprofile-prefix-path=*/path/ *-fprofile-update=*/method/ *-fprofile-filter-files=*/regex/ *-fprofile-exclude-files=*/regex/ *-fprofile-reproducible=[*multithreaded*|*parallel-runs*|*serial*] -fsanitize=*/style/ *-fsanitize-recover -fsanitize-recover=*/style/ *-fasan-shadow-offset=*/number/ *-fsanitize-sections=*/s1/,*/s2/*,…

• -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error -fbounds-check

-fcf-protection=[*full*|*branch*|*return*|*none*|*check*] -fstack-protector -fstack-protector-all -fstack-protector-strong * -fstack-protector-explicit -fstack-check -fstack-limit-register=/reg/ *-fstack-limit-symbol=*/sym/ *-fno-stack-limit -fsplit-stack * -fvtable-verify=[*std*|*preinit*|*none*] *-fvtv-counts -fvtv-debug * -finstrument-functions -finstrument-functions-exclude-function-list=/sym/,*/sym/*,… * -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=/file/*,*/file/*,…*

Preprocessor Options
-A*/question/*=*/answer/ *-A-*/question/[*=*/answer/] *-C -CC -D*/macro/[*=*/defn/] *-dD -dI -dM -dN -dU * -fdebug-cpp -fdirectives-only -fdollars-in-identifiers -fexec-charset=/charset/ *-fextended-identifiers * -finput-charset=/charset/ *-flarge-source-files * -fmacro-prefix-map=/old/*=*/new/ *-fmax-include-depth=*/depth/ *-fno-canonical-system-headers -fpch-deps -fpch-preprocess * -fpreprocessed -ftabstop=/width/ *-ftrack-macro-expansion * -fwide-exec-charset=/charset/ *-fworking-directory * -H -imacros file *-include file -M -MD -MF -MG -MM -MMD -MP -MQ -MT -Mno-modules * -no-integrated-cpp -P -pthread -remap -traditional -traditional-cpp -trigraphs -U/macro/ *-undef * -Wp,/option/ *-Xpreprocessor option
Assembler Options
-Wa,*/option/ *-Xassembler option
object-file-name -fuse-ld=*/linker/ *-l*/library/ *-nostartfiles -nodefaultlibs -nolibc -nostdlib * -e entry *–entry=*/entry/ *-pie -pthread -r -rdynamic * -s -static -static-pie -static-libgcc -static-libstdc++ -static-libasan -static-libtsan -static-liblsan -static-libubsan -shared -shared-libgcc -symbolic -T script *-Wl,*/option/ *-Xlinker option -u symbol -z keyword
Directory Options
-B*/prefix/ *-I*/dir/ *-I- * -idirafter dir *-imacros file -imultilib dir -iplugindir=*/dir/ *-iprefix file -iquote dir -isysroot dir -isystem dir -iwithprefix dir -iwithprefixbefore dir *-L*/dir/ *-no-canonical-prefixes –no-sysroot-suffix * -nostdinc -nostdinc++ –sysroot=/dir/
Code Generation Options
-fcall-saved-*/reg/ *-fcall-used-*/reg/ *-ffixed-*/reg/ *-fexceptions * -fnon-call-exceptions -fdelete-dead-exceptions -funwind-tables -fasynchronous-unwind-tables -fno-gnu-unique -finhibit-size-directive -fcommon -fno-ident -fpcc-struct-return -fpic -fPIC -fpie -fPIE -fno-plt -fno-jump-tables -fno-bit-tests -frecord-gcc-switches -freg-struct-return -fshort-enums -fshort-wchar -fverbose-asm -fpack-struct[=/n/*] * -fleading-underscore -ftls-model=/model/ *-fstack-reuse=*/reuse_level/ *-ftrampolines -ftrapv -fwrapv * -fvisibility=[*default*|*internal*|*hidden*|*protected*] *-fstrict-volatile-bitfields -fsync-libcalls
Developer Options

-d*/letters/ *-dumpspecs -dumpmachine -dumpversion * -dumpfullversion -fcallgraph-info[*=su,da*] *-fchecking -fchecking=*/n/ *-fdbg-cnt-list -fdbg-cnt=*/counter-value-list/ *-fdisable-ipa-*/pass_name/ *-fdisable-rtl-*/pass_name/ *-fdisable-rtl-*/pass-name/*=*/range-list/ *-fdisable-tree-*/pass_name/ *-fdisable-tree-*/pass-name/*=*/range-list/ *-fdump-debug -fdump-earlydebug * -fdump-noaddr -fdump-unnumbered -fdump-unnumbered-links -fdump-final-insns[*=*/file/] *-fdump-ipa-all -fdump-ipa-cgraph -fdump-ipa-inline * -fdump-lang-all -fdump-lang-switch *-fdump-lang-*/switch/-options *-fdump-lang-*/switch/-*/options/*=*/filename/ *-fdump-passes * -fdump-rtl-pass *-fdump-rtl-*/pass/*=*/filename/ *-fdump-statistics

• -fdump-tree-all -fdump-tree-switch

-fdump-tree-*/switch/-options *-fdump-tree-*/switch/-options/*=*/filename *-fcompare-debug[*=*/opts/] -fcompare-debug-second * -fenable-kind-pass *-fenable-*/kind/-*/pass/*=*/range-list/ *-fira-verbose=*/n/ *-flto-report -flto-report-wpa -fmem-report-wpa * -fmem-report -fpre-ipa-mem-report -fpost-ipa-mem-report -fopt-info -fopt-info-options[*=*/file/] *-fprofile-report * -frandom-seed=/string/ *-fsched-verbose=*/n/ *-fsel-sched-verbose -fsel-sched-dump-cfg -fsel-sched-pipelining-verbose * -fstats -fstack-usage -ftime-report -ftime-report-details -fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle -gtoggle -print-file-name=/library/ *-print-libgcc-file-name * -print-multi-directory -print-multi-lib -print-multi-os-directory -print-prog-name=/program/ *-print-search-dirs -Q * -print-sysroot -print-sysroot-headers-suffix -save-temps -save-temps=cwd -save-temps=obj -time[*=*/file/]

Machine-Dependent Options

### Options Controlling the Kind of Output

Compilation can involve up to four stages: preprocessing, compilation proper, assembly and linking, always in that order. GCC is capable of preprocessing and compiling several files either into several assembler input files, or into one assembler input file; then each assembler input file produces an object file, and linking combines all the object files (those newly compiled, and those specified as input) into an executable file.

For any given input file, the file name suffix determines what kind of compilation is done:

file.c
C source code that must be preprocessed.
file.i
C source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.ii
C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.m
Objective-C source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc library to make an Objective-C program work.
file.mi
Objective-C source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.mm
file.M

Objective-C++ source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc library to make an Objective-C++ program work. Note that .M refers to a literal capital M.

file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.h
C, C++, Objective-C or Objective-C++ header file to be turned into a precompiled header (default), or C, C++ header file to be turned into an Ada spec (via the -fdump-ada-spec switch).
file.cc
file.cp
file.cxx
file.cpp
file.CPP
file.c++
file.C

C++ source code that must be preprocessed. Note that in .cxx, the last two letters must both be literally x. Likewise, .C refers to a literal capital C.

file.mm
file.M

Objective-C++ source code that must be preprocessed.

file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.hh
file.H
file.hp
file.hxx
file.hpp
file.HPP
file.h++
file.tcc

file.f
file.for
file.ftn

Fixed form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.F
file.FOR
file.fpp
file.FPP
file.FTN

Fixed form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the traditional preprocessor).

file.f90
file.f95
file.f03
file.f08

Free form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.

file.F90
file.F95
file.F03
file.F08

Free form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the traditional preprocessor).

file.go
Go source code.
file.brig
BRIG files (binary representation of HSAIL).
file.d
D source code.
file.di
D interface file.
file.dd
D documentation code (Ddoc).
Ada source code file that contains a library unit declaration (a declaration of a package, subprogram, or generic, or a generic instantiation), or a library unit renaming declaration (a package, generic, or subprogram renaming declaration). Such files are also called specs.
Ada source code file containing a library unit body (a subprogram or package body). Such files are also called bodies.
file.s
Assembler code.
file.S
file.sx

Assembler code that must be preprocessed.

other
An object file to be fed straight into linking. Any file name with no recognized suffix is treated this way.

You can specify the input language explicitly with the -x option:

-x language
Specify explicitly the language for the following input files (rather than letting the compiler choose a default based on the file name suffix). This option applies to all following input files until the next -x option. Possible values for language are: c c-header cpp-output c++ c++-header c++-system-header c++-user-header c++-cpp-output objective-c objective-c-header objective-c-cpp-output objective-c++ objective-c++-header objective-c++-cpp-output assembler assembler-with-cpp ada d f77 f77-cpp-input f95 f95-cpp-input go brig
-x none
Turn off any specification of a language, so that subsequent files are handled according to their file name suffixes (as they are if -x has not been used at all).

If you only want some of the stages of compilation, you can use -x (or filename suffixes) to tell gcc where to start, and one of the options -c, -S, or -E to say where gcc is to stop. Note that some combinations (for example, -x cpp-output -E) instruct gcc to do nothing at all.

-c
Compile or assemble the source files, but do not link. The linking stage simply is not done. The ultimate output is in the form of an object file for each source file. By default, the object file name for a source file is made by replacing the suffix .c, .i, .s, etc., with .o. Unrecognized input files, not requiring compilation or assembly, are ignored.
-S
Stop after the stage of compilation proper; do not assemble. The output is in the form of an assembler code file for each non-assembler input file specified. By default, the assembler file name for a source file is made by replacing the suffix .c, .i, etc., with .s. Input files that don’t require compilation are ignored.
-E
Stop after the preprocessing stage; do not run the compiler proper. The output is in the form of preprocessed source code, which is sent to the standard output. Input files that don’t require preprocessing are ignored.
-o file
Place the primary output in file file. This applies to whatever sort of output is being produced, whether it be an executable file, an object file, an assembler file or preprocessed C code. If -o is not specified, the default is to put an executable file in a.out, the object file for source.suffix in source.o, its assembler file in source.s, a precompiled header file in source.suffix.gch, and all preprocessed C source on standard output. Though -o names only the primary output, it also affects the naming of auxiliary and dump outputs. See the examples below. Unless overridden, both auxiliary outputs and dump outputs are placed in the same directory as the primary output. In auxiliary outputs, the suffix of the input file is replaced with that of the auxiliary output file type; in dump outputs, the suffix of the dump file is appended to the input file suffix. In compilation commands, the base name of both auxiliary and dump outputs is that of the primary output; in compile and link commands, the primary output name, minus the executable suffix, is combined with the input file name. If both share the same base name, disregarding the suffix, the result of the combination is that base name, otherwise, they are concatenated, separated by a dash. gcc -c foo.c … will use foo.o as the primary output, and place aux outputs and dumps next to it, e.g., aux file foo.dwo for -gsplit-dwarf, and dump file foo.c.???r.final for -fdump-rtl-final. If a non-linker output file is explicitly specified, aux and dump files by default take the same base name: gcc -c foo.c -o dir/foobar.o … will name aux outputs dir/foobar.* and dump outputs dir/foobar.c.*. A linker output will instead prefix aux and dump outputs: gcc foo.c bar.c -o dir/foobar … will generally name aux outputs dir/foobar-foo.* and dir/foobar-bar.*, and dump outputs dir/foobar-foo.c.* and dir/foobar-bar.c.*. The one exception to the above is when the executable shares the base name with the single input: gcc foo.c -o dir/foo … in which case aux outputs are named dir/foo.* and dump outputs named dir/foo.c.*. The location and the names of auxiliary and dump outputs can be adjusted by the options -dumpbase, -dumpbase-ext, -dumpdir, -save-temps=cwd, and -save-temps=obj.
-dumpbase dumpbase
This option sets the base name for auxiliary and dump output files. It does not affect the name of the primary output file. Intermediate outputs, when preserved, are not regarded as primary outputs, but as auxiliary outputs: gcc -save-temps -S foo.c saves the (no longer) temporary preprocessed file in foo.i, and then compiles to the (implied) output file foo.s, whereas: gcc -save-temps -dumpbase save-foo -c foo.c preprocesses to in save-foo.i, compiles to save-foo.s (now an intermediate, thus auxiliary output), and then assembles to the (implied) output file foo.o. Absent this option, dump and aux files take their names from the input file, or from the (non-linker) output file, if one is explicitly specified: dump output files (e.g. those requested by -fdump-* options) with the input name suffix, and aux output files (those requested by other non-dump options, e.g. -save-temps, -gsplit-dwarf, -fcallgraph-info) without it. Similar suffix differentiation of dump and aux outputs can be attained for explicitly-given -dumpbase basename.suf by also specifying -dumpbase-ext .suf. If dumpbase is explicitly specified with any directory component, any dumppfx specification (e.g. -dumpdir or -save-temps=*) is ignored, and instead of appending to it, dumpbase fully overrides it: gcc foo.c -c -o dir/foo.o -dumpbase alt/foo \ -dumpdir pfx- -save-temps=cwd … creates auxiliary and dump outputs named alt/foo.*, disregarding dir/ in -o, the ./ prefix implied by -save-temps=cwd, and pfx- in -dumpdir. When -dumpbase is specified in a command that compiles multiple inputs, or that compiles and then links, it may be combined with dumppfx, as specified under -dumpdir. Then, each input file is compiled using the combined dumppfx, and default values for dumpbase and auxdropsuf are computed for each input file: gcc foo.c bar.c -c -dumpbase main … creates foo.o and bar.o as primary outputs, and avoids overwriting the auxiliary and dump outputs by using the dumpbase as a prefix, creating auxiliary and dump outputs named main-foo.* and main-bar.*. An empty string specified as dumpbase avoids the influence of the output basename in the naming of auxiliary and dump outputs during compilation, computing default values : gcc -c foo.c -o dir/foobar.o -dumpbase “ … will name aux outputs dir/foo.* and dump outputs dir/foo.c.*. Note how their basenames are taken from the input name, but the directory still defaults to that of the output. The empty-string dumpbase does not prevent the use of the output basename for outputs during linking: gcc foo.c bar.c -o dir/foobar -dumpbase ” -flto … The compilation of the source files will name auxiliary outputs dir/foo.* and dir/bar.*, and dump outputs dir/foo.c.* and dir/bar.c.*. LTO recompilation during linking will use dir/foobar. as the prefix for dumps and auxiliary files.
-dumpbase-ext auxdropsuf
When forming the name of an auxiliary (but not a dump) output file, drop trailing auxdropsuf from dumpbase before appending any suffixes. If not specified, this option defaults to the suffix of a default dumpbase, i.e., the suffix of the input file when -dumpbase is not present in the command line, or dumpbase is combined with dumppfx. gcc foo.c -c -o dir/foo.o -dumpbase x-foo.c -dumpbase-ext .c … creates dir/foo.o as the main output, and generates auxiliary outputs in dir/x-foo.*, taking the location of the primary output, and dropping the .c suffix from the dumpbase. Dump outputs retain the suffix: dir/x-foo.c.*. This option is disregarded if it does not match the suffix of a specified dumpbase, except as an alternative to the executable suffix when appending the linker output base name to dumppfx, as specified below: gcc foo.c bar.c -o main.out -dumpbase-ext .out … creates main.out as the primary output, and avoids overwriting the auxiliary and dump outputs by using the executable name minus auxdropsuf as a prefix, creating auxiliary outputs named main-foo.* and main-bar.* and dump outputs named main-foo.c.* and main-bar.c.*.
-dumpdir dumppfx
-v
Print (on standard error output) the commands executed to run the stages of compilation. Also print the version number of the compiler driver program and of the preprocessor and the compiler proper.
-###
Like -v except the commands are not executed and arguments are quoted unless they contain only alphanumeric characters or ./-_. This is useful for shell scripts to capture the driver-generated command lines.
–help
Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line options understood by gcc. If the -v option is also specified then –help is also passed on to the various processes invoked by gcc, so that they can display the command-line options they accept. If the -Wextra option has also been specified (prior to the –help option), then command-line options that have no documentation associated with them are also displayed.
–target-help
Print (on the standard output) a description of target-specific command-line options for each tool. For some targets extra target-specific information may also be printed.
–help={class|[^]qualifier}[,…]

Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line options understood by the compiler that fit into all specified classes and qualifiers. These are the supported classes:

optimizers
Display all of the optimization options supported by the compiler.
warnings
Display all of the options controlling warning messages produced by the compiler.
target
Display target-specific options. Unlike the –target-help option however, target-specific options of the linker and assembler are not displayed. This is because those tools do not currently support the extended –help= syntax.
params
Display the values recognized by the –param option.
language
Display the options supported for language, where language is the name of one of the languages supported in this version of GCC. If an option is supported by all languages, one needs to select common class.
common
Display the options that are common to all languages.

These are the supported qualifiers:

undocumented
Display only those options that are undocumented.
joined
Display options taking an argument that appears after an equal sign in the same continuous piece of text, such as: –help=target.
separate
Display options taking an argument that appears as a separate word following the original option, such as: -o output-file.

Thus for example to display all the undocumented target-specific switches supported by the compiler, use: –help=target,undocumented The sense of a qualifier can be inverted by prefixing it with the ^ character, so for example to display all binary warning options (i.e., ones that are either on or off and that do not take an argument) that have a description, use: –help=warnings,^joined,^undocumented The argument to –help= should not consist solely of inverted qualifiers. Combining several classes is possible, although this usually restricts the output so much that there is nothing to display. One case where it does work, however, is when one of the classes is target. For example, to display all the target-specific optimization options, use: –help=target,optimizers The –help= option can be repeated on the command line. Each successive use displays its requested class of options, skipping those that have already been displayed. If –help is also specified anywhere on the command line then this takes precedence over any –help= option. If the -Q option appears on the command line before the –help= option, then the descriptive text displayed by –help= is changed. Instead of describing the displayed options, an indication is given as to whether the option is enabled, disabled or set to a specific value (assuming that the compiler knows this at the point where the –help= option is used). Here is a truncated example from the ARM port of gcc: % gcc -Q -mabi=2 –help=target -c The following options are target specific: -mabi= 2 -mabort-on-noreturn [disabled] -mapcs [disabled] The output is sensitive to the effects of previous command-line options, so for example it is possible to find out which optimizations are enabled at -O2 by using: -Q -O2 –help=optimizers Alternatively you can discover which binary optimizations are enabled by -O3 by using: gcc -c -Q -O3 –help=optimizers > /tmp/O3-opts gcc -c -Q -O2 –help=optimizers > /tmp/O2-opts diff /tmp/O2-opts /tmp/O3-opts | grep enabled

–version
Display the version number and copyrights of the invoked GCC.
-pass-exit-codes
Normally the gcc program exits with the code of 1 if any phase of the compiler returns a non-success return code. If you specify -pass-exit-codes, the gcc program instead returns with the numerically highest error produced by any phase returning an error indication. The C, C++, and Fortran front ends return 4 if an internal compiler error is encountered.
-pipe
Use pipes rather than temporary files for communication between the various stages of compilation. This fails to work on some systems where the assembler is unable to read from a pipe; but the GNU assembler has no trouble.
-specs=file
Process file after the compiler reads in the standard specs file, in order to override the defaults which the gcc driver program uses when determining what switches to pass to cc1, cc1plus, as, ld, etc. More than one *-specs=*/file/ can be specified on the command line, and they are processed in order, from left to right.
-wrapper
Invoke all subcommands under a wrapper program. The name of the wrapper program and its parameters are passed as a comma separated list. gcc -c t.c -wrapper gdb,–args This invokes all subprograms of gcc under gdb –args, thus the invocation of cc1 is gdb –args cc1 ….
-ffile-prefix-map=old=new
When compiling files residing in directory old, record any references to them in the result of the compilation as if the files resided in directory new instead. Specifying this option is equivalent to specifying all the individual -f-prefix-map* options. This can be used to make reproducible builds that are location independent. See also -fmacro-prefix-map and -fdebug-prefix-map.
-fplugin=name.so
Load the plugin code in file name.so, assumed to be a shared object to be dlopen’d by the compiler. The base name of the shared object file is used to identify the plugin for the purposes of argument parsing (See -fplugin-arg-*/name/-*/key/*=*/value/ below). Each plugin should define the callback functions specified in the Plugins API.
-fplugin-arg-name-key=value
Define an argument called key with a value of value for the plugin called name.
For C and C++ source and include files, generate corresponding Ada specs.
In conjunction with -fdump-ada-spec[*-slim*] above, generate Ada specs as child units of parent unit.
-fdump-go-spec=file
For input files in any language, generate corresponding Go declarations in file. This generates Go const, type, var, and func declarations which may be a useful way to start writing a Go interface to code written in some other language.
(no term)
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the original @/file/ option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not removed. Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @/file/ options; any such options will be processed recursively.

### Compiling C++ Programs

C++ source files conventionally use one of the suffixes .C, .cc, .cpp, .CPP, .c++, .cp, or .cxx; C++ header files often use .hh, .hpp, .H, or (for shared template code) .tcc; and preprocessed C++ files use the suffix .ii. GCC recognizes files with these names and compiles them as C++ programs even if you call the compiler the same way as for compiling C programs (usually with the name gcc).

However, the use of gcc does not add the C++ library. g++ is a program that calls GCC and automatically specifies linking against the C++ library. It treats .c, .h and .i files as C++ source files instead of C source files unless -x is used. This program is also useful when precompiling a C header file with a .h extension for use in C++ compilations. On many systems, g++ is also installed with the name c++.

When you compile C++ programs, you may specify many of the same command-line options that you use for compiling programs in any language; or command-line options meaningful for C and related languages; or options that are meaningful only for C++ programs.

### Options Controlling C Dialect

The following options control the dialect of C (or languages derived from C, such as C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++) that the compiler accepts:

-ansi
In C mode, this is equivalent to -std=c90. In C++ mode, it is equivalent to -std=c++98. This turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90 (when compiling C code), or of standard C++ (when compiling C++ code), such as the asm and typeof keywords, and predefined macros such as unix and vax that identify the type of system you are using. It also enables the undesirable and rarely used ISO trigraph feature. For the C compiler, it disables recognition of C++ style // comments as well as the inline keyword. The alternate keywords _ _asm_ _, _ _extension_ _, _ _inline_ _ and _ _typeof_ _ continue to work despite -ansi. You would not want to use them in an ISO C program, of course, but it is useful to put them in header files that might be included in compilations done with -ansi. Alternate predefined macros such as _ _unix_ _ and _ _vax_ _ are also available, with or without -ansi. The -ansi option does not cause non-ISO programs to be rejected gratuitously. For that, -Wpedantic is required in addition to -ansi. The macro _ _STRICT_ANSI_ _ is predefined when the -ansi option is used. Some header files may notice this macro and refrain from declaring certain functions or defining certain macros that the ISO standard doesn’t call for; this is to avoid interfering with any programs that might use these names for other things. Functions that are normally built in but do not have semantics defined by ISO C (such as alloca and ffs) are not built-in functions when -ansi is used.
-std=

Determine the language standard. This option is currently only supported when compiling C or C++. The compiler can accept several base standards, such as c90 or c++98, and GNU dialects of those standards, such as gnu90 or gnu++98. When a base standard is specified, the compiler accepts all programs following that standard plus those using GNU extensions that do not contradict it. For example, -std=c90 turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90, such as the asm and typeof keywords, but not other GNU extensions that do not have a meaning in ISO C90, such as omitting the middle term of a ?: expression. On the other hand, when a GNU dialect of a standard is specified, all features supported by the compiler are enabled, even when those features change the meaning of the base standard. As a result, some strict-conforming programs may be rejected. The particular standard is used by -Wpedantic to identify which features are GNU extensions given that version of the standard. For example -std=gnu90 -Wpedantic warns about C++ style // comments, while -std=gnu99 -Wpedantic does not. A value for this option must be provided; possible values are

c90
c89
iso9899:1990

Support all ISO C90 programs (certain GNU extensions that conflict with ISO C90 are disabled). Same as -ansi for C code.

iso9899:199409
ISO C90 as modified in amendment 1.
c99
c9x
iso9899:1999
iso9899:199x

ISO C99. This standard is substantially completely supported, modulo bugs and floating-point issues (mainly but not entirely relating to optional C99 features from Annexes F and G). See <*http://gcc.gnu.org/c99status.html*> for more information. The names c9x and iso9899:199x are deprecated.

c11
c1x
iso9899:2011

ISO C11, the 2011 revision of the ISO C standard. This standard is substantially completely supported, modulo bugs, floating-point issues (mainly but not entirely relating to optional C11 features from Annexes F and G) and the optional Annexes K (Bounds-checking interfaces) and L (Analyzability). The name c1x is deprecated.

c17
c18
iso9899:2017
iso9899:2018

ISO C17, the 2017 revision of the ISO C standard (published in 2018). This standard is same as C11 except for corrections of defects (all of which are also applied with -std=c11) and a new value of _ _STDC_VERSION_ _, and so is supported to the same extent as C11.

c2x
The next version of the ISO C standard, still under development. The support for this version is experimental and incomplete.
gnu90
gnu89

GNU dialect of ISO C90 (including some C99 features).

gnu99
gnu9x

GNU dialect of ISO C99. The name gnu9x is deprecated.

gnu11
gnu1x

GNU dialect of ISO C11. The name gnu1x is deprecated.

gnu17
gnu18

GNU dialect of ISO C17. This is the default for C code.

gnu2x
The next version of the ISO C standard, still under development, plus GNU extensions. The support for this version is experimental and incomplete.
c++98
c++03

The 1998 ISO C++ standard plus the 2003 technical corrigendum and some additional defect reports. Same as -ansi for C++ code.

gnu++98
gnu++03

GNU dialect of -std=c++98.

c++11
c++0x

The 2011 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++0x is deprecated.

gnu++11
gnu++0x

GNU dialect of -std=c++11. The name gnu++0x is deprecated.

c++14
c++1y

The 2014 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++1y is deprecated.

gnu++14
gnu++1y

GNU dialect of -std=c++14. The name gnu++1y is deprecated.

c++17
c++1z

The 2017 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++1z is deprecated.

gnu++17
gnu++1z

GNU dialect of -std=c++17. This is the default for C++ code. The name gnu++1z is deprecated.

c++20
c++2a

The 2020 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. Support is experimental, and could change in incompatible ways in future releases. The name c++2a is deprecated.

gnu++20
gnu++2a

GNU dialect of -std=c++20. Support is experimental, and could change in incompatible ways in future releases. The name gnu++2a is deprecated.

c++2b
c++23

The next revision of the ISO C++ standard, planned for 2023. Support is highly experimental, and will almost certainly change in incompatible ways in future releases.

gnu++2b
gnu++23

GNU dialect of -std=c++2b. Support is highly experimental, and will almost certainly change in incompatible ways in future releases.

-fgnu89-inline
The option -fgnu89-inline tells GCC to use the traditional GNU semantics for inline functions when in C99 mode. Using this option is roughly equivalent to adding the gnu_inline function attribute to all inline functions. The option -fno-gnu89-inline explicitly tells GCC to use the C99 semantics for inline when in C99 or gnu99 mode (i.e., it specifies the default behavior). This option is not supported in -std=c90 or -std=gnu90 mode. The preprocessor macros _ _GNUC_GNU_INLINE_ _ and _ _GNUC_STDC_INLINE_ _ may be used to check which semantics are in effect for inline functions.
-fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=style
ISO/IEC TS 18661-3 defines new permissible values for FLT_EVAL_METHOD that indicate that operations and constants with a semantic type that is an interchange or extended format should be evaluated to the precision and range of that type. These new values are a superset of those permitted under C99/C11, which does not specify the meaning of other positive values of FLT_EVAL_METHOD. As such, code conforming to C11 may not have been written expecting the possibility of the new values. -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods specifies whether the compiler should allow only the values of FLT_EVAL_METHOD specified in C99/C11, or the extended set of values specified in ISO/IEC TS 18661-3. style is either c11 or ts-18661-3 as appropriate. The default when in a standards compliant mode (-std=c11 or similar) is -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=c11. The default when in a GNU dialect (-std=gnu11 or similar) is -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=ts-18661-3.
-aux-info filename
Output to the given filename prototyped declarations for all functions declared and/or defined in a translation unit, including those in header files. This option is silently ignored in any language other than C. Besides declarations, the file indicates, in comments, the origin of each declaration (source file and line), whether the declaration was implicit, prototyped or unprototyped (I, N for new or O for old, respectively, in the first character after the line number and the colon), and whether it came from a declaration or a definition (C or F, respectively, in the following character). In the case of function definitions, a K&R-style list of arguments followed by their declarations is also provided, inside comments, after the declaration.
Accept variadic functions without named parameters. Although it is possible to define such a function, this is not very useful as it is not possible to read the arguments. This is only supported for C as this construct is allowed by C++.
-fno-asm
Do not recognize asm, inline or typeof as a keyword, so that code can use these words as identifiers. You can use the keywords _ _asm_ _, _ _inline_ _ and _ _typeof_ _ instead. -ansi implies -fno-asm. In C++, this switch only affects the typeof keyword, since asm and inline are standard keywords. You may want to use the -fno-gnu-keywords flag instead, which has the same effect. In C99 mode (-std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this switch only affects the asm and typeof keywords, since inline is a standard keyword in ISO C99.
-fno-builtin
-fno-builtin-function

Don’t recognize built-in functions that do not begin with _ builtin as prefix. GCC normally generates special code to handle certain built-in functions more efficiently; for instance, calls to alloca may become single instructions which adjust the stack directly, and calls to memcpy may become inline copy loops. The resulting code is often both smaller and faster, but since the function calls no longer appear as such, you cannot set a breakpoint on those calls, nor can you change the behavior of the functions by linking with a different library. In addition, when a function is recognized as a built-in function, GCC may use information about that function to warn about problems with calls to that function, or to generate more efficient code, even if the resulting code still contains calls to that function. For example, warnings are given with -Wformat for bad calls to printf when printf is built in and strlen is known not to modify global memory. With the -fno-builtin-*/function/ option only the built-in function function is disabled. function must not begin with *_ builtin. If a function is named that is not built-in in this version of GCC, this option is ignored. There is no corresponding -fbuiltin-*/function/ option; if you wish to enable built-in functions selectively when using *-fno-builtin or -ffreestanding, you may define macros such as: #define abs(n) _ _builtin_abs ((n)) #define strcpy(d, s) _ _builtin_strcpy ((d), (s))

-fgimple
Enable parsing of function definitions marked with _ _GIMPLE. This is an experimental feature that allows unit testing of GIMPLE passes.
-fhosted
Assert that compilation targets a hosted environment. This implies -fbuiltin. A hosted environment is one in which the entire standard library is available, and in which main has a return type of int. Examples are nearly everything except a kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-freestanding.
-ffreestanding
Assert that compilation targets a freestanding environment. This implies -fno-builtin. A freestanding environment is one in which the standard library may not exist, and program startup may not necessarily be at main. The most obvious example is an OS kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-hosted.
-fopenacc
Enable handling of OpenACC directives #pragma acc in C/C++ and !$acc in Fortran. When -fopenacc is specified, the compiler generates accelerated code according to the OpenACC Application Programming Interface v2.6 <*https://www.openacc.org*>. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread. -fopenacc-dim=geom Specify default compute dimensions for parallel offload regions that do not explicitly specify. The geom value is a triple of ’:’-separated sizes, in order ’gang’, ’worker’ and, ’vector’. A size can be omitted, to use a target-specific default value. -fopenmp Enable handling of OpenMP directives #pragma omp in C/C++ and !$omp in Fortran. When -fopenmp is specified, the compiler generates parallel code according to the OpenMP Application Program Interface v4.5 <*https://www.openmp.org*>. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread. -fopenmp implies -fopenmp-simd.
-fopenmp-simd
Enable handling of OpenMP’s SIMD directives with #pragma omp in C/C++ and !omp in Fortran. Other OpenMP directives are ignored. -fgnu-tm When the option -fgnu-tm is specified, the compiler generates code for the Linux variant of Intel’s current Transactional Memory ABI specification document (Revision 1.1, May 6 2009). This is an experimental feature whose interface may change in future versions of GCC, as the official specification changes. Please note that not all architectures are supported for this feature. For more information on GCC’s support for transactional memory, Note that the transactional memory feature is not supported with non-call exceptions (-fnon-call-exceptions). -fms-extensions Accept some non-standard constructs used in Microsoft header files. In C++ code, this allows member names in structures to be similar to previous types declarations. typedef int UOW; struct ABC { UOW UOW; }; Some cases of unnamed fields in structures and unions are only accepted with this option. Note that this option is off for all targets except for x86 targets using ms-abi. -fplan9-extensions Accept some non-standard constructs used in Plan 9 code. This enables -fms-extensions, permits passing pointers to structures with anonymous fields to functions that expect pointers to elements of the type of the field, and permits referring to anonymous fields declared using a typedef. This is only supported for C, not C++. -fcond-mismatch Allow conditional expressions with mismatched types in the second and third arguments. The value of such an expression is void. This option is not supported for C++. -flax-vector-conversions Allow implicit conversions between vectors with differing numbers of elements and/or incompatible element types. This option should not be used for new code. -funsigned-char Let the type char be unsigned, like unsigned char. Each kind of machine has a default for what char should be. It is either like unsigned char by default or like signed char by default. Ideally, a portable program should always use signed char or unsigned char when it depends on the signedness of an object. But many programs have been written to use plain char and expect it to be signed, or expect it to be unsigned, depending on the machines they were written for. This option, and its inverse, let you make such a program work with the opposite default. The type char is always a distinct type from each of signed char or unsigned char, even though its behavior is always just like one of those two. -fsigned-char Let the type char be signed, like signed char. Note that this is equivalent to -fno-unsigned-char, which is the negative form of -funsigned-char. Likewise, the option -fno-signed-char is equivalent to -funsigned-char. -fsigned-bitfields -funsigned-bitfields -fno-signed-bitfields -fno-unsigned-bitfields These options control whether a bit-field is signed or unsigned, when the declaration does not use either signed or unsigned. By default, such a bit-field is signed, because this is consistent: the basic integer types such as int are signed types. -fsso-struct=endianness Set the default scalar storage order of structures and unions to the specified endianness. The accepted values are big-endian, little-endian and native for the native endianness of the target (the default). This option is not supported for C++. Warning: the -fsso-struct switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without it if the specified endianness is not the native endianness of the target. ### Options Controlling C++ Dialect This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful for C++ programs. You can also use most of the GNU compiler options regardless of what language your program is in. For example, you might compile a file firstClass.C like this: g++ -g -fstrict-enums -O -c firstClass.C In this example, only -fstrict-enums is an option meant only for C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC. Some options for compiling C programs, such as -std, are also relevant for C++ programs. Here is a list of options that are only for compiling C++ programs: -fabi-version=n Use version n of the C++ ABI. The default is version 0. Version 0 refers to the version conforming most closely to the C++ ABI specification. Therefore, the ABI obtained using version 0 will change in different versions of G++ as ABI bugs are fixed. Version 1 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++ 3.2. Version 2 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++ 3.4, and was the default through G++ 4.9. Version 3 corrects an error in mangling a constant address as a template argument. Version 4, which first appeared in G++ 4.5, implements a standard mangling for vector types. Version 5, which first appeared in G++ 4.6, corrects the mangling of attribute const/volatile on function pointer types, decltype of a plain decl, and use of a function parameter in the declaration of another parameter. Version 6, which first appeared in G++ 4.7, corrects the promotion behavior of C++11 scoped enums and the mangling of template argument packs, const/static_cast, prefix + and –, and a class scope function used as a template argument. Version 7, which first appeared in G+ 4.8, that treats nullptr_t as a builtin type and corrects the mangling of lambdas in default argument scope. Version 8, which first appeared in G++ 4.9, corrects the substitution behavior of function types with function-cv-qualifiers. Version 9, which first appeared in G++ 5.2, corrects the alignment of nullptr_t. Version 10, which first appeared in G++ 6.1, adds mangling of attributes that affect type identity, such as ia32 calling convention attributes (e.g. stdcall). Version 11, which first appeared in G++ 7, corrects the mangling of sizeof… expressions and operator names. For multiple entities with the same name within a function, that are declared in different scopes, the mangling now changes starting with the twelfth occurrence. It also implies -fnew-inheriting-ctors. Version 12, which first appeared in G++ 8, corrects the calling conventions for empty classes on the x86_64 target and for classes with only deleted copy/move constructors. It accidentally changes the calling convention for classes with a deleted copy constructor and a trivial move constructor. Version 13, which first appeared in G++ 8.2, fixes the accidental change in version 12. Version 14, which first appeared in G++ 10, corrects the mangling of the nullptr expression. Version 15, which first appeared in G++ 11, changes the mangling of _ _alignof_ _ to be distinct from that of alignof, and dependent operator names. See also -Wabi. -fabi-compat-version=n On targets that support strong aliases, G++ works around mangling changes by creating an alias with the correct mangled name when defining a symbol with an incorrect mangled name. This switch specifies which ABI version to use for the alias. With -fabi-version=0 (the default), this defaults to 11 (GCC 7 compatibility). If another ABI version is explicitly selected, this defaults to 0. For compatibility with GCC versions 3.2 through 4.9, use -fabi-compat-version=2. If this option is not provided but -Wabi=*/n/ is, that version is used for compatibility aliases. If this option is provided along with *-Wabi (without the version), the version from this option is used for the warning. -fno-access-control Turn off all access checking. This switch is mainly useful for working around bugs in the access control code. -faligned-new Enable support for C++17 new of types that require more alignment than void* ::operator new(std::size_t) provides. A numeric argument such as -faligned-new=32 can be used to specify how much alignment (in bytes) is provided by that function, but few users will need to override the default of alignof(std::max_align_t). This flag is enabled by default for -std=c++17. -fchar8_t -fno-char8_t Enable support for char8_t as adopted for C++20. This includes the addition of a new char8_t fundamental type, changes to the types of UTF-8 string and character literals, new signatures for user-defined literals, associated standard library updates, and new _ _cpp_char8_t and _ _cpp_lib_char8_t feature test macros. This option enables functions to be overloaded for ordinary and UTF-8 strings: int f(const char ); / #1 int f(const char8_t *); / #2 int v1 = f(“text”); / Calls #1 int v2 = f(u8“text”); / Calls #2 and introduces new signatures for user-defined literals: int operator“”_udl1(char8_t); int v3 = u8x_udl1; int operator“”_udl2(const char8_t, std::size_t); int v4 = u8“text”_udl2; template<typename T, T…> int operator“”_udl3(); int v5 = u8“text”_udl3; The change to the types of UTF-8 string and character literals introduces incompatibilities with ISO C++11 and later standards. For example, the following code is well-formed under ISO C++11, but is ill-formed when -fchar8_t is specified. char ca[] = u8“xx”; / error: char-array initialized from wide / string const char cp = u8“xx”;// error: invalid conversion from // const char8_t to const char* int f(const char*); auto v = f(u8“xx”); / error: invalid conversion from / const char8_t* to const char* std::string s{u8“xx”}; / error: no matching function for call to / std::basic_string<char>::basic_string() using namespace std::literals; s = u8“xx”s; / error: conversion from / basic_string<char8_t> to non-scalar // type basic_string<char> requested -fcheck-new Check that the pointer returned by operator new is non-null before attempting to modify the storage allocated. This check is normally unnecessary because the C++ standard specifies that operator new only returns 0 if it is declared throw(), in which case the compiler always checks the return value even without this option. In all other cases, when operator new has a non-empty exception specification, memory exhaustion is signalled by throwing std::bad_alloc. See also new (nothrow). -fconcepts -fconcepts-ts Below -std=c++20, -fconcepts enables support for the C++ Extensions for Concepts Technical Specification, ISO 19217 (2015). With -std=c++20 and above, Concepts are part of the language standard, so -fconcepts defaults to on. But the standard specification of Concepts differs significantly from the TS, so some constructs that were allowed in the TS but didn’t make it into the standard can still be enabled by -fconcepts-ts. -fconstexpr-depth=n Set the maximum nested evaluation depth for C++11 constexpr functions to n. A limit is needed to detect endless recursion during constant expression evaluation. The minimum specified by the standard is 512. -fconstexpr-cache-depth=n Set the maximum level of nested evaluation depth for C++11 constexpr functions that will be cached to n. This is a heuristic that trades off compilation speed (when the cache avoids repeated calculations) against memory consumption (when the cache grows very large from highly recursive evaluations). The default is 8. Very few users are likely to want to adjust it, but if your code does heavy constexpr calculations you might want to experiment to find which value works best for you. -fconstexpr-loop-limit=n Set the maximum number of iterations for a loop in C++14 constexpr functions to n. A limit is needed to detect infinite loops during constant expression evaluation. The default is 262144 (1<<18). -fconstexpr-ops-limit=n Set the maximum number of operations during a single constexpr evaluation. Even when number of iterations of a single loop is limited with the above limit, if there are several nested loops and each of them has many iterations but still smaller than the above limit, or if in a body of some loop or even outside of a loop too many expressions need to be evaluated, the resulting constexpr evaluation might take too long. The default is 33554432 (1<<25). -fcoroutines Enable support for the C++ coroutines extension (experimental). -fno-elide-constructors The C++ standard allows an implementation to omit creating a temporary that is only used to initialize another object of the same type. Specifying this option disables that optimization, and forces G++ to call the copy constructor in all cases. This option also causes G++ to call trivial member functions which otherwise would be expanded inline. In C++17, the compiler is required to omit these temporaries, but this option still affects trivial member functions. -fno-enforce-eh-specs Don’t generate code to check for violation of exception specifications at run time. This option violates the C++ standard, but may be useful for reducing code size in production builds, much like defining NDEBUG. This does not give user code permission to throw exceptions in violation of the exception specifications; the compiler still optimizes based on the specifications, so throwing an unexpected exception results in undefined behavior at run time. -fextern-tls-init -fno-extern-tls-init The C++11 and OpenMP standards allow thread_local and threadprivate variables to have dynamic (runtime) initialization. To support this, any use of such a variable goes through a wrapper function that performs any necessary initialization. When the use and definition of the variable are in the same translation unit, this overhead can be optimized away, but when the use is in a different translation unit there is significant overhead even if the variable doesn’t actually need dynamic initialization. If the programmer can be sure that no use of the variable in a non-defining TU needs to trigger dynamic initialization (either because the variable is statically initialized, or a use of the variable in the defining TU will be executed before any uses in another TU), they can avoid this overhead with the -fno-extern-tls-init option. On targets that support symbol aliases, the default is -fextern-tls-init. On targets that do not support symbol aliases, the default is -fno-extern-tls-init. -fno-gnu-keywords Do not recognize typeof as a keyword, so that code can use this word as an identifier. You can use the keyword _ _typeof_ _ instead. This option is implied by the strict ISO C++ dialects: -ansi, -std=c++98, -std=c++11, etc. -fno-implicit-templates Never emit code for non-inline templates that are instantiated implicitly (i.e. by use); only emit code for explicit instantiations. If you use this option, you must take care to structure your code to include all the necessary explicit instantiations to avoid getting undefined symbols at link time. -fno-implicit-inline-templates Don’t emit code for implicit instantiations of inline templates, either. The default is to handle inlines differently so that compiles with and without optimization need the same set of explicit instantiations. -fno-implement-inlines To save space, do not emit out-of-line copies of inline functions controlled by #pragma implementation. This causes linker errors if these functions are not inlined everywhere they are called. -fmodules-ts -fno-modules-ts Enable support for C++20 modules The -fno-modules-ts is usually not needed, as that is the default. Even though this is a C++20 feature, it is not currently implicitly enabled by selecting that standard version. -fmodule-header -fmodule-header=user -fmodule-header=system Compile a header file to create an importable header unit. -fmodule-implicit-inline Member functions defined in their class definitions are not implicitly inline for modular code. This is different to traditional C++ behavior, for good reasons. However, it may result in a difficulty during code porting. This option makes such function definitions implicitly inline. It does however generate an ABI incompatibility, so you must use it everywhere or nowhere. (Such definitions outside of a named module remain implicitly inline, regardless.) -fno-module-lazy Disable lazy module importing and module mapper creation. -fmodule-mapper=[hostname]:port[?ident] -fmodule-mapper=|program[?ident] args… -fmodule-mapper==socket[?ident] -fmodule-mapper=<>[inout][?ident] -fmodule-mapper=<in>out[?ident] -fmodule-mapper=file[?ident] An oracle to query for module name to filename mappings. If unspecified the CXX_MODULE_MAPPER environment variable is used, and if that is unset, an in-process default is provided. -fmodule-only Only emit the Compiled Module Interface, inhibiting any object file. -fms-extensions Disable Wpedantic warnings about constructs used in MFC, such as implicit int and getting a pointer to member function via non-standard syntax. -fnew-inheriting-ctors Enable the P0136 adjustment to the semantics of C++11 constructor inheritance. This is part of C++17 but also considered to be a Defect Report against C++11 and C++14. This flag is enabled by default unless -fabi-version=10 or lower is specified. -fnew-ttp-matching Enable the P0522 resolution to Core issue 150, template template parameters and default arguments: this allows a template with default template arguments as an argument for a template template parameter with fewer template parameters. This flag is enabled by default for -std=c++17. -fno-nonansi-builtins Disable built-in declarations of functions that are not mandated by ANSI/ISO C. These include ffs, alloca, _exit, index, bzero, conjf, and other related functions. -fnothrow-opt Treat a throw() exception specification as if it were a noexcept specification to reduce or eliminate the text size overhead relative to a function with no exception specification. If the function has local variables of types with non-trivial destructors, the exception specification actually makes the function smaller because the EH cleanups for those variables can be optimized away. The semantic effect is that an exception thrown out of a function with such an exception specification results in a call to terminate rather than unexpected. -fno-operator-names Do not treat the operator name keywords and, bitand, bitor, compl, not, or and xor as synonyms as keywords. -fno-optional-diags Disable diagnostics that the standard says a compiler does not need to issue. Currently, the only such diagnostic issued by G++ is the one for a name having multiple meanings within a class. -fpermissive Downgrade some diagnostics about nonconformant code from errors to warnings. Thus, using -fpermissive allows some nonconforming code to compile. -fno-pretty-templates When an error message refers to a specialization of a function template, the compiler normally prints the signature of the template followed by the template arguments and any typedefs or typenames in the signature (e.g. void f(T) [with T = int] rather than void f(int)) so that it’s clear which template is involved. When an error message refers to a specialization of a class template, the compiler omits any template arguments that match the default template arguments for that template. If either of these behaviors make it harder to understand the error message rather than easier, you can use -fno-pretty-templates to disable them. -fno-rtti Disable generation of information about every class with virtual functions for use by the C++ run-time type identification features (dynamic_cast and typeid). If you don’t use those parts of the language, you can save some space by using this flag. Note that exception handling uses the same information, but G++ generates it as needed. The dynamic_cast operator can still be used for casts that do not require run-time type information, i.e. casts to void * or to unambiguous base classes. Mixing code compiled with -frtti with that compiled with -fno-rtti may not work. For example, programs may fail to link if a class compiled with -fno-rtti is used as a base for a class compiled with -frtti. -fsized-deallocation Enable the built-in global declarations void operator delete (void , std::size_t) noexcept; void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept; as introduced in C++14. This is useful for user-defined replacement deallocation functions that, for example, use the size of the object to make deallocation faster. Enabled by default under *-std=c++14 and above. The flag -Wsized-deallocation warns about places that might want to add a definition. -fstrict-enums Allow the compiler to optimize using the assumption that a value of enumerated type can only be one of the values of the enumeration (as defined in the C++ standard; basically, a value that can be represented in the minimum number of bits needed to represent all the enumerators). This assumption may not be valid if the program uses a cast to convert an arbitrary integer value to the enumerated type. -fstrong-eval-order Evaluate member access, array subscripting, and shift expressions in left-to-right order, and evaluate assignment in right-to-left order, as adopted for C++17. Enabled by default with -std=c++17. -fstrong-eval-order=some enables just the ordering of member access and shift expressions, and is the default without -std=c++17. -ftemplate-backtrace-limit=n Set the maximum number of template instantiation notes for a single warning or error to n. The default value is 10. -ftemplate-depth=n Set the maximum instantiation depth for template classes to n. A limit on the template instantiation depth is needed to detect endless recursions during template class instantiation. ANSI/ISO C++ conforming programs must not rely on a maximum depth greater than 17 (changed to 1024 in C++11). The default value is 900, as the compiler can run out of stack space before hitting 1024 in some situations. -fno-threadsafe-statics Do not emit the extra code to use the routines specified in the C++ ABI for thread-safe initialization of local statics. You can use this option to reduce code size slightly in code that doesn’t need to be thread-safe. -fuse-cxa-atexit Register destructors for objects with static storage duration with the _ _cxa_atexit function rather than the atexit function. This option is required for fully standards-compliant handling of static destructors, but only works if your C library supports _ _cxa_atexit. -fno-use-cxa-get-exception-ptr Don’t use the _ _cxa_get_exception_ptr runtime routine. This causes std::uncaught_exception to be incorrect, but is necessary if the runtime routine is not available. -fvisibility-inlines-hidden This switch declares that the user does not attempt to compare pointers to inline functions or methods where the addresses of the two functions are taken in different shared objects. The effect of this is that GCC may, effectively, mark inline methods with _ _attribute_ _ ((visibility ("hidden"))) so that they do not appear in the export table of a DSO and do not require a PLT indirection when used within the DSO. Enabling this option can have a dramatic effect on load and link times of a DSO as it massively reduces the size of the dynamic export table when the library makes heavy use of templates. The behavior of this switch is not quite the same as marking the methods as hidden directly, because it does not affect static variables local to the function or cause the compiler to deduce that the function is defined in only one shared object. You may mark a method as having a visibility explicitly to negate the effect of the switch for that method. For example, if you do want to compare pointers to a particular inline method, you might mark it as having default visibility. Marking the enclosing class with explicit visibility has no effect. Explicitly instantiated inline methods are unaffected by this option as their linkage might otherwise cross a shared library boundary. -fvisibility-ms-compat This flag attempts to use visibility settings to make GCC’s C++ linkage model compatible with that of Microsoft Visual Studio. The flag makes these changes to GCC’s linkage model: 1. It sets the default visibility to hidden, like -fvisibility=hidden. 2. Types, but not their members, are not hidden by default. 3. The One Definition Rule is relaxed for types without explicit visibility specifications that are defined in more than one shared object: those declarations are permitted if they are permitted when this option is not used. In new code it is better to use -fvisibility=hidden and export those classes that are intended to be externally visible. Unfortunately it is possible for code to rely, perhaps accidentally, on the Visual Studio behavior. Among the consequences of these changes are that static data members of the same type with the same name but defined in different shared objects are different, so changing one does not change the other; and that pointers to function members defined in different shared objects may not compare equal. When this flag is given, it is a violation of the ODR to define types with the same name differently. -fno-weak Do not use weak symbol support, even if it is provided by the linker. By default, G++ uses weak symbols if they are available. This option exists only for testing, and should not be used by end-users; it results in inferior code and has no benefits. This option may be removed in a future release of G++. -fext-numeric-literals (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Accept imaginary, fixed-point, or machine-defined literal number suffixes as GNU extensions. When this option is turned off these suffixes are treated as C++11 user-defined literal numeric suffixes. This is on by default for all pre-C++11 dialects and all GNU dialects: -std=c++98, -std=gnu++98, -std=gnu++11, -std=gnu++14. This option is off by default for ISO C++11 onwards (-std=c++11, …). -nostdinc++ Do not search for header files in the standard directories specific to C++, but do still search the other standard directories. (This option is used when building the C++ library.) -flang-info-include-translate -flang-info-include-translate-not -flang-info-include-translate=header Inform of include translation events. The first will note accepted include translations, the second will note declined include translations. The header form will inform of include translations relating to that specific header. If header is of the form "user" or <system> it will be resolved to a specific user or system header using the include path. -flang-info-module-cmi -flang-info-module-cmi=module Inform of Compiled Module Interface pathnames. The first will note all read CMI pathnames. The module form will not reading a specific module’s CMI. module may be a named module or a header-unit (the latter indicated by either being a pathname containing directory separators or enclosed in <> or ""). -stdlib=libstdc++,libc++ When G++ is configured to support this option, it allows specification of alternate C++ runtime libraries. Two options are available: libstdc++ (the default, native C++ runtime for G++) and libc++ which is the C++ runtime installed on some operating systems (e.g. Darwin versions from Darwin11 onwards). The option switches G++ to use the headers from the specified library and to emit -lstdc++ or -lc++ respectively, when a C++ runtime is required for linking. In addition, these warning options have meanings only for C++ programs: -Wabi-tag (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a type with an ABI tag is used in a context that does not have that ABI tag. See C++ Attributes for more information about ABI tags. -Wcomma-subscript (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about uses of a comma expression within a subscripting expression. This usage was deprecated in C++20. However, a comma expression wrapped in ( ) is not deprecated. Example: void f(int a, int b, int c) { a[b,c]; / deprecated a[(b,c)]; / OK } Enabled by default with *-std=c++20. -Wctad-maybe-unsupported (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when performing class template argument deduction (CTAD) on a type with no explicitly written deduction guides. This warning will point out cases where CTAD succeeded only because the compiler synthesized the implicit deduction guides, which might not be what the programmer intended. Certain style guides allow CTAD only on types that specifically opt-in; i.e., on types that are designed to support CTAD. This warning can be suppressed with the following pattern: struct allow_ctad_t; / any name works template <typename T> struct S { S(T) { } }; S(allow_ctad_t) -> S<void>; / guide with incomplete parameter type will never be considered -Wctor-dtor-privacy (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a class seems unusable because all the constructors or destructors in that class are private, and it has neither friends nor public static member functions. Also warn if there are no non-private methods, and there’s at least one private member function that isn’t a constructor or destructor. -Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when delete is used to destroy an instance of a class that has virtual functions and non-virtual destructor. It is unsafe to delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to a base class if the base class does not have a virtual destructor. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wdeprecated-copy (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn that the implicit declaration of a copy constructor or copy assignment operator is deprecated if the class has a user-provided copy constructor or copy assignment operator, in C++11 and up. This warning is enabled by -Wextra. With -Wdeprecated-copy-dtor, also deprecate if the class has a user-provided destructor. (no term) -Wno-deprecated-enum-enum-conversion (C++ and Objective-C++ only) :: Disable the warning about the case when the usual arithmetic conversions are applied on operands where one is of enumeration type and the other is of a different enumeration type. This conversion was deprecated in C++20. For example: enum E1 { e }; enum E2 { f }; int k = f - e; -Wdeprecated-enum-enum-conversion is enabled by default with -std=c++20. In pre-C++20 dialects, this warning can be enabled by -Wenum-conversion. (no term) -Wno-deprecated-enum-float-conversion (C++ and Objective-C++ only) :: Disable the warning about the case when the usual arithmetic conversions are applied on operands where one is of enumeration type and the other is of a floating-point type. This conversion was deprecated in C++20. For example: enum E1 { e }; enum E2 { f }; bool b = e <= 3.7; -Wdeprecated-enum-float-conversion is enabled by default with -std=c++20. In pre-C++20 dialects, this warning can be enabled by -Wenum-conversion. -Wno-init-list-lifetime (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Do not warn about uses of std::initializer_list that are likely to result in dangling pointers. Since the underlying array for an initializer_list is handled like a normal C++ temporary object, it is easy to inadvertently keep a pointer to the array past the end of the array’s lifetime. For example: • If a function returns a temporary initializer_list, or a local initializer_list variable, the array’s lifetime ends at the end of the return statement, so the value returned has a dangling pointer. • If a new-expression creates an initializer_list, the array only lives until the end of the enclosing full-expression, so the initializer_list in the heap has a dangling pointer. • When an initializer_list variable is assigned from a brace-enclosed initializer list, the temporary array created for the right side of the assignment only lives until the end of the full-expression, so at the next statement the initializer_list variable has a dangling pointer. / lis initial underlying array lives as long as li std::initializer_list<int> li = { 1,2,3 }; / assignment changes li to point to a temporary array li = { 4, 5 }; / now the temporary is gone and li has a dangling pointer int i = li.begin()[0] / undefined behavior • When a list constructor stores the begin pointer from the initializer_list argument, this doesn’t extend the lifetime of the array, so if a class variable is constructed from a temporary initializer_list, the pointer is left dangling by the end of the variable declaration statement. -Winvalid-imported-macros Verify all imported macro definitions are valid at the end of compilation. This is not enabled by default, as it requires additional processing to determine. It may be useful when preparing sets of header-units to ensure consistent macros. -Wno-literal-suffix (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Do not warn when a string or character literal is followed by a ud-suffix which does not begin with an underscore. As a conforming extension, GCC treats such suffixes as separate preprocessing tokens in order to maintain backwards compatibility with code that uses formatting macros from <inttypes.h>. For example: #define _ _STDC_FORMAT_MACROS #include <inttypes.h> #include <stdio.h> int main() { int64_t i64 = 123; printf(“My int64: %” PRId64“\n”, i64); } In this case, PRId64 is treated as a separate preprocessing token. This option also controls warnings when a user-defined literal operator is declared with a literal suffix identifier that doesn’t begin with an underscore. Literal suffix identifiers that don’t begin with an underscore are reserved for future standardization. These warnings are enabled by default. -Wno-narrowing (C++ and Objective-C++ only) For C++11 and later standards, narrowing conversions are diagnosed by default, as required by the standard. A narrowing conversion from a constant produces an error, and a narrowing conversion from a non-constant produces a warning, but -Wno-narrowing suppresses the diagnostic. Note that this does not affect the meaning of well-formed code; narrowing conversions are still considered ill-formed in SFINAE contexts. With -Wnarrowing in C++98, warn when a narrowing conversion prohibited by C++11 occurs within { }, e.g. int i = { 2.2 }; // error: narrowing from double to int This flag is included in -Wall and -Wc++11-compat. -Wnoexcept (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a noexcept-expression evaluates to false because of a call to a function that does not have a non-throwing exception specification (i.e. throw() or noexcept) but is known by the compiler to never throw an exception. -Wnoexcept-type (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn if the C++17 feature making noexcept part of a function type changes the mangled name of a symbol relative to C++14. Enabled by -Wabi and -Wc++17-compat. As an example: template <class T> void f(T t) { t(); }; void g() noexcept; void h() { f(g); } In C++14, f calls f<void(*)()>, but in C++17 it calls f<void(*)()noexcept>. -Wclass-memaccess (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when the destination of a call to a raw memory function such as memset or memcpy is an object of class type, and when writing into such an object might bypass the class non-trivial or deleted constructor or copy assignment, violate const-correctness or encapsulation, or corrupt virtual table pointers. Modifying the representation of such objects may violate invariants maintained by member functions of the class. For example, the call to memset below is undefined because it modifies a non-trivial class object and is, therefore, diagnosed. The safe way to either initialize or clear the storage of objects of such types is by using the appropriate constructor or assignment operator, if one is available. std::string str = “abc”; memset (&str, 0, sizeof str); The -Wclass-memaccess option is enabled by -Wall. Explicitly casting the pointer to the class object to void * or to a type that can be safely accessed by the raw memory function suppresses the warning. -Wnon-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a class has virtual functions and an accessible non-virtual destructor itself or in an accessible polymorphic base class, in which case it is possible but unsafe to delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to the class itself or base class. This warning is automatically enabled if -Weffc++ is specified. -Wregister (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn on uses of the register storage class specifier, except when it is part of the GNU Explicit Register Variables extension. The use of the register keyword as storage class specifier has been deprecated in C++11 and removed in C++17. Enabled by default with -std=c++17. -Wreorder (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when the order of member initializers given in the code does not match the order in which they must be executed. For instance: struct A { int i; int j; A(): j (0), i (1) { } }; The compiler rearranges the member initializers for i and j to match the declaration order of the members, emitting a warning to that effect. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wno-pessimizing-move (C++ and Objective-C++ only) This warning warns when a call to std::move prevents copy elision. A typical scenario when copy elision can occur is when returning in a function with a class return type, when the expression being returned is the name of a non-volatile automatic object, and is not a function parameter, and has the same type as the function return type. struct T { … }; T fn() { T t; … return std::move (t); } But in this example, the std::move call prevents copy elision. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wno-redundant-move (C++ and Objective-C++ only) This warning warns about redundant calls to std::move; that is, when a move operation would have been performed even without the std::move call. This happens because the compiler is forced to treat the object as if it were an rvalue in certain situations such as returning a local variable, where copy elision isn’t applicable. Consider: struct T { … }; T fn(T t) { … return std::move (t); } Here, the std::move call is redundant. Because G++ implements Core Issue 1579, another example is: struct T { // convertible to U … }; struct U { … }; U fn() { T t; … return std::move (t); } In this example, copy elision isn’t applicable because the type of the expression being returned and the function return type differ, yet G++ treats the return value as if it were designated by an rvalue. This warning is enabled by -Wextra. -Wrange-loop-construct (C++ and Objective-C++ only) This warning warns when a C++ range-based for-loop is creating an unnecessary copy. This can happen when the range declaration is not a reference, but probably should be. For example: struct S { char arr[128]; }; void fn () { S arr[5]; for (const auto x : arr) { … } } It does not warn when the type being copied is a trivially-copyable type whose size is less than 64 bytes. This warning also warns when a loop variable in a range-based for-loop is initialized with a value of a different type resulting in a copy. For example: void fn() { int arr[10]; for (const double &x : arr) { … } } In the example above, in every iteration of the loop a temporary value of type double is created and destroyed, to which the reference const double & is bound. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wredundant-tags (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about redundant class-key and enum-key in references to class types and enumerated types in contexts where the key can be eliminated without causing an ambiguity. For example: struct foo; struct foo *p; / warn that keyword struct can be eliminated On the other hand, in this example there is no warning: struct foo; void foo (); / “hides” struct foo void bar (struct foo&); // no warning, keyword struct is necessary -Wno-subobject-linkage (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Do not warn if a class type has a base or a field whose type uses the anonymous namespace or depends on a type with no linkage. If a type A depends on a type B with no or internal linkage, defining it in multiple translation units would be an ODR violation because the meaning of B is different in each translation unit. If A only appears in a single translation unit, the best way to silence the warning is to give it internal linkage by putting it in an anonymous namespace as well. The compiler doesn’t give this warning for types defined in the main .C file, as those are unlikely to have multiple definitions. -Wsubobject-linkage is enabled by default. -Weffc++ (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about violations of the following style guidelines from Scott Meyers’ Effective C++ series of books: • Define a copy constructor and an assignment operator for classes with dynamically-allocated memory. • Prefer initialization to assignment in constructors. • Have operator= return a reference to *this. • Don’t try to return a reference when you must return an object. • Distinguish between prefix and postfix forms of increment and decrement operators. • Never overload &&, ||, or ,. This option also enables -Wnon-virtual-dtor, which is also one of the effective C++ recommendations. However, the check is extended to warn about the lack of virtual destructor in accessible non-polymorphic bases classes too. When selecting this option, be aware that the standard library headers do not obey all of these guidelines; use grep -v to filter out those warnings. -Wno-exceptions (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Disable the warning about the case when an exception handler is shadowed by another handler, which can point out a wrong ordering of exception handlers. -Wstrict-null-sentinel (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about the use of an uncasted NULL as sentinel. When compiling only with GCC this is a valid sentinel, as NULL is defined to _ _null. Although it is a null pointer constant rather than a null pointer, it is guaranteed to be of the same size as a pointer. But this use is not portable across different compilers. -Wno-non-template-friend (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Disable warnings when non-template friend functions are declared within a template. In very old versions of GCC that predate implementation of the ISO standard, declarations such as friend int foo(int), where the name of the friend is an unqualified-id, could be interpreted as a particular specialization of a template function; the warning exists to diagnose compatibility problems, and is enabled by default. -Wold-style-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn if an old-style (C-style) cast to a non-void type is used within a C++ program. The new-style casts (dynamic_cast, static_cast, reinterpret_cast, and const_cast) are less vulnerable to unintended effects and much easier to search for. -Woverloaded-virtual (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a function declaration hides virtual functions from a base class. For example, in: struct A { virtual void f(); }; struct B: public A { void f(int); }; the A class version of f is hidden in B, and code like: B* b; b->f(); fails to compile. -Wno-pmf-conversions (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Disable the diagnostic for converting a bound pointer to member function to a plain pointer. -Wsign-promo (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when overload resolution chooses a promotion from unsigned or enumerated type to a signed type, over a conversion to an unsigned type of the same size. Previous versions of G++ tried to preserve unsignedness, but the standard mandates the current behavior. -Wtemplates (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a primary template declaration is encountered. Some coding rules disallow templates, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also instantiate or specialize templates. -Wno-mismatched-new-delete (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn for mismatches between calls to operator new or operator delete and the corresponding call to the allocation or deallocation function. This includes invocations of C++ operator delete with pointers returned from either mismatched forms of operator new, or from other functions that allocate objects for which the operator delete isn’t a suitable deallocator, as well as calls to other deallocation functions with pointers returned from operator new for which the deallocation function isn’t suitable. For example, the delete expression in the function below is diagnosed because it doesn’t match the array form of the new expression the pointer argument was returned from. Similarly, the call to free is also diagnosed. void f () { int a = new int[n]; delete a; / warning: mismatch in array forms of expressions char *p = new char[n]; free (p); / warning: mismatch between new and free } The related option *-Wmismatched-dealloc diagnoses mismatches involving allocation and deallocation functions other than operator new and operator delete. -Wmismatched-new-delete is enabled by default. -Wmismatched-tags (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn for declarations of structs, classes, and class templates and their specializations with a class-key that does not match either the definition or the first declaration if no definition is provided. For example, the declaration of struct Object in the argument list of draw triggers the warning. To avoid it, either remove the redundant class-key struct or replace it with class to match its definition. class Object { public: virtual ~Object () = 0; }; void draw (struct Object*); It is not wrong to declare a class with the class-key struct as the example above shows. The -Wmismatched-tags option is intended to help achieve a consistent style of class declarations. In code that is intended to be portable to Windows-based compilers the warning helps prevent unresolved references due to the difference in the mangling of symbols declared with different class-keys. The option can be used either on its own or in conjunction with -Wredundant-tags. -Wmultiple-inheritance (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a class is defined with multiple direct base classes. Some coding rules disallow multiple inheritance, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also define classes that indirectly use multiple inheritance. -Wvirtual-inheritance Warn when a class is defined with a virtual direct base class. Some coding rules disallow multiple inheritance, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also define classes that indirectly use virtual inheritance. -Wno-virtual-move-assign Suppress warnings about inheriting from a virtual base with a non-trivial C++11 move assignment operator. This is dangerous because if the virtual base is reachable along more than one path, it is moved multiple times, which can mean both objects end up in the moved-from state. If the move assignment operator is written to avoid moving from a moved-from object, this warning can be disabled. -Wnamespaces Warn when a namespace definition is opened. Some coding rules disallow namespaces, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also use using directives and qualified names. -Wno-terminate (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Disable the warning about a throw-expression that will immediately result in a call to terminate. -Wno-vexing-parse (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about the most vexing parse syntactic ambiguity. This warns about the cases when a declaration looks like a variable definition, but the C++ language requires it to be interpreted as a function declaration. For instance: void f(double a) { int i(); / extern int i (void); int n(int(a)); / extern int n (int); } Another example: struct S { S(int); }; void f(double a) { S x(int(a)); / extern struct S x (int); S y(int()); / extern struct S y (int (*) (void)); S z(); // extern struct S z (void); } The warning will suggest options how to deal with such an ambiguity; e.g., it can suggest removing the parentheses or using braces instead. This warning is enabled by default. -Wno-class-conversion (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Do not warn when a conversion function converts an object to the same type, to a base class of that type, or to void; such a conversion function will never be called. -Wvolatile (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about deprecated uses of the volatile qualifier. This includes postfix and prefix ++ and -- expressions of volatile-qualified types, using simple assignments where the left operand is a volatile-qualified non-class type for their value, compound assignments where the left operand is a volatile-qualified non-class type, volatile-qualified function return type, volatile-qualified parameter type, and structured bindings of a volatile-qualified type. This usage was deprecated in C++20. Enabled by default with -std=c++20. -Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when a literal 0 is used as null pointer constant. This can be useful to facilitate the conversion to nullptr in C++11. -Waligned-new Warn about a new-expression of a type that requires greater alignment than the alignof(std::max_align_t) but uses an allocation function without an explicit alignment parameter. This option is enabled by -Wall. Normally this only warns about global allocation functions, but -Waligned-new=all also warns about class member allocation functions. -Wno-placement-new -Wplacement-new=n Warn about placement new expressions with undefined behavior, such as constructing an object in a buffer that is smaller than the type of the object. For example, the placement new expression below is diagnosed because it attempts to construct an array of 64 integers in a buffer only 64 bytes large. char buf [64]; new (buf) int[64]; This warning is enabled by default. -Wplacement-new=1 This is the default warning level of -Wplacement-new. At this level the warning is not issued for some strictly undefined constructs that GCC allows as extensions for compatibility with legacy code. For example, the following new expression is not diagnosed at this level even though it has undefined behavior according to the C++ standard because it writes past the end of the one-element array. struct S { int n, a[1]; }; S *s = (S *)malloc (sizeof *s + 31 * sizeof s->a[0]); new (s->a)int [32](); -Wplacement-new=2 At this level, in addition to diagnosing all the same constructs as at level 1, a diagnostic is also issued for placement new expressions that construct an object in the last member of structure whose type is an array of a single element and whose size is less than the size of the object being constructed. While the previous example would be diagnosed, the following construct makes use of the flexible member array extension to avoid the warning at level 2. struct S { int n, a[]; }; S *s = (S *)malloc (sizeof *s + 32 * sizeof s->a[0]); new (s->a)int [32](); nil -Wcatch-value -Wcatch-value=n (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about catch handlers that do not catch via reference. With -Wcatch-value=1 (or -Wcatch-value for short) warn about polymorphic class types that are caught by value. With -Wcatch-value=2 warn about all class types that are caught by value. With -Wcatch-value=3 warn about all types that are not caught by reference. -Wcatch-value is enabled by -Wall. -Wconditionally-supported (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn for conditionally-supported (C++11 [intro.defs]) constructs. -Wno-delete-incomplete (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Do not warn when deleting a pointer to incomplete type, which may cause undefined behavior at runtime. This warning is enabled by default. -Wextra-semi (C++, Objective-C++ only) Warn about redundant semicolons after in-class function definitions. -Wno-inaccessible-base (C++, Objective-C++ only) This option controls warnings when a base class is inaccessible in a class derived from it due to ambiguity. The warning is enabled by default. Note that the warning for ambiguous virtual bases is enabled by the -Wextra option. struct A { int a; }; struct B : A { }; struct C : B, A { }; -Wno-inherited-variadic-ctor Suppress warnings about use of C++11 inheriting constructors when the base class inherited from has a C variadic constructor; the warning is on by default because the ellipsis is not inherited. -Wno-invalid-offsetof (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Suppress warnings from applying the offsetof macro to a non-POD type. According to the 2014 ISO C++ standard, applying offsetof to a non-standard-layout type is undefined. In existing C++ implementations, however, offsetof typically gives meaningful results. This flag is for users who are aware that they are writing nonportable code and who have deliberately chosen to ignore the warning about it. The restrictions on offsetof may be relaxed in a future version of the C++ standard. -Wsized-deallocation (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about a definition of an unsized deallocation function void operator delete (void ) noexcept; void operator delete[] (void *) noexcept; without a definition of the corresponding sized deallocation function void operator delete (void *, std::size_t) noexcept; void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept; or vice versa. Enabled by *-Wextra along with -fsized-deallocation. -Wsuggest-final-types Warn about types with virtual methods where code quality would be improved if the type were declared with the C++11 final specifier, or, if possible, declared in an anonymous namespace. This allows GCC to more aggressively devirtualize the polymorphic calls. This warning is more effective with link-time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more complete. -Wsuggest-final-methods Warn about virtual methods where code quality would be improved if the method were declared with the C++11 final specifier, or, if possible, its type were declared in an anonymous namespace or with the final specifier. This warning is more effective with link-time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more complete. It is recommended to first consider suggestions of -Wsuggest-final-types and then rebuild with new annotations. -Wsuggest-override Warn about overriding virtual functions that are not marked with the override keyword. -Wuseless-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn when an expression is casted to its own type. -Wno-conversion-null (C++ and Objective-C++ only) Do not warn for conversions between NULL and non-pointer types. -Wconversion-null is enabled by default. ### Options Controlling Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects (NOTE: This manual does not describe the Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages themselves. This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs. You can also use most of the language-independent GNU compiler options. For example, you might compile a file some_class.m like this: gcc -g -fgnu-runtime -O -c some_class.m In this example, -fgnu-runtime is an option meant only for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC. Note that since Objective-C is an extension of the C language, Objective-C compilations may also use options specific to the C front-end (e.g., -Wtraditional). Similarly, Objective-C++ compilations may use C++-specific options (e.g., -Wabi). Here is a list of options that are only for compiling Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs: -fconstant-string-class=class-name Use class-name as the name of the class to instantiate for each literal string specified with the syntax @"...". The default class name is NXConstantString if the GNU runtime is being used, and NSConstantString if the NeXT runtime is being used (see below). The -fconstant-cfstrings option, if also present, overrides the -fconstant-string-class setting and cause @"..." literals to be laid out as constant CoreFoundation strings. -fgnu-runtime Generate object code compatible with the standard GNU Objective-C runtime. This is the default for most types of systems. -fnext-runtime Generate output compatible with the NeXT runtime. This is the default for NeXT-based systems, including Darwin and Mac OS X. The macro _ _NEXT_RUNTIME_ _ is predefined if (and only if) this option is used. -fno-nil-receivers Assume that all Objective-C message dispatches ([receiver message:arg]) in this translation unit ensure that the receiver is not nil. This allows for more efficient entry points in the runtime to be used. This option is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime and ABI version 0 or 1. -fobjc-abi-version=n Use version n of the Objective-C ABI for the selected runtime. This option is currently supported only for the NeXT runtime. In that case, Version 0 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI without support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 1 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI with support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 2 is the modern (64-bit) ABI. If nothing is specified, the default is Version 0 on 32-bit target machines, and Version 2 on 64-bit target machines. -fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors For each Objective-C class, check if any of its instance variables is a C++ object with a non-trivial default constructor. If so, synthesize a special - (id) .cxx_construct instance method which runs non-trivial default constructors on any such instance variables, in order, and then return self. Similarly, check if any instance variable is a C++ object with a non-trivial destructor, and if so, synthesize a special - (void) .cxx_destruct method which runs all such default destructors, in reverse order. The - (id) .cxx_construct and - (void) .cxx_destruct methods thusly generated only operate on instance variables declared in the current Objective-C class, and not those inherited from superclasses. It is the responsibility of the Objective-C runtime to invoke all such methods in an object’s inheritance hierarchy. The - (id) .cxx_construct methods are invoked by the runtime immediately after a new object instance is allocated; the - (void) .cxx_destruct methods are invoked immediately before the runtime deallocates an object instance. As of this writing, only the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.4 and later has support for invoking the - (id) .cxx_construct and - (void) .cxx_destruct methods. -fobjc-direct-dispatch Allow fast jumps to the message dispatcher. On Darwin this is accomplished via the comm page. -fobjc-exceptions Enable syntactic support for structured exception handling in Objective-C, similar to what is offered by C++. This option is required to use the Objective-C keywords @try, @throw, @catch, @finally and @synchronized. This option is available with both the GNU runtime and the NeXT runtime (but not available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.2 and earlier). -fobjc-gc Enable garbage collection (GC) in Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs. This option is only available with the NeXT runtime; the GNU runtime has a different garbage collection implementation that does not require special compiler flags. -fobjc-nilcheck For the NeXT runtime with version 2 of the ABI, check for a nil receiver in method invocations before doing the actual method call. This is the default and can be disabled using -fno-objc-nilcheck. Class methods and super calls are never checked for nil in this way no matter what this flag is set to. Currently this flag does nothing when the GNU runtime, or an older version of the NeXT runtime ABI, is used. -fobjc-std=objc1 Conform to the language syntax of Objective-C 1.0, the language recognized by GCC 4.0. This only affects the Objective-C additions to the C/C++ language; it does not affect conformance to C/C++ standards, which is controlled by the separate C/C++ dialect option flags. When this option is used with the Objective-C or Objective-C++ compiler, any Objective-C syntax that is not recognized by GCC 4.0 is rejected. This is useful if you need to make sure that your Objective-C code can be compiled with older versions of GCC. -freplace-objc-classes Emit a special marker instructing ld (1) not to statically link in the resulting object file, and allow dyld (1) to load it in at run time instead. This is used in conjunction with the Fix-and-Continue debugging mode, where the object file in question may be recompiled and dynamically reloaded in the course of program execution, without the need to restart the program itself. Currently, Fix-and-Continue functionality is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.3 and later. -fzero-link When compiling for the NeXT runtime, the compiler ordinarily replaces calls to objc_getClass("...") (when the name of the class is known at compile time) with static class references that get initialized at load time, which improves run-time performance. Specifying the -fzero-link flag suppresses this behavior and causes calls to objc_getClass("...") to be retained. This is useful in Zero-Link debugging mode, since it allows for individual class implementations to be modified during program execution. The GNU runtime currently always retains calls to objc_get_class("...") regardless of command-line options. -fno-local-ivars By default instance variables in Objective-C can be accessed as if they were local variables from within the methods of the class they’re declared in. This can lead to shadowing between instance variables and other variables declared either locally inside a class method or globally with the same name. Specifying the -fno-local-ivars flag disables this behavior thus avoiding variable shadowing issues. -fivar-visibility=[public|protected|private|package] Set the default instance variable visibility to the specified option so that instance variables declared outside the scope of any access modifier directives default to the specified visibility. -gen-decls Dump interface declarations for all classes seen in the source file to a file named sourcename.decl. -Wassign-intercept (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) Warn whenever an Objective-C assignment is being intercepted by the garbage collector. (no term) -Wno-property-assign-default (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) :: Do not warn if a property for an Objective-C object has no assign semantics specified. -Wno-protocol (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) If a class is declared to implement a protocol, a warning is issued for every method in the protocol that is not implemented by the class. The default behavior is to issue a warning for every method not explicitly implemented in the class, even if a method implementation is inherited from the superclass. If you use the -Wno-protocol option, then methods inherited from the superclass are considered to be implemented, and no warning is issued for them. -Wobjc-root-class (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) Warn if a class interface lacks a superclass. Most classes will inherit from NSObject (or Object) for example. When declaring classes intended to be root classes, the warning can be suppressed by marking their interfaces with _ _attribute_ _((objc_root_class)). -Wselector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) Warn if multiple methods of different types for the same selector are found during compilation. The check is performed on the list of methods in the final stage of compilation. Additionally, a check is performed for each selector appearing in a @selector(...) expression, and a corresponding method for that selector has been found during compilation. Because these checks scan the method table only at the end of compilation, these warnings are not produced if the final stage of compilation is not reached, for example because an error is found during compilation, or because the -fsyntax-only option is being used. -Wstrict-selector-match (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) Warn if multiple methods with differing argument and/or return types are found for a given selector when attempting to send a message using this selector to a receiver of type id or Class. When this flag is off (which is the default behavior), the compiler omits such warnings if any differences found are confined to types that share the same size and alignment. -Wundeclared-selector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) Warn if a @selector(...) expression referring to an undeclared selector is found. A selector is considered undeclared if no method with that name has been declared before the @selector(...) expression, either explicitly in an @interface or @protocol declaration, or implicitly in an @implementation section. This option always performs its checks as soon as a @selector(...) expression is found, while -Wselector only performs its checks in the final stage of compilation. This also enforces the coding style convention that methods and selectors must be declared before being used. -print-objc-runtime-info Generate C header describing the largest structure that is passed by value, if any. ### Options to Control Diagnostic Messages Formatting Traditionally, diagnostic messages have been formatted irrespective of the output device’s aspect (e.g. its width, …). You can use the options described below to control the formatting algorithm for diagnostic messages, e.g. how many characters per line, how often source location information should be reported. Note that some language front ends may not honor these options. -fmessage-length=n Try to format error messages so that they fit on lines of about n characters. If n is zero, then no line-wrapping is done; each error message appears on a single line. This is the default for all front ends. Note - this option also affects the display of the #error and #warning pre-processor directives, and the deprecated function/type/variable attribute. It does not however affect the pragma GCC warning and pragma GCC error pragmas. -fdiagnostics-plain-output This option requests that diagnostic output look as plain as possible, which may be useful when running dejagnu or other utilities that need to parse diagnostics output and prefer that it remain more stable over time. -fdiagnostics-plain-output is currently equivalent to the following options: *-fno-diagnostics-show-caret * -fno-diagnostics-show-line-numbers -fdiagnostics-color=never -fdiagnostics-urls=never -fdiagnostics-path-format=separate-events In the future, if GCC changes the default appearance of its diagnostics, the corresponding option to disable the new behavior will be added to this list. -fdiagnostics-show-location=once Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic messages reporter to emit source location information once; that is, in case the message is too long to fit on a single physical line and has to be wrapped, the source location won’t be emitted (as prefix) again, over and over, in subsequent continuation lines. This is the default behavior. -fdiagnostics-show-location=every-line Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic messages reporter to emit the same source location information (as prefix) for physical lines that result from the process of breaking a message which is too long to fit on a single line. -fdiagnostics-color[=WHEN] -fno-diagnostics-color Use color in diagnostics. WHEN is never, always, or auto. The default depends on how the compiler has been configured, it can be any of the above WHEN options or also never if GCC_COLORS environment variable isn’t present in the environment, and auto otherwise. auto makes GCC use color only when the standard error is a terminal, and when not executing in an emacs shell. The forms -fdiagnostics-color and -fno-diagnostics-color are aliases for -fdiagnostics-color=always and -fdiagnostics-color=never, respectively. The colors are defined by the environment variable GCC_COLORS. Its value is a colon-separated list of capabilities and Select Graphic Rendition (SGR) substrings. SGR commands are interpreted by the terminal or terminal emulator. (See the section in the documentation of your text terminal for permitted values and their meanings as character attributes.) These substring values are integers in decimal representation and can be concatenated with semicolons. Common values to concatenate include 1 for bold, 4 for underline, 5 for blink, 7 for inverse, 39 for default foreground color, 30 to 37 for foreground colors, 90 to 97 for 16-color mode foreground colors, 38;5;0 to 38;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes foreground colors, 49 for default background color, 40 to 47 for background colors, 100 to 107 for 16-color mode background colors, and 48;5;0 to 48;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes background colors. The default GCC_COLORS is error=01;31:warning=01;35:note=01;36:range1=32:range2=34:locus=01:\ quote=01:path=01;36:fixit-insert=32:fixit-delete=31:\ diff-filename=01:diff-hunk=32:diff-delete=31:diff-insert=32:\ type-diff=01;32 where 01;31 is bold red, 01;35 is bold magenta, 01;36 is bold cyan, 32 is green, 34 is blue, 01 is bold, and 31 is red. Setting GCC_COLORS to the empty string disables colors. Supported capabilities are as follows. “error=” SGR substring for error: markers. “warning=” SGR substring for warning: markers. “note=” SGR substring for note: markers. “path=” SGR substring for colorizing paths of control-flow events as printed via -fdiagnostics-path-format=, such as the identifiers of individual events and lines indicating interprocedural calls and returns. “range1=” SGR substring for first additional range. “range2=” SGR substring for second additional range. “locus=” SGR substring for location information, line or line:column etc. “quote=” SGR substring for information printed within quotes. “fixit-insert=” SGR substring for fix-it hints suggesting text to be inserted or replaced. “fixit-delete=” SGR substring for fix-it hints suggesting text to be deleted. “diff-filename=” SGR substring for filename headers within generated patches. “diff-hunk=” SGR substring for the starts of hunks within generated patches. “diff-delete=” SGR substring for deleted lines within generated patches. “diff-insert=” SGR substring for inserted lines within generated patches. “type-diff=” SGR substring for highlighting mismatching types within template arguments in the C++ frontend. nil -fdiagnostics-urls[=WHEN] Use escape sequences to embed URLs in diagnostics. For example, when -fdiagnostics-show-option emits text showing the command-line option controlling a diagnostic, embed a URL for documentation of that option. WHEN is never, always, or auto. auto makes GCC use URL escape sequences only when the standard error is a terminal, and when not executing in an emacs shell or any graphical terminal which is known to be incompatible with this feature, see below. The default depends on how the compiler has been configured. It can be any of the above WHEN options. GCC can also be configured (via the –with-diagnostics-urls=auto-if-env configure-time option) so that the default is affected by environment variables. Under such a configuration, GCC defaults to using auto if either GCC_URLS or TERM_URLS environment variables are present and non-empty in the environment of the compiler, or never if neither are. However, even with -fdiagnostics-urls=always the behavior is dependent on those environment variables: If GCC_URLS is set to empty or no, do not embed URLs in diagnostics. If set to st, URLs use ST escape sequences. If set to bel, the default, URLs use BEL escape sequences. Any other non-empty value enables the feature. If GCC_URLS is not set, use TERM_URLS as a fallback. Note: ST is an ANSI escape sequence, string terminator ESC \, BEL is an ASCII character, CTRL-G that usually sounds like a beep. At this time GCC tries to detect also a few terminals that are known to not implement the URL feature, and have bugs or at least had bugs in some versions that are still in use, where the URL escapes are likely to misbehave, i.e. print garbage on the screen. That list is currently xfce4-terminal, certain known to be buggy gnome-terminal versions, the linux console, and mingw. This check can be skipped with the -fdiagnostics-urls=always. -fno-diagnostics-show-option By default, each diagnostic emitted includes text indicating the command-line option that directly controls the diagnostic (if such an option is known to the diagnostic machinery). Specifying the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag suppresses that behavior. -fno-diagnostics-show-caret By default, each diagnostic emitted includes the original source line and a caret ^ indicating the column. This option suppresses this information. The source line is truncated to n characters, if the -fmessage-length=n option is given. When the output is done to the terminal, the width is limited to the width given by the COLUMNS environment variable or, if not set, to the terminal width. -fno-diagnostics-show-labels By default, when printing source code (via -fdiagnostics-show-caret), diagnostics can label ranges of source code with pertinent information, such as the types of expressions: printf (“foo %s bar”, long_i + long_j); ^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ | | char * long int This option suppresses the printing of these labels (in the example above, the vertical bars and the char * and long int text). -fno-diagnostics-show-cwe Diagnostic messages can optionally have an associated =@url={https://cwe.mitre.org/index.html, CWE} identifier. GCC itself only provides such metadata for some of the -fanalyzer diagnostics. GCC plugins may also provide diagnostics with such metadata. By default, if this information is present, it will be printed with the diagnostic. This option suppresses the printing of this metadata. -fno-diagnostics-show-line-numbers By default, when printing source code (via -fdiagnostics-show-caret), a left margin is printed, showing line numbers. This option suppresses this left margin. -fdiagnostics-minimum-margin-width=width This option controls the minimum width of the left margin printed by -fdiagnostics-show-line-numbers. It defaults to 6. -fdiagnostics-parseable-fixits Emit fix-it hints in a machine-parseable format, suitable for consumption by IDEs. For each fix-it, a line will be printed after the relevant diagnostic, starting with the string fix-it:. For example: fix-it:“test.c”:{45:3-45:21}:“gtk_widget_show_all” The location is expressed as a half-open range, expressed as a count of bytes, starting at byte 1 for the initial column. In the above example, bytes 3 through 20 of line 45 of test.c are to be replaced with the given string: 00000000011111111112222222222 12345678901234567890123456789 gtk_widget_showall (dlg); ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ gtk_widget_show_all The filename and replacement string escape backslash as \\, tab as \t, newline as \n, double quotes as \, non-printable characters as octal (e.g. vertical tab as \013“). An empty replacement string indicates that the given range is to be removed. An empty range (e.g. 45:3-45:3) indicates that the string is to be inserted at the given position. -fdiagnostics-generate-patch Print fix-it hints to stderr in unified diff format, after any diagnostics are printed. For example: — test.c + test.c @ -42,5 +42,5 @ void show_cb(GtkDialog dlg) { - gtk_widget_showall(dlg); + gtk_widget_show_all(dlg); } The diff may or may not be colorized, following the same rules as for diagnostics (see *-fdiagnostics-color). -fdiagnostics-show-template-tree In the C++ frontend, when printing diagnostics showing mismatching template types, such as: could not convert std::map<int, std::vector<double> >() from map<[…],vector<double>> to map<[…],vector<float>> the -fdiagnostics-show-template-tree flag enables printing a tree-like structure showing the common and differing parts of the types, such as: map< […], vector< [double != float]>> The parts that differ are highlighted with color (double and float in this case). -fno-elide-type By default when the C++ frontend prints diagnostics showing mismatching template types, common parts of the types are printed as […] to simplify the error message. For example: could not convert std::map<int, std::vector<double> >() from map<[…],vector<double>> to map<[…],vector<float>> Specifying the -fno-elide-type flag suppresses that behavior. This flag also affects the output of the -fdiagnostics-show-template-tree flag. -fdiagnostics-path-format=KIND Specify how to print paths of control-flow events for diagnostics that have such a path associated with them. KIND is none, separate-events, or inline-events, the default. none means to not print diagnostic paths. separate-events means to print a separate note diagnostic for each event within the diagnostic. For example: test.c:29:5: error: passing NULL as argument 1 to PyList_Append which requires a non-NULL parameter test.c:25:10: note: (1) when PyList_New fails, returning NULL test.c:27:3: note: (2) when i < count test.c:29:5: note: (3) when calling PyList_Append, passing NULL from (1) as argument 1 inline-events means to print the events inline within the source code. This view attempts to consolidate the events into runs of sufficiently-close events, printing them as labelled ranges within the source. For example, the same events as above might be printed as: test: events 1-3 | | 25 | list = PyList_New(0); | | ^~~~~~~~~~~~~ | |  (1) when PyList_New fails, returning NULL 26 27 for (i = 0; i < count; i++) { | | ~ | | | | | (2) when i < count | 28 | item = PyLong_FromLong(random()); | 29 | PyList_Append(list, item); | | ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ | | | | | (3) when calling PyList_Append, passing NULL from (1) as argument 1 | Interprocedural control flow is shown by grouping the events by stack frame, and using indentation to show how stack frames are nested, pushed, and popped. For example: test: events 1-2 | | 133 | { | | ^ | | | | | (1) entering test | 134 | boxed_int *obj = make_boxed_int (i); | | ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ | | | | | (2) calling make_boxed_int | +–> make_boxed_int: events 3-4 | | 120 | { | | ^ | | | | | (3) entering make_boxed_int | 121 | boxed_int *result = (boxed_int *)wrapped_malloc (sizeof (boxed_int)); | | ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ | | | | | (4) calling wrapped_malloc | +–> wrapped_malloc: events 5-6 | | 7 | { | | ^ | | |  (5) entering wrapped_malloc 8 return malloc (size); ~~~~~~~~~~~ | | | | | (6) calling malloc | <--------–—+ | test: event 7 | | 138 | free_boxed_int (obj); | | ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ | | |  (7) calling free_boxed_int (etc) -fdiagnostics-show-path-depths This option provides additional information when printing control-flow paths associated with a diagnostic. If this is option is provided then the stack depth will be printed for each run of events within -fdiagnostics-path-format=separate-events. This is intended for use by GCC developers and plugin developers when debugging diagnostics that report interprocedural control flow. -fno-show-column Do not print column numbers in diagnostics. This may be necessary if diagnostics are being scanned by a program that does not understand the column numbers, such as dejagnu. -fdiagnostics-column-unit=UNIT Select the units for the column number. This affects traditional diagnostics (in the absence of -fno-show-column), as well as JSON format diagnostics if requested. The default UNIT, display, considers the number of display columns occupied by each character. This may be larger than the number of bytes required to encode the character, in the case of tab characters, or it may be smaller, in the case of multibyte characters. For example, the character GREEK SMALL LETTER PI (U+03C0) occupies one display column, and its UTF-8 encoding requires two bytes; the character SLIGHTLY SMILING FACE (U+1F642) occupies two display columns, and its UTF-8 encoding requires four bytes. Setting UNIT to byte changes the column number to the raw byte count in all cases, as was traditionally output by GCC prior to version 11.1.0. -fdiagnostics-column-origin=ORIGIN Select the origin for column numbers, i.e. the column number assigned to the first column. The default value of 1 corresponds to traditional GCC behavior and to the GNU style guide. Some utilities may perform better with an origin of 0; any non-negative value may be specified. -fdiagnostics-format=FORMAT Select a different format for printing diagnostics. FORMAT is text or json. The default is text. The json format consists of a top-level JSON array containing JSON objects representing the diagnostics. The JSON is emitted as one line, without formatting; the examples below have been formatted for clarity. Diagnostics can have child diagnostics. For example, this error and note: misleading-indentation.c:15:3: warning: this if clause does not guard… [-Wmisleading-indentation] 15 | if (flag) | ^~ misleading-indentation.c:17:5: note: …this statement, but the latter is misleadingly indented as if it were guarded by the if 17 | y = 2; | ^ might be printed in JSON form (after formatting) like this: [ { “kind”: “warning”, “locations”: [ { “caret”: { “display-column”: 3, “byte-column”: 3, “column”: 3, “file”: “misleading-indentation.c”, “line”: 15 }, “finish”: { “display-column”: 4, “byte-column”: 4, “column”: 4, “file”: “misleading-indentation.c”, “line”: 15 } } ], “message”: “this \u2018if\u2019 clause does not guard…”, “option”: “-Wmisleading-indentation”, “option_url”: “https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Warning-Options.html#index-Wmisleading-indentation”, “children”: [ { “kind”: “note”, “locations”: [ { “caret”: { “display-column”: 5, “byte-column”: 5, “column”: 5, “file”: “misleading-indentation.c”, “line”: 17 } } ], “message”: “…this statement, but the latter is …” } ] “column-origin”: 1, }, … ] where the note is a child of the warning. A diagnostic has a kind. If this is warning, then there is an option key describing the command-line option controlling the warning. A diagnostic can contain zero or more locations. Each location has an optional label string and up to three positions within it: a caret position and optional start and finish positions. A position is described by a file name, a line number, and three numbers indicating a column position: • display-column counts display columns, accounting for tabs and multibyte characters. • byte-column counts raw bytes. • column is equal to one of the previous two, as dictated by the -fdiagnostics-column-unit option. All three columns are relative to the origin specified by -fdiagnostics-column-origin, which is typically equal to 1 but may be set, for instance, to 0 for compatibility with other utilities that number columns from 0. The column origin is recorded in the JSON output in the column-origin tag. In the remaining examples below, the extra column number outputs have been omitted for brevity. For example, this error: bad-binary-ops.c:64:23: error: invalid operands to binary + (have S {aka struct s} and T {aka struct t}) 64 | return callee_4a () + callee_4b (); | ~~~~~~~~~~ ^ ~~~~~~~~~~ | | | | | T {aka struct t} | S {aka struct s} has three locations. Its primary location is at the + token at column 23. It has two secondary locations, describing the left and right-hand sides of the expression, which have labels. It might be printed in JSON form as: { “children”: [], “kind”: “error”, “locations”: [ { “caret”: { “column”: 23, “file”: “bad-binary-ops.c”, “line”: 64 } }, { “caret”: { “column”: 10, “file”: “bad-binary-ops.c”, “line”: 64 }, “finish”: { “column”: 21, “file”: “bad-binary-ops.c”, “line”: 64 }, “label”: “S {aka struct s}” }, { “caret”: { “column”: 25, “file”: “bad-binary-ops.c”, “line”: 64 }, “finish”: { “column”: 36, “file”: “bad-binary-ops.c”, “line”: 64 }, “label”: “T {aka struct t}” } ], “message”: “invalid operands to binary + …” } If a diagnostic contains fix-it hints, it has a fixits array, consisting of half-open intervals, similar to the output of -fdiagnostics-parseable-fixits. For example, this diagnostic with a replacement fix-it hint: demo.c:8:15: error: struct s has no member named colour; did you mean color? 8 | return ptr->colour; | ^~~~~~ | color might be printed in JSON form as: { “children”: [], “fixits”: [ { “next”: { “column”: 21, “file”: “demo.c”, “line”: 8 }, “start”: { “column”: 15, “file”: “demo.c”, “line”: 8 }, “string”: “color” } ], “kind”: “error”, “locations”: [ { “caret”: { “column”: 15, “file”: “demo.c”, “line”: 8 }, “finish”: { “column”: 20, “file”: “demo.c”, “line”: 8 } } ], “message”: “\u2018struct s\u2019 has no member named …” } where the fix-it hint suggests replacing the text from start up to but not including next with string’s value. Deletions are expressed via an empty value for string, insertions by having start equal next. If the diagnostic has a path of control-flow events associated with it, it has a path array of objects representing the events. Each event object has a description string, a location object, along with a function string and a depth number for representing interprocedural paths. The function represents the current function at that event, and the depth represents the stack depth relative to some baseline: the higher, the more frames are within the stack. For example, the intraprocedural example shown for -fdiagnostics-path-format= might have this JSON for its path: “path”: [ { “depth”: 0, “description”: “when PyList_New fails, returning NULL”, “function”: “test”, “location”: { “column”: 10, “file”: “test.c”, “line”: 25 } }, { “depth”: 0, “description”: “when i < count”, “function”: “test”, “location”: { “column”: 3, “file”: “test.c”, “line”: 27 } }, { “depth”: 0, “description”: “when calling PyList_Append, passing NULL from (1) as argument 1”, “function”: “test”, “location”: { “column”: 5, “file”: “test.c”, “line”: 29 } } ] ### Options to Request or Suppress Warnings Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions that are not inherently erroneous but that are risky or suggest there may have been an error. The following language-independent options do not enable specific warnings but control the kinds of diagnostics produced by GCC. -fsyntax-only Check the code for syntax errors, but don’t do anything beyond that. -fmax-errors=n Limits the maximum number of error messages to n, at which point GCC bails out rather than attempting to continue processing the source code. If n is 0 (the default), there is no limit on the number of error messages produced. If -Wfatal-errors is also specified, then -Wfatal-errors takes precedence over this option. -w Inhibit all warning messages. -Werror Make all warnings into errors. -Werror= Make the specified warning into an error. The specifier for a warning is appended; for example -Werror=switch turns the warnings controlled by -Wswitch into errors. This switch takes a negative form, to be used to negate -Werror for specific warnings; for example -Wno-error=switch makes -Wswitch warnings not be errors, even when -Werror is in effect. The warning message for each controllable warning includes the option that controls the warning. That option can then be used with -Werror= and -Wno-error= as described above. (Printing of the option in the warning message can be disabled using the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag.) Note that specifying *-Werror=*/foo/ automatically implies *-W*/foo/. However, *-Wno-error=*/foo/ does not imply anything. -Wfatal-errors This option causes the compiler to abort compilation on the first error occurred rather than trying to keep going and printing further error messages. You can request many specific warnings with options beginning with -W, for example -Wimplicit to request warnings on implicit declarations. Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form beginning -Wno- to turn off warnings; for example, -Wno-implicit. This manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the default. For further language-specific options also refer to C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options. Additional warnings can be produced by enabling the static analyzer; Some options, such as -Wall and -Wextra, turn on other options, such as -Wunused, which may turn on further options, such as -Wunused-value. The combined effect of positive and negative forms is that more specific options have priority over less specific ones, independently of their position in the command-line. For options of the same specificity, the last one takes effect. Options enabled or disabled via pragmas take effect as if they appeared at the end of the command-line. When an unrecognized warning option is requested (e.g., -Wunknown-warning), GCC emits a diagnostic stating that the option is not recognized. However, if the -Wno- form is used, the behavior is slightly different: no diagnostic is produced for -Wno-unknown-warning unless other diagnostics are being produced. This allows the use of new -Wno- options with old compilers, but if something goes wrong, the compiler warns that an unrecognized option is present. The effectiveness of some warnings depends on optimizations also being enabled. For example -Wsuggest-final-types is more effective with link-time optimization and -Wmaybe-uninitialized does not warn at all unless optimization is enabled. -Wpedantic -pedantic Issue all the warnings demanded by strict ISO C and ISO C++; reject all programs that use forbidden extensions, and some other programs that do not follow ISO C and ISO C++. For ISO C, follows the version of the ISO C standard specified by any -std option used. Valid ISO C and ISO C++ programs should compile properly with or without this option (though a rare few require -ansi or a -std option specifying the required version of ISO C). However, without this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional C and C++ features are supported as well. With this option, they are rejected. -Wpedantic does not cause warning messages for use of the alternate keywords whose names begin and end with _ _. This alternate format can also be used to disable warnings for non-ISO _ _intN types, i.e. _ intN _. Pedantic warnings are also disabled in the expression that follows _ _extension_ _. However, only system header files should use these escape routes; application programs should avoid them. Some users try to use -Wpedantic to check programs for strict ISO C conformance. They soon find that it does not do quite what they want: it finds some non-ISO practices, but not all—only those for which ISO C requires a diagnostic, and some others for which diagnostics have been added. A feature to report any failure to conform to ISO C might be useful in some instances, but would require considerable additional work and would be quite different from -Wpedantic. We don’t have plans to support such a feature in the near future. Where the standard specified with -std represents a GNU extended dialect of C, such as gnu90 or gnu99, there is a corresponding base standard, the version of ISO C on which the GNU extended dialect is based. Warnings from -Wpedantic are given where they are required by the base standard. (It does not make sense for such warnings to be given only for features not in the specified GNU C dialect, since by definition the GNU dialects of C include all features the compiler supports with the given option, and there would be nothing to warn about.) -pedantic-errors Give an error whenever the base standard (see -Wpedantic) requires a diagnostic, in some cases where there is undefined behavior at compile-time and in some other cases that do not prevent compilation of programs that are valid according to the standard. This is not equivalent to -Werror=pedantic, since there are errors enabled by this option and not enabled by the latter and vice versa. -Wall This enables all the warnings about constructions that some users consider questionable, and that are easy to avoid (or modify to prevent the warning), even in conjunction with macros. This also enables some language-specific warnings described in C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options. -Wall turns on the following warning flags: -Waddress * -Warray-bounds=1 (only with -O2*) -Warray-parameter=2 (C and Objective-C only) -Wbool-compare * -Wbool-operation -Wc++11-compat -Wc++14-compat -Wcatch-value (C++ and Objective-C++ only) *-Wchar-subscripts * -Wcomment -Wduplicate-decl-specifier (C and Objective-C only) *-Wenum-compare (in C/ObjC; this is on by default in C++) -Wformat * -Wformat-overflow -Wformat-truncation -Wint-in-bool-context -Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only) *-Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only) -Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only) -Winit-self (only for C++) -Wlogical-not-parentheses * -Wmain (only for C/ObjC and unless -ffreestanding*) -Wmaybe-uninitialized * -Wmemset-elt-size -Wmemset-transposed-args -Wmisleading-indentation (only for C/C++) *-Wmissing-attributes * -Wmissing-braces (only for C/ObjC) *-Wmultistatement-macros * -Wnarrowing (only for C++) *-Wnonnull * -Wnonnull-compare -Wopenmp-simd -Wparentheses -Wpessimizing-move (only for C++) *-Wpointer-sign * -Wrange-loop-construct (only for C++) *-Wreorder * -Wrestrict -Wreturn-type -Wsequence-point -Wsign-compare (only in C++) *-Wsizeof-array-div * -Wsizeof-pointer-div -Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess -Wstrict-aliasing -Wstrict-overflow=1 -Wswitch -Wtautological-compare -Wtrigraphs -Wuninitialized -Wunknown-pragmas -Wunused-function -Wunused-label -Wunused-value -Wunused-variable -Wvla-parameter (C and Objective-C only) *-Wvolatile-register-var * -Wzero-length-bounds Note that some warning flags are not implied by *-Wall. Some of them warn about constructions that users generally do not consider questionable, but which occasionally you might wish to check for; others warn about constructions that are necessary or hard to avoid in some cases, and there is no simple way to modify the code to suppress the warning. Some of them are enabled by -Wextra but many of them must be enabled individually. -Wextra This enables some extra warning flags that are not enabled by -Wall. (This option used to be called -W. The older name is still supported, but the newer name is more descriptive.) *-Wclobbered • -Wcast-function-type -Wdeprecated-copy (C++ only) *-Wempty-body * -Wenum-conversion (C only) -Wignored-qualifiers * -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 -Wmissing-field-initializers -Wmissing-parameter-type (C only) *-Wold-style-declaration (C only) -Woverride-init * -Wsign-compare (C only) *-Wstring-compare * -Wredundant-move (only for C++) *-Wtype-limits * -Wuninitialized -Wshift-negative-value (in C++03 and in C99 and newer) *-Wunused-parameter (only with* -Wunused or -Wall*) -Wunused-but-set-parameter (only with* -Wunused or -Wall*) The option -Wextra also prints warning messages for the following cases: • A pointer is compared against integer zero with <, <=, >, or >=. • (C++ only) An enumerator and a non-enumerator both appear in a conditional expression. • (C++ only) Ambiguous virtual bases. • (C++ only) Subscripting an array that has been declared register. • (C++ only) Taking the address of a variable that has been declared register. • (C++ only) A base class is not initialized in the copy constructor of a derived class. -Wabi (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only) Warn about code affected by ABI changes. This includes code that may not be compatible with the vendor-neutral C++ ABI as well as the psABI for the particular target. Since G++ now defaults to updating the ABI with each major release, normally -Wabi warns only about C++ ABI compatibility problems if there is a check added later in a release series for an ABI issue discovered since the initial release. -Wabi warns about more things if an older ABI version is selected (with -fabi-version=*/n/). *-Wabi can also be used with an explicit version number to warn about C++ ABI compatibility with a particular -fabi-version level, e.g. -Wabi=2 to warn about changes relative to -fabi-version=2. If an explicit version number is provided and -fabi-compat-version is not specified, the version number from this option is used for compatibility aliases. If no explicit version number is provided with this option, but -fabi-compat-version is specified, that version number is used for C++ ABI warnings. Although an effort has been made to warn about all such cases, there are probably some cases that are not warned about, even though G++ is generating incompatible code. There may also be cases where warnings are emitted even though the code that is generated is compatible. You should rewrite your code to avoid these warnings if you are concerned about the fact that code generated by G++ may not be binary compatible with code generated by other compilers. Known incompatibilities in -fabi-version=2 (which was the default from GCC 3.4 to 4.9) include: • A template with a non-type template parameter of reference type was mangled incorrectly: extern int N; template <int &> struct S {}; void n (S<N>) {2} This was fixed in -fabi-version=3. • SIMD vector types declared using _ _attribute ((vector_size)) were mangled in a non-standard way that does not allow for overloading of functions taking vectors of different sizes. The mangling was changed in -fabi-version=4. • _ _attribute ((const)) and noreturn were mangled as type qualifiers, and decltype of a plain declaration was folded away. These mangling issues were fixed in -fabi-version=5. • Scoped enumerators passed as arguments to a variadic function are promoted like unscoped enumerators, causing va_arg to complain. On most targets this does not actually affect the parameter passing ABI, as there is no way to pass an argument smaller than int. Also, the ABI changed the mangling of template argument packs, const_cast, static_cast, prefix increment/decrement, and a class scope function used as a template argument. These issues were corrected in -fabi-version=6. • Lambdas in default argument scope were mangled incorrectly, and the ABI changed the mangling of nullptr_t. These issues were corrected in -fabi-version=7. • When mangling a function type with function-cv-qualifiers, the un-qualified function type was incorrectly treated as a substitution candidate. This was fixed in -fabi-version=8, the default for GCC 5.1. • decltype(nullptr) incorrectly had an alignment of 1, leading to unaligned accesses. Note that this did not affect the ABI of a function with a nullptr_t parameter, as parameters have a minimum alignment. This was fixed in -fabi-version=9, the default for GCC 5.2. • Target-specific attributes that affect the identity of a type, such as ia32 calling conventions on a function type (stdcall, regparm, etc.), did not affect the mangled name, leading to name collisions when function pointers were used as template arguments. This was fixed in -fabi-version=10, the default for GCC 6.1. This option also enables warnings about psABI-related changes. The known psABI changes at this point include: • For SysV/x86-64, unions with long double members are passed in memory as specified in psABI. Prior to GCC 4.4, this was not the case. For example: union U { long double ld; int i; }; union U is now always passed in memory. -Wchar-subscripts Warn if an array subscript has type char. This is a common cause of error, as programmers often forget that this type is signed on some machines. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wno-coverage-mismatch Warn if feedback profiles do not match when using the -fprofile-use option. If a source file is changed between compiling with -fprofile-generate and with -fprofile-use, the files with the profile feedback can fail to match the source file and GCC cannot use the profile feedback information. By default, this warning is enabled and is treated as an error. -Wno-coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the warning or -Wno-error=coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the error. Disabling the error for this warning can result in poorly optimized code and is useful only in the case of very minor changes such as bug fixes to an existing code-base. Completely disabling the warning is not recommended. -Wno-cpp (C, Objective-C, C++, Objective-C++ and Fortran only) Suppress warning messages emitted by #warning directives. (no term) -Wdouble-promotion (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) :: Give a warning when a value of type float is implicitly promoted to double. CPUs with a 32-bit single-precision floating-point unit implement float in hardware, but emulate double in software. On such a machine, doing computations using double values is much more expensive because of the overhead required for software emulation. It is easy to accidentally do computations with double because floating-point literals are implicitly of type double. For example, in: float area(float radius) { return 3.14159 * radius * radius; } the compiler performs the entire computation with double because the floating-point literal is a double. -Wduplicate-decl-specifier (C and Objective-C only) Warn if a declaration has duplicate const, volatile, restrict or _Atomic specifier. This warning is enabled by -Wall. -Wformat -Wformat=n Check calls to printf and scanf, etc., to make sure that the arguments supplied have types appropriate to the format string specified, and that the conversions specified in the format string make sense. This includes standard functions, and others specified by format attributes, in the printf, scanf, strftime and strfmon (an X/Open extension, not in the C standard) families (or other target-specific families). Which functions are checked without format attributes having been specified depends on the standard version selected, and such checks of functions without the attribute specified are disabled by -ffreestanding or -fno-builtin. The formats are checked against the format features supported by GNU libc version 2.2. These include all ISO C90 and C99 features, as well as features from the Single Unix Specification and some BSD and GNU extensions. Other library implementations may not support all these features; GCC does not support warning about features that go beyond a particular library’s limitations. However, if -Wpedantic is used with -Wformat, warnings are given about format features not in the selected standard version (but not for strfmon formats, since those are not in any version of the C standard). -Wformat=1 -Wformat Option -Wformat is equivalent to -Wformat=1, and -Wno-format is equivalent to -Wformat=0. Since -Wformat also checks for null format arguments for several functions, -Wformat also implies -Wnonnull. Some aspects of this level of format checking can be disabled by the options: -Wno-format-contains-nul, -Wno-format-extra-args, and -Wno-format-zero-length. -Wformat is enabled by -Wall. -Wformat=2 Enable -Wformat plus additional format checks. Currently equivalent to -Wformat -Wformat-nonliteral -Wformat-security -Wformat-y2k. nil -Wno-format-contains-nul If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about format strings that contain NUL bytes. -Wno-format-extra-args If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about excess arguments to a printf or scanf format function. The C standard specifies that such arguments are ignored. Where the unused arguments lie between used arguments that are specified with operand number specifications, normally warnings are still given, since the implementation could not know what type to pass to va_arg to skip the unused arguments. However, in the case of scanf formats, this option suppresses the warning if the unused arguments are all pointers, since the Single Unix Specification says that such unused arguments are allowed.
-Wformat-overflow
-Wformat-overflow=level

Warn about calls to formatted input/output functions such as sprintf and vsprintf that might overflow the destination buffer. When the exact number of bytes written by a format directive cannot be determined at compile-time it is estimated based on heuristics that depend on the level argument and on optimization. While enabling optimization will in most cases improve the accuracy of the warning, it may also result in false positives.

-Wformat-overflow
-Wformat-overflow=1

Level 1 of -Wformat-overflow enabled by -Wformat employs a conservative approach that warns only about calls that most likely overflow the buffer. At this level, numeric arguments to format directives with unknown values are assumed to have the value of one, and strings of unknown length to be empty. Numeric arguments that are known to be bounded to a subrange of their type, or string arguments whose output is bounded either by their directive’s precision or by a finite set of string literals, are assumed to take on the value within the range that results in the most bytes on output. For example, the call to sprintf below is diagnosed because even with both a and b equal to zero, the terminating NUL character (\0) appended by the function to the destination buffer will be written past its end. Increasing the size of the buffer by a single byte is sufficient to avoid the warning, though it may not be sufficient to avoid the overflow. void f (int a, int b) { char buf [13]; sprintf (buf, “a = %i, b = %i\n”, a, b); }

-Wformat-overflow=2
Level 2 warns also about calls that might overflow the destination buffer given an argument of sufficient length or magnitude. At level 2, unknown numeric arguments are assumed to have the minimum representable value for signed types with a precision greater than 1, and the maximum representable value otherwise. Unknown string arguments whose length cannot be assumed to be bounded either by the directive’s precision, or by a finite set of string literals they may evaluate to, or the character array they may point to, are assumed to be 1 character long. At level 2, the call in the example above is again diagnosed, but this time because with a equal to a 32-bit INT_MIN the first %i directive will write some of its digits beyond the end of the destination buffer. To make the call safe regardless of the values of the two variables, the size of the destination buffer must be increased to at least 34 bytes. GCC includes the minimum size of the buffer in an informational note following the warning. An alternative to increasing the size of the destination buffer is to constrain the range of formatted values. The maximum length of string arguments can be bounded by specifying the precision in the format directive. When numeric arguments of format directives can be assumed to be bounded by less than the precision of their type, choosing an appropriate length modifier to the format specifier will reduce the required buffer size. For example, if a and b in the example above can be assumed to be within the precision of the short int type then using either the %hi format directive or casting the argument to short reduces the maximum required size of the buffer to 24 bytes. void f (int a, int b) { char buf [23]; sprintf (buf, “a = %hi, b = %i\n”, a, (short)b); }
nil
-Wno-format-zero-length
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about zero-length formats. The C standard specifies that zero-length formats are allowed.
-Wformat-nonliteral
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string is not a string literal and so cannot be checked, unless the format function takes its format arguments as a va_list.
-Wformat-security
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about uses of format functions that represent possible security problems. At present, this warns about calls to printf and scanf functions where the format string is not a string literal and there are no format arguments, as in printf (foo);. This may be a security hole if the format string came from untrusted input and contains %n. (This is currently a subset of what -Wformat-nonliteral warns about, but in future warnings may be added to -Wformat-security that are not included in -Wformat-nonliteral.)
-Wformat-signedness
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string requires an unsigned argument and the argument is signed and vice versa.
-Wformat-truncation
-Wformat-truncation=level

Warn about calls to formatted input/output functions such as snprintf and vsnprintf that might result in output truncation. When the exact number of bytes written by a format directive cannot be determined at compile-time it is estimated based on heuristics that depend on the level argument and on optimization. While enabling optimization will in most cases improve the accuracy of the warning, it may also result in false positives. Except as noted otherwise, the option uses the same logic -Wformat-overflow.

-Wformat-truncation
-Wformat-truncation=1

Level 1 of -Wformat-truncation enabled by -Wformat employs a conservative approach that warns only about calls to bounded functions whose return value is unused and that will most likely result in output truncation.

-Wformat-truncation=2
Level 2 warns also about calls to bounded functions whose return value is used and that might result in truncation given an argument of sufficient length or magnitude.
nil
-Wformat-y2k
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about strftime formats that may yield only a two-digit year.
-Wnonnull
Warn about passing a null pointer for arguments marked as requiring a non-null value by the nonnull function attribute. -Wnonnull is included in -Wall and -Wformat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-nonnull option.
-Wnonnull-compare
Warn when comparing an argument marked with the nonnull function attribute against null inside the function. -Wnonnull-compare is included in -Wall. It can be disabled with the -Wno-nonnull-compare option.
-Wnull-dereference
Warn if the compiler detects paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due to dereferencing a null pointer. This option is only active when -fdelete-null-pointer-checks is active, which is enabled by optimizations in most targets. The precision of the warnings depends on the optimization options used.
-Winit-self (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about uninitialized variables that are initialized with themselves. Note this option can only be used with the -Wuninitialized option. For example, GCC warns about i being uninitialized in the following snippet only when -Winit-self has been specified: int f() { int i = i; return i; } This warning is enabled by -Wall in C++.
-Wno-implicit-int (C and Objective-C only)
This option controls warnings when a declaration does not specify a type. This warning is enabled by default in C99 and later dialects of C, and also by -Wall.
-Wno-implicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
This option controls warnings when a function is used before being declared. This warning is enabled by default in C99 and later dialects of C, and also by -Wall. The warning is made into an error by -pedantic-errors.
-Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only)
Same as -Wimplicit-int and -Wimplicit-function-declaration. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit-fallthrough
-Wimplicit-fallthrough is the same as -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 and -Wno-implicit-fallthrough is the same as -Wimplicit-fallthrough=0.
-Wimplicit-fallthrough=n

Warn when a switch case falls through. For example: switch (cond) { case 1: a = 1; break; case 2: a = 2; case 3: a = 3; break; } This warning does not warn when the last statement of a case cannot fall through, e.g. when there is a return statement or a call to function declared with the noreturn attribute. -Wimplicit-fallthrough= also takes into account control flow statements, such as ifs, and only warns when appropriate. E.g. switch (cond) { case 1: if (i > 3) { bar (5); break; } else if (i < 1) { bar (0); } else return; default: … } Since there are occasions where a switch case fall through is desirable, GCC provides an attribute, _ _attribute_ _ ((fallthrough)), that is to be used along with a null statement to suppress this warning that would normally occur: switch (cond) { case 1: bar (0); _ attribute _ ((fallthrough)); default: … } C++17 provides a standard way to suppress the -Wimplicit-fallthrough warning using [[fallthrough]]; instead of the GNU attribute. In C++11 or C++14 users can use [[gnu::fallthrough]];, which is a GNU extension. Instead of these attributes, it is also possible to add a fallthrough comment to silence the warning. The whole body of the C or C++ style comment should match the given regular expressions listed below. The option argument n specifies what kind of comments are accepted:

*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=0 disables the warning altogether.>
<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=1 matches “.“ regular>

expression, any comment is used as fallthrough comment.

• *<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=2 case insensitively matches> :: .*falls?[ \t-]*thr(ough|u).* regular expression.
• *<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 case sensitively matches one of the> :: following regular expressions:
*<“-fallthrough”>
*<“@fallthrough@”>
<“lint -fallthrough[ \t]“>
(no term)
<“[ \t.!]*(ELSE,? |INTENTIONAL(LY)? )?FALL(S | |-)?THR(OUGH|U)[ \t.!]*(-[^\n\r])?“> ::
(no term)

*<“[ \t.!]*(Else,? |Intentional(ly)? )?Fall((s |

(no term)

*<“[ \t.!]*([Ee]lse,? |[Ii]ntentional(ly)? )?fall(s |

following regular expressions:

*<“-fallthrough”>
*<“@fallthrough@”>
<“lint -fallthrough[ \t]“>
<“[ \t]*FALLTHR(OUGH|U)[ \t]“>
nil
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=5 doesn’t recognize any comments as>

fallthrough comments, only attributes disable the warning.

The comment needs to be followed after optional whitespace and other comments by case or default keywords or by a user label that precedes some case or default label. switch (cond) { case 1: bar (0); * FALLTHRU * default: … } The -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 warning is enabled by -Wextra.

(no term)
-Wno-if-not-aligned (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) :: Control if warnings triggered by the warn_if_not_aligned attribute should be issued. These warnings are enabled by default.
-Wignored-qualifiers (C and C++ only)
Warn if the return type of a function has a type qualifier such as const. For ISO C such a type qualifier has no effect, since the value returned by a function is not an lvalue. For C++, the warning is only emitted for scalar types or void. ISO C prohibits qualified void return types on function definitions, so such return types always receive a warning even without this option. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wno-ignored-attributes (C and C++ only)
This option controls warnings when an attribute is ignored. This is different from the -Wattributes option in that it warns whenever the compiler decides to drop an attribute, not that the attribute is either unknown, used in a wrong place, etc. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wmain
Warn if the type of main is suspicious. main should be a function with external linkage, returning int, taking either zero arguments, two, or three arguments of appropriate types. This warning is enabled by default in C++ and is enabled by either -Wall or -Wpedantic.
Warn when the indentation of the code does not reflect the block structure. Specifically, a warning is issued for if, else, while, and for clauses with a guarded statement that does not use braces, followed by an unguarded statement with the same indentation. In the following example, the call to bar is misleadingly indented as if it were guarded by the if conditional. if (some_condition ()) foo (); bar (); * Gotcha: this is not guarded by the “if”. * In the case of mixed tabs and spaces, the warning uses the -ftabstop= option to determine if the statements line up (defaulting to 8). The warning is not issued for code involving multiline preprocessor logic such as the following example. if (flagA) foo (0); #if SOME_CONDITION_THAT_DOES_NOT_HOLD if (flagB) #endif foo (1); The warning is not issued after a #line directive, since this typically indicates autogenerated code, and no assumptions can be made about the layout of the file that the directive references. This warning is enabled by -Wall in C and C++.
-Wmissing-attributes
Warn when a declaration of a function is missing one or more attributes that a related function is declared with and whose absence may adversely affect the correctness or efficiency of generated code. For example, the warning is issued for declarations of aliases that use attributes to specify less restrictive requirements than those of their targets. This typically represents a potential optimization opportunity. By contrast, the -Wattribute-alias=2 option controls warnings issued when the alias is more restrictive than the target, which could lead to incorrect code generation. Attributes considered include alloc_align, alloc_size, cold, const, hot, leaf, malloc, nonnull, noreturn, nothrow, pure, returns_nonnull, and returns_twice. In C++, the warning is issued when an explicit specialization of a primary template declared with attribute alloc_align, alloc_size, assume_aligned, format, format_arg, malloc, or nonnull is declared without it. Attributes deprecated, error, and warning suppress the warning.. You can use the copy attribute to apply the same set of attributes to a declaration as that on another declaration without explicitly enumerating the attributes. This attribute can be applied to declarations of functions, variables, or types. -Wmissing-attributes is enabled by -Wall. For example, since the declaration of the primary function template below makes use of both attribute malloc and alloc_size the declaration of the explicit specialization of the template is diagnosed because it is missing one of the attributes. template <class T> T* _ attribute _ ((malloc, alloc_size (1))) allocate (size_t); template <> void* _ attribute _ ((malloc)) // missing alloc_size allocate<void> (size_t);
-Wmissing-braces
Warn if an aggregate or union initializer is not fully bracketed. In the following example, the initializer for a is not fully bracketed, but that for b is fully bracketed. int a[2][2] = { 0, 1, 2, 3 }; int b[2][2] = { { 0, 1 }, { 2, 3 } }; This warning is enabled by -Wall.
(no term)
-Wmissing-include-dirs (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) :: Warn if a user-supplied include directory does not exist.
-Wno-missing-profile
This option controls warnings if feedback profiles are missing when using the -fprofile-use option. This option diagnoses those cases where a new function or a new file is added between compiling with -fprofile-generate and with -fprofile-use, without regenerating the profiles. In these cases, the profile feedback data files do not contain any profile feedback information for the newly added function or file respectively. Also, in the case when profile count data (.gcda) files are removed, GCC cannot use any profile feedback information. In all these cases, warnings are issued to inform you that a profile generation step is due. Ignoring the warning can result in poorly optimized code. -Wno-missing-profile can be used to disable the warning, but this is not recommended and should be done only when non-existent profile data is justified.
-Wno-mismatched-dealloc
Warn for calls to deallocation functions with pointer arguments returned from from allocations functions for which the former isn’t a suitable deallocator. A pair of functions can be associated as matching allocators and deallocators by use of attribute malloc. Unless disabled by the -fno-builtin option the standard functions calloc, malloc, realloc, and free, as well as the corresponding forms of C++ operator new and operator delete are implicitly associated as matching allocators and deallocators. In the following example mydealloc is the deallocator for pointers returned from myalloc. void mydealloc (void*); _ attribute _ ((malloc (mydealloc, 1))) void* myalloc (size_t); void f (void) { void p = myalloc (32); / …use p… free (p); / warning: not a matching deallocator for myalloc mydealloc (p); // ok } In C++, the related option *-Wmismatched-new-delete diagnoses mismatches involving either operator new or operator delete. Option -Wmismatched-dealloc is enabled by default.
-Wmultistatement-macros
Warn about unsafe multiple statement macros that appear to be guarded by a clause such as if, else, for, switch, or while, in which only the first statement is actually guarded after the macro is expanded. For example: #define DOIT x++; y++ if (c) DOIT; will increment y unconditionally, not just when c holds. The can usually be fixed by wrapping the macro in a do-while loop: #define DOIT do { x++; y++; } while (0) if (c) DOIT; This warning is enabled by -Wall in C and C++.
-Wparentheses
Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts, such as when there is an assignment in a context where a truth value is expected, or when operators are nested whose precedence people often get confused about. Also warn if a comparison like x<=y<=z appears; this is equivalent to (x<=y ? 1 : 0) < z=, which is a different interpretation from that of ordinary mathematical notation. Also warn for dangerous uses of the GNU extension to ?: with omitted middle operand. When the condition in the ?: operator is a boolean expression, the omitted value is always 1. Often programmers expect it to be a value computed inside the conditional expression instead. For C++ this also warns for some cases of unnecessary parentheses in declarations, which can indicate an attempt at a function call instead of a declaration: { / Declares a local variable called mymutex. std::unique_lock<std::mutex> (mymutex); / User meant std::unique_lock<std::mutex> lock (mymutex); } This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wsequence-point
Warn about code that may have undefined semantics because of violations of sequence point rules in the C and C++ standards. The C and C++ standards define the order in which expressions in a C/C++ program are evaluated in terms of sequence points, which represent a partial ordering between the execution of parts of the program: those executed before the sequence point, and those executed after it. These occur after the evaluation of a full expression (one which is not part of a larger expression), after the evaluation of the first operand of a &&, ||, ? : or , (comma) operator, before a function is called (but after the evaluation of its arguments and the expression denoting the called function), and in certain other places. Other than as expressed by the sequence point rules, the order of evaluation of subexpressions of an expression is not specified. All these rules describe only a partial order rather than a total order, since, for example, if two functions are called within one expression with no sequence point between them, the order in which the functions are called is not specified. However, the standards committee have ruled that function calls do not overlap. It is not specified when between sequence points modifications to the values of objects take effect. Programs whose behavior depends on this have undefined behavior; the C and C++ standards specify that Between the previous and next sequence point an object shall have its stored value modified at most once by the evaluation of an expression. Furthermore, the prior value shall be read only to determine the value to be stored.. If a program breaks these rules, the results on any particular implementation are entirely unpredictable. Examples of code with undefined behavior are a = a++;, a[n] = b[n++] and a[i++] = i;. Some more complicated cases are not diagnosed by this option, and it may give an occasional false positive result, but in general it has been found fairly effective at detecting this sort of problem in programs. The C++17 standard will define the order of evaluation of operands in more cases: in particular it requires that the right-hand side of an assignment be evaluated before the left-hand side, so the above examples are no longer undefined. But this option will still warn about them, to help people avoid writing code that is undefined in C and earlier revisions of C++. The standard is worded confusingly, therefore there is some debate over the precise meaning of the sequence point rules in subtle cases. Links to discussions of the problem, including proposed formal definitions, may be found on the GCC readings page, at <*http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html*>. This warning is enabled by -Wall for C and C++.
Do not warn about returning a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to a variable that goes out of scope after the function returns.
-Wreturn-type
Warn whenever a function is defined with a return type that defaults to int. Also warn about any return statement with no return value in a function whose return type is not void (falling off the end of the function body is considered returning without a value). For C only, warn about a return statement with an expression in a function whose return type is void, unless the expression type is also void. As a GNU extension, the latter case is accepted without a warning unless -Wpedantic is used. Attempting to use the return value of a non-void function other than main that flows off the end by reaching the closing curly brace that terminates the function is undefined. Unlike in C, in C++, flowing off the end of a non-void function other than main results in undefined behavior even when the value of the function is not used. This warning is enabled by default in C++ and by -Wall otherwise.
-Wno-shift-count-negative
Controls warnings if a shift count is negative. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wno-shift-count-overflow
Controls warnings if a shift count is greater than or equal to the bit width of the type. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wshift-negative-value
Warn if left shifting a negative value. This warning is enabled by -Wextra in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer).
-Wno-shift-overflow
-Wshift-overflow=n

These options control warnings about left shift overflows.

-Wshift-overflow=1
This is the warning level of -Wshift-overflow and is enabled by default in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer). This warning level does not warn about left-shifting 1 into the sign bit. (However, in C, such an overflow is still rejected in contexts where an integer constant expression is required.) No warning is emitted in C++20 mode (and newer), as signed left shifts always wrap.
-Wshift-overflow=2
This warning level also warns about left-shifting 1 into the sign bit, unless C++14 mode (or newer) is active.
nil
-Wswitch
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. (The presence of a default label prevents this warning.) case labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used (even if there is a default label). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wswitch-default
Warn whenever a switch statement does not have a default case.
-Wswitch-enum
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. case labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used. The only difference between -Wswitch and this option is that this option gives a warning about an omitted enumeration code even if there is a default label.
-Wno-switch-bool
Do not warn when a switch statement has an index of boolean type and the case values are outside the range of a boolean type. It is possible to suppress this warning by casting the controlling expression to a type other than bool. For example: switch ((int) (a == 4)) { … } This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wno-switch-outside-range
This option controls warnings when a switch case has a value that is outside of its respective type range. This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wno-switch-unreachable
Do not warn when a switch statement contains statements between the controlling expression and the first case label, which will never be executed. For example: switch (cond) { i = 15; … case 5: … } -Wswitch-unreachable does not warn if the statement between the controlling expression and the first case label is just a declaration: switch (cond) { int i; … case 5: i = 5; … } This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wsync-nand (C and C++ only)
Warn when _ _sync_fetch_and_nand and _ _sync_nand_and_fetch built-in functions are used. These functions changed semantics in GCC 4.4.
-Wunused-but-set-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration). To suppress this warning use the unused attribute. This warning is also enabled by -Wunused together with -Wextra.
-Wunused-but-set-variable
Warn whenever a local variable is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration). This warning is enabled by -Wall. To suppress this warning use the unused attribute. This warning is also enabled by -Wunused, which is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-function
Warn whenever a static function is declared but not defined or a non-inline static function is unused. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-label
Warn whenever a label is declared but not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall. To suppress this warning use the unused attribute.
(no term)
-Wunused-local-typedefs (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only) :: Warn when a typedef locally defined in a function is not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is unused aside from its declaration. To suppress this warning use the unused attribute.
-Wno-unused-result
Do not warn if a caller of a function marked with attribute warn_unused_result does not use its return value. The default is -Wunused-result.
-Wunused-variable
Warn whenever a local or static variable is unused aside from its declaration. This option implies -Wunused-const-variable=1 for C, but not for C++. This warning is enabled by -Wall. To suppress this warning use the unused attribute.
-Wunused-const-variable
-Wunused-const-variable=n

Warn whenever a constant static variable is unused aside from its declaration. -Wunused-const-variable=1 is enabled by -Wunused-variable for C, but not for C++. In C this declares variable storage, but in C++ this is not an error since const variables take the place of #define=s. To suppress this warning use the =unused attribute.

-Wunused-const-variable=1
This is the warning level that is enabled by -Wunused-variable for C. It warns only about unused static const variables defined in the main compilation unit, but not about static const variables declared in any header included.
-Wunused-const-variable=2
This warning level also warns for unused constant static variables in headers (excluding system headers). This is the warning level of -Wunused-const-variable and must be explicitly requested since in C++ this isn’t an error and in C it might be harder to clean up all headers included.
nil
-Wunused-value
Warn whenever a statement computes a result that is explicitly not used. To suppress this warning cast the unused expression to void. This includes an expression-statement or the left-hand side of a comma expression that contains no side effects. For example, an expression such as x[i,j] causes a warning, while x[(void)i,j] does not. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused
All the above -Wunused options combined. In order to get a warning about an unused function parameter, you must either specify -Wextra -Wunused (note that -Wall implies -Wunused), or separately specify -Wunused-parameter.
-Wuninitialized
Warn if an object with automatic or allocated storage duration is used without having been initialized. In C++, also warn if a non-static reference or non-static const member appears in a class without constructors. In addition, passing a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to an uninitialized object to a const-qualified argument of a built-in function known to read the object is also diagnosed by this warning. (-Wmaybe-uninitialized is issued for ordinary functions.) If you want to warn about code that uses the uninitialized value of the variable in its own initializer, use the -Winit-self option. These warnings occur for individual uninitialized elements of structure, union or array variables as well as for variables that are uninitialized as a whole. They do not occur for variables or elements declared volatile. Because these warnings depend on optimization, the exact variables or elements for which there are warnings depend on the precise optimization options and version of GCC used. Note that there may be no warning about a variable that is used only to compute a value that itself is never used, because such computations may be deleted by data flow analysis before the warnings are printed.
-Wno-invalid-memory-model
This option controls warnings for invocations of _ _atomic Builtins, _ _sync Builtins, and the C11 atomic generic functions with a memory consistency argument that is either invalid for the operation or outside the range of values of the memory_order enumeration. For example, since the _ _atomic_store and _ _atomic_store_n built-ins are only defined for the relaxed, release, and sequentially consistent memory orders the following code is diagnosed: void store (int i) { _ _atomic_store_n (i, 0, memory_order_consume); } *-Winvalid-memory-model is enabled by default.
-Wmaybe-uninitialized
For an object with automatic or allocated storage duration, if there exists a path from the function entry to a use of the object that is initialized, but there exist some other paths for which the object is not initialized, the compiler emits a warning if it cannot prove the uninitialized paths are not executed at run time. In addition, passing a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to an uninitialized object to a const-qualified function argument is also diagnosed by this warning. (-Wuninitialized is issued for built-in functions known to read the object.) Annotating the function with attribute access (none) indicates that the argument isn’t used to access the object and avoids the warning. These warnings are only possible in optimizing compilation, because otherwise GCC does not keep track of the state of variables. These warnings are made optional because GCC may not be able to determine when the code is correct in spite of appearing to have an error. Here is one example of how this can happen: { int x; switch (y) { case 1: x = 1; break; case 2: x = 4; break; case 3: x = 5; } foo (x); } If the value of y is always 1, 2 or 3, then x is always initialized, but GCC doesn’t know this. To suppress the warning, you need to provide a default case with assert (0) or similar code. This option also warns when a non-volatile automatic variable might be changed by a call to longjmp. The compiler sees only the calls to setjmp. It cannot know where longjmp will be called; in fact, a signal handler could call it at any point in the code. As a result, you may get a warning even when there is in fact no problem because longjmp cannot in fact be called at the place that would cause a problem. Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare all the functions you use that never return as noreturn. This warning is enabled by -Wall or -Wextra.
-Wunknown-pragmas
Warn when a #pragma directive is encountered that is not understood by GCC. If this command-line option is used, warnings are even issued for unknown pragmas in system header files. This is not the case if the warnings are only enabled by the -Wall command-line option.
-Wno-pragmas
Do not warn about misuses of pragmas, such as incorrect parameters, invalid syntax, or conflicts between pragmas. See also -Wunknown-pragmas.
-Wno-prio-ctor-dtor
Do not warn if a priority from 0 to 100 is used for constructor or destructor. The use of constructor and destructor attributes allow you to assign a priority to the constructor/destructor to control its order of execution before main is called or after it returns. The priority values must be greater than 100 as the compiler reserves priority values between 0–100 for the implementation.
-Wstrict-aliasing
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. The warning does not catch all cases, but does attempt to catch the more common pitfalls. It is included in -Wall. It is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3
-Wstrict-aliasing=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. Higher levels correspond to higher accuracy (fewer false positives). Higher levels also correspond to more effort, similar to the way -O works. -Wstrict-aliasing is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3. Level 1: Most aggressive, quick, least accurate. Possibly useful when higher levels do not warn but -fstrict-aliasing still breaks the code, as it has very few false negatives. However, it has many false positives. Warns for all pointer conversions between possibly incompatible types, even if never dereferenced. Runs in the front end only. Level 2: Aggressive, quick, not too precise. May still have many false positives (not as many as level 1 though), and few false negatives (but possibly more than level 1). Unlike level 1, it only warns when an address is taken. Warns about incomplete types. Runs in the front end only. Level 3 (default for -Wstrict-aliasing): Should have very few false positives and few false negatives. Slightly slower than levels 1 or 2 when optimization is enabled. Takes care of the common pun+dereference pattern in the front end: *(int*)&some_float. If optimization is enabled, it also runs in the back end, where it deals with multiple statement cases using flow-sensitive points-to information. Only warns when the converted pointer is dereferenced. Does not warn about incomplete types.
-Wstrict-overflow
-Wstrict-overflow=n

This option is only active when signed overflow is undefined. It warns about cases where the compiler optimizes based on the assumption that signed overflow does not occur. Note that it does not warn about all cases where the code might overflow: it only warns about cases where the compiler implements some optimization. Thus this warning depends on the optimization level. An optimization that assumes that signed overflow does not occur is perfectly safe if the values of the variables involved are such that overflow never does, in fact, occur. Therefore this warning can easily give a false positive: a warning about code that is not actually a problem. To help focus on important issues, several warning levels are defined. No warnings are issued for the use of undefined signed overflow when estimating how many iterations a loop requires, in particular when determining whether a loop will be executed at all.

-Wstrict-overflow=1
Warn about cases that are both questionable and easy to avoid. For example the compiler simplifies x + 1 > x to 1. This level of -Wstrict-overflow is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Wstrict-overflow=2
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified to a constant. For example: abs (x) > 0=. This can only be simplified when signed integer overflow is undefined, because abs (INT_MIN) overflows to INT_MIN, which is less than zero. -Wstrict-overflow (with no level) is the same as -Wstrict-overflow=2.
-Wstrict-overflow=3
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified. For example: x + 1 > 1 is simplified to x > 0.
-Wstrict-overflow=4
Also warn about other simplifications not covered by the above cases. For example: (x * 10) / 5 is simplified to x * 2.
-Wstrict-overflow=5
Also warn about cases where the compiler reduces the magnitude of a constant involved in a comparison. For example: x + 2 > y is simplified to x + 1 > y=. This is reported only at the highest warning level because this simplification applies to many comparisons, so this warning level gives a very large number of false positives.
nil
-Wstring-compare
Warn for calls to strcmp and strncmp whose result is determined to be either zero or non-zero in tests for such equality owing to the length of one argument being greater than the size of the array the other argument is stored in (or the bound in the case of strncmp). Such calls could be mistakes. For example, the call to strcmp below is diagnosed because its result is necessarily non-zero irrespective of the contents of the array a. extern char a[4]; void f (char d) { strcpy (d, “string”); … if (0 == strcmp (a, d)) // cannot be true puts (“a and d are the same”); } *-Wstring-compare is enabled by -Wextra.
-Wno-stringop-overflow
-Wstringop-overflow
-Wstringop-overflow=type

Warn for calls to string manipulation functions such as memcpy and strcpy that are determined to overflow the destination buffer. The optional argument is one greater than the type of Object Size Checking to perform to determine the size of the destination. The argument is meaningful only for functions that operate on character arrays but not for raw memory functions like memcpy which always make use of Object Size type-0. The option also warns for calls that specify a size in excess of the largest possible object or at most SIZE_MAX / 2 bytes. The option produces the best results with optimization enabled but can detect a small subset of simple buffer overflows even without optimization in calls to the GCC built-in functions like _ _builtin_memcpy that correspond to the standard functions. In any case, the option warns about just a subset of buffer overflows detected by the corresponding overflow checking built-ins. For example, the option issues a warning for the strcpy call below because it copies at least 5 characters (the string "blue" including the terminating NUL) into the buffer of size 4. enum Color { blue, purple, yellow }; const char* f (enum Color clr) { static char buf [4]; const char str; switch (clr) { case blue: str = “blue”; break; case purple: str = “purple”; break; case yellow: str = “yellow”; break; } return strcpy (buf, str); // warning here } Option *-Wstringop-overflow=2 is enabled by default.

-Wstringop-overflow
-Wstringop-overflow=1

The -Wstringop-overflow=1 option uses type-zero Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option does not warn for writes past the end of subobjects of larger objects accessed by pointers unless the size of the largest surrounding object is known. When the destination may be one of several objects it is assumed to be the largest one of them. On Linux systems, when optimization is enabled at this setting the option warns for the same code as when the _FORTIFY_SOURCE macro is defined to a non-zero value.

-Wstringop-overflow=2
The -Wstringop-overflow=2 option uses type-one Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option warns about overflows when writing to members of the largest complete objects whose exact size is known. However, it does not warn for excessive writes to the same members of unknown objects referenced by pointers since they may point to arrays containing unknown numbers of elements. This is the default setting of the option.
-Wstringop-overflow=3
The -Wstringop-overflow=3 option uses type-two Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option warns about overflowing the smallest object or data member. This is the most restrictive setting of the option that may result in warnings for safe code.
-Wstringop-overflow=4
The -Wstringop-overflow=4 option uses type-three Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option warns about overflowing any data members, and when the destination is one of several objects it uses the size of the largest of them to decide whether to issue a warning. Similarly to -Wstringop-overflow=3 this setting of the option may result in warnings for benign code.
nil
Warn for calls to string manipulation functions such as memchr, or strcpy that are determined to read past the end of the source sequence. Option -Wstringop-overread is enabled by default.
-Wno-stringop-truncation
Do not warn for calls to bounded string manipulation functions such as strncat, strncpy, and stpncpy that may either truncate the copied string or leave the destination unchanged. In the following example, the call to strncat specifies a bound that is less than the length of the source string. As a result, the copy of the source will be truncated and so the call is diagnosed. To avoid the warning use bufsize - strlen (buf) - 1) as the bound. void append (char *buf, size_t bufsize) { strncat (buf, “.txt”, 3); } As another example, the following call to strncpy results in copying to d just the characters preceding the terminating NUL, without appending the NUL to the end. Assuming the result of strncpy is necessarily a NUL-terminated string is a common mistake, and so the call is diagnosed. To avoid the warning when the result is not expected to be NUL-terminated, call memcpy instead. void copy (char *d, const char *s) { strncpy (d, s, strlen (s)); } In the following example, the call to strncpy specifies the size of the destination buffer as the bound. If the length of the source string is equal to or greater than this size the result of the copy will not be NUL-terminated. Therefore, the call is also diagnosed. To avoid the warning, specify sizeof buf - 1 as the bound and set the last element of the buffer to NUL. void copy (const char *s) { char buf[80]; strncpy (buf, s, sizeof buf); … } In situations where a character array is intended to store a sequence of bytes with no terminating NUL such an array may be annotated with attribute nonstring to avoid this warning. Such arrays, however, are not suitable arguments to functions that expect NUL-terminated strings. To help detect accidental misuses of such arrays GCC issues warnings unless it can prove that the use is safe.
-Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn|format|cold|malloc]

Warn for cases where adding an attribute may be beneficial. The attributes currently supported are listed below.

-Wsuggest-attribute=pure
-Wsuggest-attribute=const
-Wsuggest-attribute=noreturn
-Wmissing-noreturn
-Wsuggest-attribute=malloc

Warn about functions that might be candidates for attributes pure, const or noreturn or malloc. The compiler only warns for functions visible in other compilation units or (in the case of pure and const) if it cannot prove that the function returns normally. A function returns normally if it doesn’t contain an infinite loop or return abnormally by throwing, calling abort or trapping. This analysis requires option -fipa-pure-const, which is enabled by default at -O and higher. Higher optimization levels improve the accuracy of the analysis.

-Wsuggest-attribute=format
-Wmissing-format-attribute

Warn about function pointers that might be candidates for format attributes. Note these are only possible candidates, not absolute ones. GCC guesses that function pointers with format attributes that are used in assignment, initialization, parameter passing or return statements should have a corresponding format attribute in the resulting type. I.e. the left-hand side of the assignment or initialization, the type of the parameter variable, or the return type of the containing function respectively should also have a format attribute to avoid the warning. GCC also warns about function definitions that might be candidates for format attributes. Again, these are only possible candidates. GCC guesses that format attributes might be appropriate for any function that calls a function like vprintf or vscanf, but this might not always be the case, and some functions for which format attributes are appropriate may not be detected.

-Wsuggest-attribute=cold
Warn about functions that might be candidates for cold attribute. This is based on static detection and generally only warns about functions which always leads to a call to another cold function such as wrappers of C++ throw or fatal error reporting functions leading to abort.
-Walloc-zero
Warn about calls to allocation functions decorated with attribute alloc_size that specify zero bytes, including those to the built-in forms of the functions aligned_alloc, alloca, calloc, malloc, and realloc. Because the behavior of these functions when called with a zero size differs among implementations (and in the case of realloc has been deprecated) relying on it may result in subtle portability bugs and should be avoided.
-Walloc-size-larger-than=byte-size
Warn about calls to functions decorated with attribute alloc_size that attempt to allocate objects larger than the specified number of bytes, or where the result of the size computation in an integer type with infinite precision would exceed the value of PTRDIFF_MAX on the target. -Walloc-size-larger-than=PTRDIFF_MAX is enabled by default. Warnings controlled by the option can be disabled either by specifying byte-size of SIZE_MAX or more or by -Wno-alloc-size-larger-than.
-Wno-alloc-size-larger-than
Disable -Walloc-size-larger-than= warnings. The option is equivalent to -Walloc-size-larger-than=SIZE_MAX or larger.
-Walloca
This option warns on all uses of alloca in the source.
-Walloca-larger-than=byte-size
This option warns on calls to alloca with an integer argument whose value is either zero, or that is not bounded by a controlling predicate that limits its value to at most byte-size. It also warns for calls to alloca where the bound value is unknown. Arguments of non-integer types are considered unbounded even if they appear to be constrained to the expected range. For example, a bounded case of alloca could be: void func (size_t n) { void p; if (n <= 1000) p = alloca (n); else p = malloc (n); f (p); } In the above example, passing -Walloca-larger-than=1000 would not issue a warning because the call to alloca is known to be at most 1000 bytes. However, if -Walloca-larger-than=500 were passed, the compiler would emit a warning. Unbounded uses, on the other hand, are uses of alloca with no controlling predicate constraining its integer argument. For example: void func () { void *p = alloca (n); f (p); } If -Walloca-larger-than=500 were passed, the above would trigger a warning, but this time because of the lack of bounds checking. Note, that even seemingly correct code involving signed integers could cause a warning: void func (signed int n) { if (n < 500) { p = alloca (n); f (p); } } In the above example, n could be negative, causing a larger than expected argument to be implicitly cast into the alloca call. This option also warns when alloca is used in a loop. *-Walloca-larger-than=PTRDIFF_MAX is enabled by default but is usually only effective when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above). See also -Wvla-larger-than=byte-size.
-Wno-alloca-larger-than
Disable -Walloca-larger-than= warnings. The option is equivalent to -Walloca-larger-than=SIZE_MAX or larger.
-Warith-conversion
Do warn about implicit conversions from arithmetic operations even when conversion of the operands to the same type cannot change their values. This affects warnings from -Wconversion, -Wfloat-conversion, and -Wsign-conversion. void f (char c, int i) { c = c + i; / warns with B<-Wconversion> c = c + 1; / only warns with B<-Warith-conversion> }
-Warray-bounds
-Warray-bounds=n

This option is only active when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above). It warns about subscripts to arrays that are always out of bounds. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Warray-bounds=1
This is the warning level of -Warray-bounds and is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Warray-bounds=2
This warning level also warns about out of bounds access for arrays at the end of a struct and for arrays accessed through pointers. This warning level may give a larger number of false positives and is deactivated by default.
nil
-Warray-parameter
-Warray-parameter=n

Warn about redeclarations of functions involving arguments of array or pointer types of inconsistent kinds or forms, and enable the detection of out-of-bounds accesses to such parameters by warnings such as -Warray-bounds. If the first function declaration uses the array form the bound specified in the array is assumed to be the minimum number of elements expected to be provided in calls to the function and the maximum number of elements accessed by it. Failing to provide arguments of sufficient size or accessing more than the maximum number of elements may be diagnosed by warnings such as -Warray-bounds. At level 1 the warning diagnoses inconsistencies involving array parameters declared using the T[static N] form. For example, the warning triggers for the following redeclarations because the first one allows an array of any size to be passed to f while the second one with the keyword static specifies that the array argument must have at least four elements. void f (int[static 4]); void f (int[]); / warning (inconsistent array form) void g (void) { int *p = (int *)malloc (4); f (p); / warning (array too small) … } At level 2 the warning also triggers for redeclarations involving any other inconsistency in array or pointer argument forms denoting array sizes. Pointers and arrays of unspecified bound are considered equivalent and do not trigger a warning. void g (int*); void g (int[]); / no warning void g (int[8]); / warning (inconsistent array bound) -Warray-parameter=2 is included in -Wall. The -Wvla-parameter option triggers warnings for similar inconsistencies involving Variable Length Array arguments.

-Wattribute-alias=n
-Wno-attribute-alias

Warn about declarations using the alias and similar attributes whose target is incompatible with the type of the alias.

-Wattribute-alias=1
The default warning level of the -Wattribute-alias option diagnoses incompatibilities between the type of the alias declaration and that of its target. Such incompatibilities are typically indicative of bugs.
-Wattribute-alias=2
At this level -Wattribute-alias also diagnoses cases where the attributes of the alias declaration are more restrictive than the attributes applied to its target. These mismatches can potentially result in incorrect code generation. In other cases they may be benign and could be resolved simply by adding the missing attribute to the target. For comparison, see the -Wmissing-attributes option, which controls diagnostics when the alias declaration is less restrictive than the target, rather than more restrictive. Attributes considered include alloc_align, alloc_size, cold, const, hot, leaf, malloc, nonnull, noreturn, nothrow, pure, returns_nonnull, and returns_twice.

-Wattribute-alias is equivalent to -Wattribute-alias=1. This is the default. You can disable these warnings with either -Wno-attribute-alias or -Wattribute-alias=0.

-Wbool-compare
Warn about boolean expression compared with an integer value different from true=/=false. For instance, the following comparison is always false: int n = 5; … if ((n > 1) == 2) { … } This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wbool-operation
Warn about suspicious operations on expressions of a boolean type. For instance, bitwise negation of a boolean is very likely a bug in the program. For C, this warning also warns about incrementing or decrementing a boolean, which rarely makes sense. (In C++, decrementing a boolean is always invalid. Incrementing a boolean is invalid in C++17, and deprecated otherwise.) This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wduplicated-branches
Warn when an if-else has identical branches. This warning detects cases like if (p != NULL) return 0; else return 0; It doesn’t warn when both branches contain just a null statement. This warning also warn for conditional operators: int i = x ? *p : *p;
-Wduplicated-cond
Warn about duplicated conditions in an if-else-if chain. For instance, warn for the following code: if (p->q != NULL) { … } else if (p->q != NULL) { … }
Warn when the _ _builtin_frame_address or _ _builtin_return_address is called with an argument greater than 0. Such calls may return indeterminate values or crash the program. The warning is included in -Wall.
Do not warn if type qualifiers on pointers are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a const char * variable is passed to a function that takes a char * parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.
Do not warn if type qualifiers on arrays which are pointer targets are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a const int (*)[] variable is passed to a function that takes a int (*)[] parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.
-Wno-incompatible-pointer-types (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn when there is a conversion between pointers that have incompatible types. This warning is for cases not covered by -Wno-pointer-sign, which warns for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness.
-Wno-int-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn about incompatible integer to pointer and pointer to integer conversions. This warning is about implicit conversions; for explicit conversions the warnings -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast and -Wno-pointer-to-int-cast may be used.
-Wzero-length-bounds
Warn about accesses to elements of zero-length array members that might overlap other members of the same object. Declaring interior zero-length arrays is discouraged because accesses to them are undefined. See For example, the first two stores in function bad are diagnosed because the array elements overlap the subsequent members b and c. The third store is diagnosed by -Warray-bounds because it is beyond the bounds of the enclosing object. struct X { int a[0]; int b, c; }; struct X x; void bad (void) { x.a[0] = 0; / -Wzero-length-bounds x.a[1] = 1; / -Wzero-length-bounds x.a[2] = 2; // -Warray-bounds } Option -Wzero-length-bounds is enabled by -Warray-bounds.
-Wno-div-by-zero
Do not warn about compile-time integer division by zero. Floating-point division by zero is not warned about, as it can be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs.
Print warning messages for constructs found in system header files. Warnings from system headers are normally suppressed, on the assumption that they usually do not indicate real problems and would only make the compiler output harder to read. Using this command-line option tells GCC to emit warnings from system headers as if they occurred in user code. However, note that using -Wall in conjunction with this option does not warn about unknown pragmas in system headers—for that, -Wunknown-pragmas must also be used.
-Wtautological-compare
Warn if a self-comparison always evaluates to true or false. This warning detects various mistakes such as: int i = 1; … if (i > i) { … } This warning also warns about bitwise comparisons that always evaluate to true or false, for instance: if ((a & 16) == 10) { … } will always be false. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wtrampolines
Warn about trampolines generated for pointers to nested functions. A trampoline is a small piece of data or code that is created at run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. For some targets, it is made up of data only and thus requires no special treatment. But, for most targets, it is made up of code and thus requires the stack to be made executable in order for the program to work properly.
-Wfloat-equal
Warn if floating-point values are used in equality comparisons. The idea behind this is that sometimes it is convenient (for the programmer) to consider floating-point values as approximations to infinitely precise real numbers. If you are doing this, then you need to compute (by analyzing the code, or in some other way) the maximum or likely maximum error that the computation introduces, and allow for it when performing comparisons (and when producing output, but that’s a different problem). In particular, instead of testing for equality, you should check to see whether the two values have ranges that overlap; and this is done with the relational operators, so equality comparisons are probably mistaken.
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have no traditional C equivalent, and/or problematic constructs that should be avoided.
• Macro parameters that appear within string literals in the macro body. In traditional C macro replacement takes place within string literals, but in ISO C it does not.
• In traditional C, some preprocessor directives did not exist. Traditional preprocessors only considered a line to be a directive if the # appeared in column 1 on the line. Therefore -Wtraditional warns about directives that traditional C understands but ignores because the # does not appear as the first character on the line. It also suggests you hide directives like #pragma not understood by traditional C by indenting them. Some traditional implementations do not recognize #elif, so this option suggests avoiding it altogether.
• A function-like macro that appears without arguments.
• The unary plus operator.
• The U integer constant suffix, or the F or L floating-point constant suffixes. (Traditional C does support the L suffix on integer constants.) Note, these suffixes appear in macros defined in the system headers of most modern systems, e.g. the _MIN*/*_MAX macros in <limits.h>. Use of these macros in user code might normally lead to spurious warnings, however GCC’s integrated preprocessor has enough context to avoid warning in these cases.
• A function declared external in one block and then used after the end of the block.
• A switch statement has an operand of type long.
• A non-static function declaration follows a static one. This construct is not accepted by some traditional C compilers.
• The ISO type of an integer constant has a different width or signedness from its traditional type. This warning is only issued if the base of the constant is ten. I.e. hexadecimal or octal values, which typically represent bit patterns, are not warned about.
• Usage of ISO string concatenation is detected.
• Initialization of automatic aggregates.
• Identifier conflicts with labels. Traditional C lacks a separate namespace for labels.
• Initialization of unions. If the initializer is zero, the warning is omitted. This is done under the assumption that the zero initializer in user code appears conditioned on e.g. _ _STDC_ _ to avoid missing initializer warnings and relies on default initialization to zero in the traditional C case.
• Conversions by prototypes between fixed/floating-point values and vice versa. The absence of these prototypes when compiling with traditional C causes serious problems. This is a subset of the possible conversion warnings; for the full set use -Wtraditional-conversion.
• Use of ISO C style function definitions. This warning intentionally is not issued for prototype declarations or variadic functions because these ISO C features appear in your code when using libiberty’s traditional C compatibility macros, PARAMS and VPARAMS. This warning is also bypassed for nested functions because that feature is already a GCC extension and thus not relevant to traditional C compatibility.
Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a prototype. This includes conversions of fixed point to floating and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness of a fixed-point argument except when the same as the default promotion.
-Wdeclaration-after-statement (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration is found after a statement in a block. This construct, known from C++, was introduced with ISO C99 and is by default allowed in GCC. It is not supported by ISO C90.
Warn whenever a local variable or type declaration shadows another variable, parameter, type, class member (in C++), or instance variable (in Objective-C) or whenever a built-in function is shadowed. Note that in C++, the compiler warns if a local variable shadows an explicit typedef, but not if it shadows a struct/class/enum. If this warning is enabled, it includes also all instances of local shadowing. This means that -Wno-shadow=local and -Wno-shadow=compatible-local are ignored when -Wshadow is used. Same as -Wshadow=global.
Do not warn whenever a local variable shadows an instance variable in an Objective-C method.
Warn when a local variable shadows another local variable or parameter.
Warn when a local variable shadows another local variable or parameter whose type is compatible with that of the shadowing variable. In C++, type compatibility here means the type of the shadowing variable can be converted to that of the shadowed variable. The creation of this flag (in addition to -Wshadow=local) is based on the idea that when a local variable shadows another one of incompatible type, it is most likely intentional, not a bug or typo, as shown in the following example: for (SomeIterator i = SomeObj.begin(); i != SomeObj.end(); ++i) { for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) { … } … } Since the two variable i in the example above have incompatible types, enabling only -Wshadow=compatible-local does not emit a warning. Because their types are incompatible, if a programmer accidentally uses one in place of the other, type checking is expected to catch that and emit an error or warning. Use of this flag instead of -Wshadow=local can possibly reduce the number of warnings triggered by intentional shadowing. Note that this also means that shadowing const char *i by char *i does not emit a warning. This warning is also enabled by -Wshadow=local.
-Wlarger-than=byte-size
Warn whenever an object is defined whose size exceeds byte-size. -Wlarger-than=PTRDIFF_MAX is enabled by default. Warnings controlled by the option can be disabled either by specifying byte-size of SIZE_MAX or more or by -Wno-larger-than. Also warn for calls to bounded functions such as memchr or strnlen that specify a bound greater than the largest possible object, which is PTRDIFF_MAX bytes by default. These warnings can only be disabled by -Wno-larger-than.
-Wno-larger-than
Disable -Wlarger-than= warnings. The option is equivalent to -Wlarger-than=SIZE_MAX or larger.
-Wframe-larger-than=byte-size
Warn if the size of a function frame exceeds byte-size. The computation done to determine the stack frame size is approximate and not conservative. The actual requirements may be somewhat greater than byte-size even if you do not get a warning. In addition, any space allocated via alloca, variable-length arrays, or related constructs is not included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning. -Wframe-larger-than=PTRDIFF_MAX is enabled by default. Warnings controlled by the option can be disabled either by specifying byte-size of SIZE_MAX or more or by -Wno-frame-larger-than.
-Wno-frame-larger-than
Disable -Wframe-larger-than= warnings. The option is equivalent to -Wframe-larger-than=SIZE_MAX or larger.
-Wno-free-nonheap-object
Warn when attempting to deallocate an object that was either not allocated on the heap, or by using a pointer that was not returned from a prior call to the corresponding allocation function. For example, because the call to stpcpy returns a pointer to the terminating nul character and not to the begginning of the object, the call to free below is diagnosed. void f (char p) { p = stpcpy (p, “abc”); / … free (p); / warning } *-Wfree-nonheap-object is enabled by default.
-Wstack-usage=byte-size

Warn if the stack usage of a function might exceed byte-size. The computation done to determine the stack usage is conservative. Any space allocated via alloca, variable-length arrays, or related constructs is included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning. The message is in keeping with the output of -fstack-usage.

• If the stack usage is fully static but exceeds the specified amount, it’s: warning: stack usage is 1120 bytes
• If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic but bounded, it’s: warning: stack usage might be 1648 bytes
• If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic and not bounded, it’s: warning: stack usage might be unbounded

-Wstack-usage=PTRDIFF_MAX is enabled by default. Warnings controlled by the option can be disabled either by specifying byte-size of SIZE_MAX or more or by -Wno-stack-usage.

-Wno-stack-usage
Disable -Wstack-usage= warnings. The option is equivalent to -Wstack-usage=SIZE_MAX or larger.
-Wunsafe-loop-optimizations
Warn if the loop cannot be optimized because the compiler cannot assume anything on the bounds of the loop indices. With -funsafe-loop-optimizations warn if the compiler makes such assumptions.
-Wno-pedantic-ms-format (MinGW targets only)
When used in combination with -Wformat and -pedantic without GNU extensions, this option disables the warnings about non-ISO printf / scanf format width specifiers I32, I64, and I used on Windows targets, which depend on the MS runtime.
-Wpointer-arith
Warn about anything that depends on the size of a function type or of void. GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for convenience in calculations with void * pointers and pointers to functions. In C++, warn also when an arithmetic operation involves NULL. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic.
-Wno-pointer-compare
Do not warn if a pointer is compared with a zero character constant. This usually means that the pointer was meant to be dereferenced. For example: const char *p = foo (); if (p == \0) return 42; Note that the code above is invalid in C++11. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wtsan
Warn about unsupported features in ThreadSanitizer. ThreadSanitizer does not support std::atomic_thread_fence and can report false positives. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wtype-limits
Warn if a comparison is always true or always false due to the limited range of the data type, but do not warn for constant expressions. For example, warn if an unsigned variable is compared against zero with < or >=. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wabsolute-value (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for calls to standard functions that compute the absolute value of an argument when a more appropriate standard function is available. For example, calling abs(3.14) triggers the warning because the appropriate function to call to compute the absolute value of a double argument is fabs. The option also triggers warnings when the argument in a call to such a function has an unsigned type. This warning can be suppressed with an explicit type cast and it is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wcomment

Warn whenever a comment-start sequence /* appears in a /* comment, or whenever a backslash-newline appears in a // comment. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wtrigraphs
Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the meaning of the program. Trigraphs within comments are not warned about, except those that would form escaped newlines. This option is implied by -Wall. If -Wall is not given, this option is still enabled unless trigraphs are enabled. To get trigraph conversion without warnings, but get the other -Wall warnings, use -trigraphs -Wall -Wno-trigraphs.
-Wundef
Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an #if directive. Such identifiers are replaced with zero.
-Wexpansion-to-defined
Warn whenever defined is encountered in the expansion of a macro (including the case where the macro is expanded by an #if directive). Such usage is not portable. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic and -Wextra.
-Wunused-macros
Warn about macros defined in the main file that are unused. A macro is used if it is expanded or tested for existence at least once. The preprocessor also warns if the macro has not been used at the time it is redefined or undefined. Built-in macros, macros defined on the command line, and macros defined in include files are not warned about. Note: If a macro is actually used, but only used in skipped conditional blocks, then the preprocessor reports it as unused. To avoid the warning in such a case, you might improve the scope of the macro’s definition by, for example, moving it into the first skipped block. Alternatively, you could provide a dummy use with something like: #if defined the_macro_causing_the_warning #endif
-Wno-endif-labels
Do not warn whenever an #else or an #endif are followed by text. This sometimes happens in older programs with code of the form #if FOO … #else FOO … #endif FOO The second and third FOO should be in comments. This warning is on by default.
Warn when a function call is cast to a non-matching type. For example, warn if a call to a function returning an integer type is cast to a pointer type.
-Wc90-c99-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C90, but present in ISO C99. For instance, warn about use of variable length arrays, long long type, bool type, compound literals, designated initializers, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows _ _extension_ _.
-Wc99-c11-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C99, but present in ISO C11. For instance, warn about use of anonymous structures and unions, _Atomic type qualifier, _Thread_local storage-class specifier, _Alignas specifier, Alignof operator, _Generic keyword, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows _ _extension_ _.
-Wc11-c2x-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C11, but present in ISO C2X. For instance, warn about omitting the string in _Static_assert, use of [[]] syntax for attributes, use of decimal floating-point types, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows _ _extension_ _.
-Wc++-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about ISO C constructs that are outside of the common subset of ISO C and ISO C++, e.g. request for implicit conversion from void * to a pointer to non-void type.
-Wc++11-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 1998 and ISO C++ 2011, e.g., identifiers in ISO C++ 1998 that are keywords in ISO C++ 2011. This warning turns on -Wnarrowing and is enabled by -Wall.
-Wc++14-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 2011 and ISO C++ 2014. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wc++17-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 2014 and ISO C++ 2017. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wc++20-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 2017 and ISO C++ 2020. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wcast-qual
Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier from the target type. For example, warn if a const char * is cast to an ordinary char *. Also warn when making a cast that introduces a type qualifier in an unsafe way. For example, casting char ** to const char ** is unsafe, as in this example: * p is char ** value. * const char *q = (const char *) p; * Assignment of readonly string to const char * is OK. * q = “string”; / Now char** pointer points to read-only memory. */ **p = b;
-Wcast-align
Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the target is increased. For example, warn if a char * is cast to an int * on machines where integers can only be accessed at two- or four-byte boundaries.
-Wcast-align=strict
Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the target is increased. For example, warn if a char * is cast to an int * regardless of the target machine.
-Wcast-function-type
Warn when a function pointer is cast to an incompatible function pointer. In a cast involving function types with a variable argument list only the types of initial arguments that are provided are considered. Any parameter of pointer-type matches any other pointer-type. Any benign differences in integral types are ignored, like int vs. long on ILP32 targets. Likewise type qualifiers are ignored. The function type void (*) (void) is special and matches everything, which can be used to suppress this warning. In a cast involving pointer to member types this warning warns whenever the type cast is changing the pointer to member type. This warning is enabled by -Wextra.
-Wwrite-strings
When compiling C, give string constants the type const char[/=length=/=]= so that copying the address of one into a non-const char * pointer produces a warning. These warnings help you find at compile time code that can try to write into a string constant, but only if you have been very careful about using const in declarations and prototypes. Otherwise, it is just a nuisance. This is why we did not make -Wall request these warnings. When compiling C++, warn about the deprecated conversion from string literals to char *. This warning is enabled by default for C++ programs.
-Wclobbered
Warn for variables that might be changed by longjmp or vfork. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wconversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may alter a value. This includes conversions between real and integer, like abs (x) when x is double; conversions between signed and unsigned, like unsigned ui = -1; and conversions to smaller types, like sqrtf (M_PI). Do not warn for explicit casts like abs ((int) x) and ui = (unsigned) -1, or if the value is not changed by the conversion like in abs (2.0). Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers can be disabled by using -Wno-sign-conversion. For C++, also warn for confusing overload resolution for user-defined conversions; and conversions that never use a type conversion operator: conversions to void, the same type, a base class or a reference to them. Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers are disabled by default in C++ unless -Wsign-conversion is explicitly enabled. Warnings about conversion from arithmetic on a small type back to that type are only given with -Warith-conversion.
-Wdangling-else
Warn about constructions where there may be confusion to which if statement an else branch belongs. Here is an example of such a case: { if (a) if (b) foo (); else bar (); } In C/C++, every else branch belongs to the innermost possible if statement, which in this example is if (b). This is often not what the programmer expected, as illustrated in the above example by indentation the programmer chose. When there is the potential for this confusion, GCC issues a warning when this flag is specified. To eliminate the warning, add explicit braces around the innermost if statement so there is no way the else can belong to the enclosing if. The resulting code looks like this: { if (a) { if (b) foo (); else bar (); } } This warning is enabled by -Wparentheses.
-Wdate-time
Warn when macros _ _TIME_ _, _ _DATE_ _ or _ _TIMESTAMP_ _ are encountered as they might prevent bit-wise-identical reproducible compilations.
-Wempty-body
Warn if an empty body occurs in an if, else or do while statement. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wno-endif-labels
Do not warn about stray tokens after #else and #endif.
-Wenum-compare
Warn about a comparison between values of different enumerated types. In C++ enumerated type mismatches in conditional expressions are also diagnosed and the warning is enabled by default. In C this warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wenum-conversion
Warn when a value of enumerated type is implicitly converted to a different enumerated type. This warning is enabled by -Wextra in C.
-Wjump-misses-init (C, Objective-C only)
Warn if a goto statement or a switch statement jumps forward across the initialization of a variable, or jumps backward to a label after the variable has been initialized. This only warns about variables that are initialized when they are declared. This warning is only supported for C and Objective-C; in C++ this sort of branch is an error in any case. -Wjump-misses-init is included in -Wc++-compat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-jump-misses-init option.
-Wsign-compare
Warn when a comparison between signed and unsigned values could produce an incorrect result when the signed value is converted to unsigned. In C++, this warning is also enabled by -Wall. In C, it is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wsign-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may change the sign of an integer value, like assigning a signed integer expression to an unsigned integer variable. An explicit cast silences the warning. In C, this option is enabled also by -Wconversion.
-Wfloat-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that reduce the precision of a real value. This includes conversions from real to integer, and from higher precision real to lower precision real values. This option is also enabled by -Wconversion.
-Wno-scalar-storage-order
Do not warn on suspicious constructs involving reverse scalar storage order.
-Wsizeof-array-div
Warn about divisions of two sizeof operators when the first one is applied to an array and the divisor does not equal the size of the array element. In such a case, the computation will not yield the number of elements in the array, which is likely what the user intended. This warning warns e.g. about int fn () { int arr[10]; return sizeof (arr) / sizeof (short); } This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wsizeof-pointer-div
Warn for suspicious divisions of two sizeof expressions that divide the pointer size by the element size, which is the usual way to compute the array size but won’t work out correctly with pointers. This warning warns e.g. about sizeof (ptr) / sizeof (ptr[0]) if ptr is not an array, but a pointer. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess
Warn for suspicious length parameters to certain string and memory built-in functions if the argument uses sizeof. This warning triggers for example for memset (ptr, 0, sizeof (ptr)); if ptr is not an array, but a pointer, and suggests a possible fix, or about memcpy (&foo, ptr, sizeof (&foo));. -Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess also warns about calls to bounded string copy functions like strncat or strncpy that specify as the bound a sizeof expression of the source array. For example, in the following function the call to strncat specifies the size of the source string as the bound. That is almost certainly a mistake and so the call is diagnosed. void make_file (const char name) { char path[PATH_MAX]; strncpy (path, name, sizeof path - 1); strncat (path, “.text”, sizeof “.text”); … } The *-Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess option is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-sizeof-array-argument
Do not warn when the sizeof operator is applied to a parameter that is declared as an array in a function definition. This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wmemset-elt-size
Warn for suspicious calls to the memset built-in function, if the first argument references an array, and the third argument is a number equal to the number of elements, but not equal to the size of the array in memory. This indicates that the user has omitted a multiplication by the element size. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wmemset-transposed-args
Warn for suspicious calls to the memset built-in function where the second argument is not zero and the third argument is zero. For example, the call memset (buf, sizeof buf, 0) is diagnosed because memset (buf, 0, sizeof buf) was meant instead. The diagnostic is only emitted if the third argument is a literal zero. Otherwise, if it is an expression that is folded to zero, or a cast of zero to some type, it is far less likely that the arguments have been mistakenly transposed and no warning is emitted. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
Warn about suspicious uses of memory addresses. These include using the address of a function in a conditional expression, such as void func(void); if (func), and comparisons against the memory address of a string literal, such as if (x = “abc”)=. Such uses typically indicate a programmer error: the address of a function always evaluates to true, so their use in a conditional usually indicate that the programmer forgot the parentheses in a function call; and comparisons against string literals result in unspecified behavior and are not portable in C, so they usually indicate that the programmer intended to use strcmp. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
Do not warn when the address of packed member of struct or union is taken, which usually results in an unaligned pointer value. This is enabled by default.
-Wlogical-op
Warn about suspicious uses of logical operators in expressions. This includes using logical operators in contexts where a bit-wise operator is likely to be expected. Also warns when the operands of a logical operator are the same: extern int a; if (a < 0 && a < 0) { … }
-Wlogical-not-parentheses
Warn about logical not used on the left hand side operand of a comparison. This option does not warn if the right operand is considered to be a boolean expression. Its purpose is to detect suspicious code like the following: int a; … if (!a > 1) { … } It is possible to suppress the warning by wrapping the LHS into parentheses: if ((!a) > 1) { … } This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Waggregate-return
Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined or called. (In languages where you can return an array, this also elicits a warning.)
-Wno-aggressive-loop-optimizations
Warn if in a loop with constant number of iterations the compiler detects undefined behavior in some statement during one or more of the iterations.
-Wno-attributes
Do not warn if an unexpected _ _attribute_ _ is used, such as unrecognized attributes, function attributes applied to variables, etc. This does not stop errors for incorrect use of supported attributes.
-Wno-builtin-declaration-mismatch
Warn if a built-in function is declared with an incompatible signature or as a non-function, or when a built-in function declared with a type that does not include a prototype is called with arguments whose promoted types do not match those expected by the function. When -Wextra is specified, also warn when a built-in function that takes arguments is declared without a prototype. The -Wbuiltin-declaration-mismatch warning is enabled by default. To avoid the warning include the appropriate header to bring the prototypes of built-in functions into scope. For example, the call to memset below is diagnosed by the warning because the function expects a value of type size_t as its argument but the type of 32 is int. With -Wextra, the declaration of the function is diagnosed as well. extern void* memset (); void f (void *d) { memset (d, \0, 32); }
-Wno-builtin-macro-redefined
Do not warn if certain built-in macros are redefined. This suppresses warnings for redefinition of _ _TIMESTAMP_ _, _ _TIME_ _, _ _DATE_ _, _ _FILE_ _, and _ _BASE_FILE_ _.
-Wstrict-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the argument types. (An old-style function definition is permitted without a warning if preceded by a declaration that specifies the argument types.)
-Wold-style-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for obsolescent usages, according to the C Standard, in a declaration. For example, warn if storage-class specifiers like static are not the first things in a declaration. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wold-style-definition (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an old-style function definition is used. A warning is given even if there is a previous prototype. A definition using () is not considered an old-style definition in C2X mode, because it is equivalent to (void) in that case, but is considered an old-style definition for older standards.
-Wmissing-parameter-type (C and Objective-C only)
A function parameter is declared without a type specifier in K&R-style functions: void foo(bar) { } This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wmissing-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that do not have a matching prototype declaration in a header file. This option is not valid for C++ because all function declarations provide prototypes and a non-matching declaration declares an overload rather than conflict with an earlier declaration. Use -Wmissing-declarations to detect missing declarations in C++.
-Wmissing-declarations
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous declaration. Do so even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that are not declared in header files. In C, no warnings are issued for functions with previous non-prototype declarations; use -Wmissing-prototypes to detect missing prototypes. In C++, no warnings are issued for function templates, or for inline functions, or for functions in anonymous namespaces.
-Wmissing-field-initializers
Warn if a structure’s initializer has some fields missing. For example, the following code causes such a warning, because x.h is implicitly zero: struct s { int f, g, h; }; struct s x = { 3, 4 }; This option does not warn about designated initializers, so the following modification does not trigger a warning: struct s { int f, g, h; }; struct s x = { .f = 3, .g = 4 }; In C this option does not warn about the universal zero initializer { 0 }: struct s { int f, g, h; }; struct s x = { 0 }; Likewise, in C++ this option does not warn about the empty { } initializer, for example: struct s { int f, g, h; }; s x = { }; This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-missing-field-initializers.
-Wno-multichar
Do not warn if a multicharacter constant (’FOOF’) is used. Usually they indicate a typo in the user’s code, as they have implementation-defined values, and should not be used in portable code.
-Wnormalized=[none|id|nfc|nfkc]
In ISO C and ISO C++, two identifiers are different if they are different sequences of characters. However, sometimes when characters outside the basic ASCII character set are used, you can have two different character sequences that look the same. To avoid confusion, the ISO 10646 standard sets out some normalization rules which when applied ensure that two sequences that look the same are turned into the same sequence. GCC can warn you if you are using identifiers that have not been normalized; this option controls that warning. There are four levels of warning supported by GCC. The default is -Wnormalized=nfc, which warns about any identifier that is not in the ISO 10646 C normalized form, NFC. NFC is the recommended form for most uses. It is equivalent to -Wnormalized. Unfortunately, there are some characters allowed in identifiers by ISO C and ISO C++ that, when turned into NFC, are not allowed in identifiers. That is, there’s no way to use these symbols in portable ISO C or C++ and have all your identifiers in NFC. -Wnormalized=id suppresses the warning for these characters. It is hoped that future versions of the standards involved will correct this, which is why this option is not the default. You can switch the warning off for all characters by writing -Wnormalized=none or -Wno-normalized. You should only do this if you are using some other normalization scheme (like D), because otherwise you can easily create bugs that are literally impossible to see. Some characters in ISO 10646 have distinct meanings but look identical in some fonts or display methodologies, especially once formatting has been applied. For instance \u207F, SUPERSCRIPT LATIN SMALL LETTER N, displays just like a regular n that has been placed in a superscript. ISO 10646 defines the NFKC normalization scheme to convert all these into a standard form as well, and GCC warns if your code is not in NFKC if you use -Wnormalized=nfkc. This warning is comparable to warning about every identifier that contains the letter O because it might be confused with the digit 0, and so is not the default, but may be useful as a local coding convention if the programming environment cannot be fixed to display these characters distinctly.
-Wno-attribute-warning
Do not warn about usage of functions declared with warning attribute. By default, this warning is enabled. -Wno-attribute-warning can be used to disable the warning or -Wno-error=attribute-warning can be used to disable the error when compiled with -Werror flag.
-Wno-deprecated
Do not warn about usage of deprecated features.
-Wno-deprecated-declarations
Do not warn about uses of functions, variables, and types marked as deprecated by using the deprecated attribute.
-Wno-overflow
Do not warn about compile-time overflow in constant expressions.
-Wno-odr
Warn about One Definition Rule violations during link-time optimization. Enabled by default.
-Wopenmp-simd
Warn if the vectorizer cost model overrides the OpenMP simd directive set by user. The -fsimd-cost-model=unlimited option can be used to relax the cost model.
-Woverride-init (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an initialized field without side effects is overridden when using designated initializers. This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-override-init.
-Wno-override-init-side-effects (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if an initialized field with side effects is overridden when using designated initializers. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wpacked
Warn if a structure is given the packed attribute, but the packed attribute has no effect on the layout or size of the structure. Such structures may be mis-aligned for little benefit. For instance, in this code, the variable f.x in struct bar is misaligned even though struct bar does not itself have the packed attribute: struct foo { int x; char a, b, c, d; } _ attribute _((packed)); struct bar { char z; struct foo f; };
-Wnopacked-bitfield-compat
The 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 series of GCC ignore the packed attribute on bit-fields of type char. This was fixed in GCC 4.4 but the change can lead to differences in the structure layout. GCC informs you when the offset of such a field has changed in GCC 4.4. For example there is no longer a 4-bit padding between field a and b in this structure: struct foo { char a:4; char b:8; } _ attribute _ ((packed)); This warning is enabled by default. Use -Wno-packed-bitfield-compat to disable this warning.
(no term)
-Wpacked-not-aligned (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only) :: Warn if a structure field with explicitly specified alignment in a packed struct or union is misaligned. For example, a warning will be issued on struct S, like, warning: alignment 1 of struct S is less than 8, in this code: struct _ attribute _ ((aligned (8))) S8 { char a[8]; }; struct _ attribute _ ((packed)) S { struct S8 s8; }; This warning is enabled by -Wall.
Warn if padding is included in a structure, either to align an element of the structure or to align the whole structure. Sometimes when this happens it is possible to rearrange the fields of the structure to reduce the padding and so make the structure smaller.
-Wredundant-decls
Warn if anything is declared more than once in the same scope, even in cases where multiple declaration is valid and changes nothing.
-Wrestrict
Warn when an object referenced by a restrict-qualified parameter (or, in C++, a _ _restrict-qualified parameter) is aliased by another argument, or when copies between such objects overlap. For example, the call to the strcpy function below attempts to truncate the string by replacing its initial characters with the last four. However, because the call writes the terminating NUL into a[4], the copies overlap and the call is diagnosed. void foo (void) { char a[] = “abcd1234”; strcpy (a, a + 4); … } The -Wrestrict option detects some instances of simple overlap even without optimization but works best at -O2 and above. It is included in -Wall.
-Wnested-externs (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an extern declaration is encountered within a function.
-Winline
Warn if a function that is declared as inline cannot be inlined. Even with this option, the compiler does not warn about failures to inline functions declared in system headers. The compiler uses a variety of heuristics to determine whether or not to inline a function. For example, the compiler takes into account the size of the function being inlined and the amount of inlining that has already been done in the current function. Therefore, seemingly insignificant changes in the source program can cause the warnings produced by -Winline to appear or disappear.
-Wint-in-bool-context
Warn for suspicious use of integer values where boolean values are expected, such as conditional expressions (?:) using non-boolean integer constants in boolean context, like if (a < b ? 2 : 3)=. Or left shifting of signed integers in boolean context, like for (a = 0; 1 << a; a++);. Likewise for all kinds of multiplications regardless of the data type. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-int-to-pointer-cast
Suppress warnings from casts to pointer type of an integer of a different size. In C++, casting to a pointer type of smaller size is an error. Wint-to-pointer-cast is enabled by default.
-Wno-pointer-to-int-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings from casts from a pointer to an integer type of a different size.
-Winvalid-pch
Warn if a precompiled header is found in the search path but cannot be used.
-Wlong-long
Warn if long long type is used. This is enabled by either -Wpedantic or -Wtraditional in ISO C90 and C++98 modes. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-long-long.
Warn if variadic macros are used in ISO C90 mode, or if the GNU alternate syntax is used in ISO C99 mode. This is enabled by either -Wpedantic or -Wtraditional. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-variadic-macros.
-Wno-varargs
Do not warn upon questionable usage of the macros used to handle variable arguments like va_start. These warnings are enabled by default.
-Wvector-operation-performance
Warn if vector operation is not implemented via SIMD capabilities of the architecture. Mainly useful for the performance tuning. Vector operation can be implemented piecewise, which means that the scalar operation is performed on every vector element; in parallel, which means that the vector operation is implemented using scalars of wider type, which normally is more performance efficient; and as a single scalar, which means that vector fits into a scalar type.
-Wvla
Warn if a variable-length array is used in the code. -Wno-vla prevents the -Wpedantic warning of the variable-length array.
-Wvla-larger-than=byte-size
If this option is used, the compiler warns for declarations of variable-length arrays whose size is either unbounded, or bounded by an argument that allows the array size to exceed byte-size bytes. This is similar to how -Walloca-larger-than=*/byte-size/ works, but with variable-length arrays. Note that GCC may optimize small variable-length arrays of a known value into plain arrays, so this warning may not get triggered for such arrays. *-Wvla-larger-than=PTRDIFF_MAX is enabled by default but is typically only effective when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above). See also *-Walloca-larger-than=*/byte-size/.
-Wno-vla-larger-than
Disable -Wvla-larger-than= warnings. The option is equivalent to -Wvla-larger-than=SIZE_MAX or larger.
-Wvla-parameter
Warn about redeclarations of functions involving arguments of Variable Length Array types of inconsistent kinds or forms, and enable the detection of out-of-bounds accesses to such parameters by warnings such as -Warray-bounds. If the first function declaration uses the VLA form the bound specified in the array is assumed to be the minimum number of elements expected to be provided in calls to the function and the maximum number of elements accessed by it. Failing to provide arguments of sufficient size or accessing more than the maximum number of elements may be diagnosed. For example, the warning triggers for the following redeclarations because the first one allows an array of any size to be passed to f while the second one specifies that the array argument must have at least n elements. In addition, calling f with the assotiated VLA bound parameter in excess of the actual VLA bound triggers a warning as well. void f (int n, int[n]); void f (int, int[]); / warning: argument 2 previously declared as a VLA void g (int n) { if (n > 4) return; int a[n]; f (sizeof a, a); / warning: access to a by f may be out of bounds … } -Wvla-parameter is included in -Wall. The -Warray-parameter option triggers warnings for similar problems involving ordinary array arguments.
-Wvolatile-register-var
Warn if a register variable is declared volatile. The volatile modifier does not inhibit all optimizations that may eliminate reads and/or writes to register variables. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wdisabled-optimization
Warn if a requested optimization pass is disabled. This warning does not generally indicate that there is anything wrong with your code; it merely indicates that GCC’s optimizers are unable to handle the code effectively. Often, the problem is that your code is too big or too complex; GCC refuses to optimize programs when the optimization itself is likely to take inordinate amounts of time.
-Wpointer-sign (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness. This option is only supported for C and Objective-C. It is implied by -Wall and by -Wpedantic, which can be disabled with -Wno-pointer-sign.
-Wstack-protector
This option is only active when -fstack-protector is active. It warns about functions that are not protected against stack smashing.
-Woverlength-strings
Warn about string constants that are longer than the minimum maximum length specified in the C standard. Modern compilers generally allow string constants that are much longer than the standard’s minimum limit, but very portable programs should avoid using longer strings. The limit applies after string constant concatenation, and does not count the trailing NUL. In C90, the limit was 509 characters; in C99, it was raised to 4095. C++98 does not specify a normative minimum maximum, so we do not diagnose overlength strings in C++. This option is implied by -Wpedantic, and can be disabled with -Wno-overlength-strings.
-Wunsuffixed-float-constants (C and Objective-C only)
Issue a warning for any floating constant that does not have a suffix. When used together with -Wsystem-headers it warns about such constants in system header files. This can be useful when preparing code to use with the FLOAT_CONST_DECIMAL64 pragma from the decimal floating-point extension to C99.
-Wno-lto-type-mismatch
During the link-time optimization, do not warn about type mismatches in global declarations from different compilation units. Requires -flto to be enabled. Enabled by default.
-Wno-designated-init (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings when a positional initializer is used to initialize a structure that has been marked with the designated_init attribute.

### Options That Control Static Analysis

-fanalyzer

This option enables an static analysis of program flow which looks for interesting interprocedural paths through the code, and issues warnings for problems found on them. This analysis is much more expensive than other GCC warnings. Enabling this option effectively enables the following warnings: *-Wanalyzer-double-fclose

• -Wanalyzer-double-free -Wanalyzer-exposure-through-output-file

-Wanalyzer-file-leak -Wanalyzer-free-of-non-heap -Wanalyzer-malloc-leak -Wanalyzer-mismatching-deallocation -Wanalyzer-possible-null-argument -Wanalyzer-possible-null-dereference -Wanalyzer-null-argument -Wanalyzer-null-dereference -Wanalyzer-shift-count-negative -Wanalyzer-shift-count-overflow -Wanalyzer-stale-setjmp-buffer -Wanalyzer-tainted-array-index -Wanalyzer-unsafe-call-within-signal-handler -Wanalyzer-use-after-free -Wanalyzer-use-of-pointer-in-stale-stack-frame -Wanalyzer-write-to-const -Wanalyzer-write-to-string-literal This option is only available if GCC was configured with analyzer support enabled.

-Wanalyzer-too-complex
If -fanalyzer is enabled, the analyzer uses various heuristics to attempt to explore the control flow and data flow in the program, but these can be defeated by sufficiently complicated code. By default, the analysis silently stops if the code is too complicated for the analyzer to fully explore and it reaches an internal limit. The -Wanalyzer-too-complex option warns if this occurs.
-Wno-analyzer-double-fclose
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-double-fclose to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a FILE * can have fclose called on it more than once.
-Wno-analyzer-double-free
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-double-free to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a pointer can have a deallocator called on it more than once, either free, or a deallocator referenced by attribute malloc.
-Wno-analyzer-exposure-through-output-file
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-exposure-through-output-file to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a security-sensitive value is written to an output file (such as writing a password to a log file).
-Wno-analyzer-file-leak
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-file-leak to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a <stdio.h> FILE * stream object is leaked.
-Wno-analyzer-free-of-non-heap
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-free-of-non-heap to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which free is called on a non-heap pointer (e.g. an on-stack buffer, or a global).
-Wno-analyzer-malloc-leak
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-malloc-leak to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a pointer allocated via an allocator is leaked: either malloc, or a function marked with attribute malloc.
-Wno-analyzer-mismatching-deallocation
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-mismatching-deallocation to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which the wrong deallocation function is called on a pointer value, based on which function was used to allocate the pointer value. The diagnostic will warn about mismatches between free, scalar delete and vector delete[], and those marked as allocator/deallocator pairs using attribute malloc.
-Wno-analyzer-possible-null-argument
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-possible-null-argument to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a possibly-NULL value is passed to a function argument marked with _ _attribute_ _((nonnull)) as requiring a non-NULL value.
-Wno-analyzer-possible-null-dereference
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-possible-null-dereference to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a possibly-NULL value is dereferenced.
-Wno-analyzer-null-argument
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-null-argument to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a value known to be NULL is passed to a function argument marked with _ _attribute_ _((nonnull)) as requiring a non-NULL value.
-Wno-analyzer-null-dereference
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-null-dereference to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a value known to be NULL is dereferenced.
-Wno-analyzer-shift-count-negative
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-shift-count-negative to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a shift is attempted with a negative count. It is analogous to the -Wshift-count-negative diagnostic implemented in the C/C++ front ends, but is implemented based on analyzing interprocedural paths, rather than merely parsing the syntax tree. However, the analyzer does not prioritize detection of such paths, so false negatives are more likely relative to other warnings.
-Wno-analyzer-shift-count-overflow
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-shift-count-overflow to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a shift is attempted with a count greater than or equal to the precision of the operand’s type. It is analogous to the -Wshift-count-overflow diagnostic implemented in the C/C++ front ends, but is implemented based on analyzing interprocedural paths, rather than merely parsing the syntax tree. However, the analyzer does not prioritize detection of such paths, so false negatives are more likely relative to other warnings.
-Wno-analyzer-stale-setjmp-buffer
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-stale-setjmp-buffer to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which longjmp is called to rewind to a jmp_buf relating to a setjmp call in a function that has returned. When setjmp is called on a jmp_buf to record a rewind location, it records the stack frame. The stack frame becomes invalid when the function containing the setjmp call returns. Attempting to rewind to it via longjmp would reference a stack frame that no longer exists, and likely lead to a crash (or worse).
-Wno-analyzer-tainted-array-index
This warning requires both -fanalyzer and -fanalyzer-checker=taint to enable it; use -Wno-analyzer-tainted-array-index to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a value that could be under an attacker’s control is used as the index of an array access without being sanitized.
-Wno-analyzer-unsafe-call-within-signal-handler
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-unsafe-call-within-signal-handler to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a function known to be async-signal-unsafe (such as fprintf) is called from a signal handler.
-Wno-analyzer-use-after-free
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-use-after-free to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a pointer is used after a deallocator is called on it: either free, or a deallocator referenced by attribute malloc.
-Wno-analyzer-use-of-pointer-in-stale-stack-frame
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-use-of-pointer-in-stale-stack-frame to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which a pointer is dereferenced that points to a variable in a stale stack frame.
-Wno-analyzer-write-to-const
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-write-to-const to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which the analyzer detects an attempt to write through a pointer to a const object. However, the analyzer does not prioritize detection of such paths, so false negatives are more likely relative to other warnings.
-Wno-analyzer-write-to-string-literal
This warning requires -fanalyzer, which enables it; use -Wno-analyzer-write-to-string-literal to disable it. This diagnostic warns for paths through the code in which the analyzer detects an attempt to write through a pointer to a string literal. However, the analyzer does not prioritize detection of such paths, so false negatives are more likely relative to other warnings.

Pertinent parameters for controlling the exploration are: *–param analyzer-bb-explosion-factor=*/value/, *–param analyzer-max-enodes-per-program-point=*/value/, *–param analyzer-max-recursion-depth=*/value/, and *–param analyzer-min-snodes-for-call-summary=*/value/.

The following options control the analyzer.

-fanalyzer-call-summaries
Simplify interprocedural analysis by computing the effect of certain calls, rather than exploring all paths through the function from callsite to each possible return. If enabled, call summaries are only used for functions with more than one call site, and that are sufficiently complicated (as per *–param analyzer-min-snodes-for-call-summary=*/value/).
-fanalyzer-checker=name
Restrict the analyzer to run just the named checker, and enable it. Some checkers are disabled by default (even with -fanalyzer), such as the taint checker that implements -Wanalyzer-tainted-array-index, and this option is required to enable them.
-fno-analyzer-feasibility
This option is intended for analyzer developers. By default the analyzer verifies that there is a feasible control flow path for each diagnostic it emits: that the conditions that hold are not mutually exclusive. Diagnostics for which no feasible path can be found are rejected. This filtering can be suppressed with -fno-analyzer-feasibility, for debugging issues in this code.
-fanalyzer-fine-grained
This option is intended for analyzer developers. Internally the analyzer builds an exploded graph that combines control flow graphs with data flow information. By default, an edge in this graph can contain the effects of a run of multiple statements within a basic block. With -fanalyzer-fine-grained, each statement gets its own edge.
-fanalyzer-show-duplicate-count
This option is intended for analyzer developers: if multiple diagnostics have been detected as being duplicates of each other, it emits a note when reporting the best diagnostic, giving the number of additional diagnostics that were suppressed by the deduplication logic.
-fno-analyzer-state-merge
This option is intended for analyzer developers. By default the analyzer attempts to simplify analysis by merging sufficiently similar states at each program point as it builds its exploded graph. With -fno-analyzer-state-merge this merging can be suppressed, for debugging state-handling issues.
-fno-analyzer-state-purge
This option is intended for analyzer developers. By default the analyzer attempts to simplify analysis by purging aspects of state at a program point that appear to no longer be relevant e.g. the values of locals that aren’t accessed later in the function and which aren’t relevant to leak analysis. With -fno-analyzer-state-purge this purging of state can be suppressed, for debugging state-handling issues.
-fanalyzer-transitivity
This option enables transitivity of constraints within the analyzer.
-fanalyzer-verbose-edges
This option is intended for analyzer developers. It enables more verbose, lower-level detail in the descriptions of control flow within diagnostic paths.
-fanalyzer-verbose-state-changes
This option is intended for analyzer developers. It enables more verbose, lower-level detail in the descriptions of events relating to state machines within diagnostic paths.
-fanalyzer-verbosity=level
This option controls the complexity of the control flow paths that are emitted for analyzer diagnostics. The level can be one of:
1. At this level, interprocedural call and return events are displayed, along with the most pertinent state-change events relating to a diagnostic. For example, for a double-free diagnostic, both calls to free will be shown.
2. As per the previous level, but also show events for the entry to each function.
3. As per the previous level, but also show events relating to control flow that are significant to triggering the issue (e.g. true path taken at a conditional). This level is the default.
4. As per the previous level, but show all control flow events, not just significant ones.
5. This level is intended for analyzer developers; it adds various other events intended for debugging the analyzer.
-fdump-analyzer
Dump internal details about what the analyzer is doing to file.analyzer.txt. This option is overridden by -fdump-analyzer-stderr.
-fdump-analyzer-stderr
Dump internal details about what the analyzer is doing to stderr. This option overrides -fdump-analyzer.
-fdump-analyzer-callgraph
Dump a representation of the call graph suitable for viewing with GraphViz to file.callgraph.dot.
-fdump-analyzer-exploded-graph
Dump a representation of the exploded graph suitable for viewing with GraphViz to file.eg.dot. Nodes are color-coded based on state-machine states to emphasize state changes.
-fdump-analyzer-exploded-nodes
Emit diagnostics showing where nodes in the exploded graph are in relation to the program source.
-fdump-analyzer-exploded-nodes-2
Dump a textual representation of the exploded graph to file.eg.txt.
-fdump-analyzer-exploded-nodes-3
Dump a textual representation of the exploded graph to one dump file per node, to file.eg-id.txt. This is typically a large number of dump files.
-fdump-analyzer-feasibility
Dump internal details about the analyzer’s search for feasible paths. The details are written in a form suitable for viewing with GraphViz to filenames of the form file.*.fg.dot and file.*.tg.dot.
-fdump-analyzer-json
Dump a compressed JSON representation of analyzer internals to file.analyzer.json.gz. The precise format is subject to change.
-fdump-analyzer-state-purge
As per -fdump-analyzer-supergraph, dump a representation of the supergraph suitable for viewing with GraphViz, but annotate the graph with information on what state will be purged at each node. The graph is written to file.state-purge.dot.
-fdump-analyzer-supergraph
Dump representations of the supergraph suitable for viewing with GraphViz to file.supergraph.dot and to file.supergraph-eg.dot. These show all of the control flow graphs in the program, with interprocedural edges for calls and returns. The second dump contains annotations showing nodes in the exploded graph and diagnostics associated with them.

### Options for Debugging Your Program

To tell GCC to emit extra information for use by a debugger, in almost all cases you need only to add -g to your other options.

GCC allows you to use -g with -O. The shortcuts taken by optimized code may occasionally be surprising: some variables you declared may not exist at all; flow of control may briefly move where you did not expect it; some statements may not be executed because they compute constant results or their values are already at hand; some statements may execute in different places because they have been moved out of loops. Nevertheless it is possible to debug optimized output. This makes it reasonable to use the optimizer for programs that might have bugs.

If you are not using some other optimization option, consider using -Og with -g. With no -O option at all, some compiler passes that collect information useful for debugging do not run at all, so that -Og may result in a better debugging experience.

-g
Produce debugging information in the operating system’s native format (stabs, COFF, XCOFF, or DWARF). GDB can work with this debugging information. On most systems that use stabs format, -g enables use of extra debugging information that only GDB can use; this extra information makes debugging work better in GDB but probably makes other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program. If you want to control for certain whether to generate the extra information, use -gstabs+, -gstabs, -gxcoff+, -gxcoff, or -gvms (see below).
-ggdb
Produce debugging information for use by GDB. This means to use the most expressive format available (DWARF, stabs, or the native format if neither of those are supported), including GDB extensions if at all possible.
-gdwarf
-gdwarf-version

Produce debugging information in DWARF format (if that is supported). The value of version may be either 2, 3, 4 or 5; the default version for most targets is 5 (with the exception of VxWorks, TPF and Darwin/Mac OS X, which default to version 2, and AIX, which defaults to version 4). Note that with DWARF Version 2, some ports require and always use some non-conflicting DWARF 3 extensions in the unwind tables. Version 4 may require GDB 7.0 and -fvar-tracking-assignments for maximum benefit. Version 5 requires GDB 8.0 or higher. GCC no longer supports DWARF Version 1, which is substantially different than Version 2 and later. For historical reasons, some other DWARF-related options such as -fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm) retain a reference to DWARF Version 2 in their names, but apply to all currently-supported versions of DWARF.

-gstabs
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported), without GDB extensions. This is the format used by DBX on most BSD systems. On MIPS, Alpha and System V Release 4 systems this option produces stabs debugging output that is not understood by DBX. On System V Release 4 systems this option requires the GNU assembler.
-gstabs+
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported), using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program.
-gxcoff
Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is supported). This is the format used by the DBX debugger on IBM RS/6000 systems.
-gxcoff+
Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is supported), using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program, and may cause assemblers other than the GNU assembler (GAS) to fail with an error.
-gvms
Produce debugging information in Alpha/VMS debug format (if that is supported). This is the format used by DEBUG on Alpha/VMS systems.
-glevel
-ggdblevel
-gstabslevel
-gxcofflevel
-gvmslevel

Request debugging information and also use level to specify how much information. The default level is 2. Level 0 produces no debug information at all. Thus, -g0 negates -g. Level 1 produces minimal information, enough for making backtraces in parts of the program that you don’t plan to debug. This includes descriptions of functions and external variables, and line number tables, but no information about local variables. Level 3 includes extra information, such as all the macro definitions present in the program. Some debuggers support macro expansion when you use -g3. If you use multiple -g options, with or without level numbers, the last such option is the one that is effective. -gdwarf does not accept a concatenated debug level, to avoid confusion with *-gdwarf-*/level/. Instead use an additional *-g*/level/ option to change the debug level for DWARF.

-fno-eliminate-unused-debug-symbols
By default, no debug information is produced for symbols that are not actually used. Use this option if you want debug information for all symbols.
-femit-class-debug-always
Instead of emitting debugging information for a C++ class in only one object file, emit it in all object files using the class. This option should be used only with debuggers that are unable to handle the way GCC normally emits debugging information for classes because using this option increases the size of debugging information by as much as a factor of two.
-fno-merge-debug-strings
Direct the linker to not merge together strings in the debugging information that are identical in different object files. Merging is not supported by all assemblers or linkers. Merging decreases the size of the debug information in the output file at the cost of increasing link processing time. Merging is enabled by default.
-fdebug-prefix-map=old=new
When compiling files residing in directory old, record debugging information describing them as if the files resided in directory new instead. This can be used to replace a build-time path with an install-time path in the debug info. It can also be used to change an absolute path to a relative path by using . for new. This can give more reproducible builds, which are location independent, but may require an extra command to tell GDB where to find the source files. See also -ffile-prefix-map.
-fvar-tracking
Run variable tracking pass. It computes where variables are stored at each position in code. Better debugging information is then generated (if the debugging information format supports this information). It is enabled by default when compiling with optimization (-Os, -O, -O2, …), debugging information (-g) and the debug info format supports it.
-fvar-tracking-assignments
Annotate assignments to user variables early in the compilation and attempt to carry the annotations over throughout the compilation all the way to the end, in an attempt to improve debug information while optimizing. Use of -gdwarf-4 is recommended along with it. It can be enabled even if var-tracking is disabled, in which case annotations are created and maintained, but discarded at the end. By default, this flag is enabled together with -fvar-tracking, except when selective scheduling is enabled.
-gsplit-dwarf
If DWARF debugging information is enabled, separate as much debugging information as possible into a separate output file with the extension .dwo. This option allows the build system to avoid linking files with debug information. To be useful, this option requires a debugger capable of reading .dwo files.
-gdwarf32
-gdwarf64

If DWARF debugging information is enabled, the -gdwarf32 selects the 32-bit DWARF format and the -gdwarf64 selects the 64-bit DWARF format. The default is target specific, on most targets it is -gdwarf32 though. The 32-bit DWARF format is smaller, but can’t support more than 2GiB of debug information in any of the DWARF debug information sections. The 64-bit DWARF format allows larger debug information and might not be well supported by all consumers yet.

-gdescribe-dies
Add description attributes to some DWARF DIEs that have no name attribute, such as artificial variables, external references and call site parameter DIEs.
-gpubnames
Generate DWARF .debug_pubnames and .debug_pubtypes sections.
-ggnu-pubnames
Generate .debug_pubnames and .debug_pubtypes sections in a format suitable for conversion into a GDB index. This option is only useful with a linker that can produce GDB index version 7.
-fdebug-types-section
When using DWARF Version 4 or higher, type DIEs can be put into their own .debug_types section instead of making them part of the .debug_info section. It is more efficient to put them in a separate comdat section since the linker can then remove duplicates. But not all DWARF consumers support .debug_types sections yet and on some objects .debug_types produces larger instead of smaller debugging information.
-grecord-gcc-switches
-gno-record-gcc-switches

This switch causes the command-line options used to invoke the compiler that may affect code generation to be appended to the DW_AT_producer attribute in DWARF debugging information. The options are concatenated with spaces separating them from each other and from the compiler version. It is enabled by default. See also -frecord-gcc-switches for another way of storing compiler options into the object file.

-gstrict-dwarf
Disallow using extensions of later DWARF standard version than selected with *-gdwarf-*/version/. On most targets using non-conflicting DWARF extensions from later standard versions is allowed.
-gno-strict-dwarf
Allow using extensions of later DWARF standard version than selected with *-gdwarf-*/version/.
-gas-loc-support
Inform the compiler that the assembler supports .loc directives. It may then use them for the assembler to generate DWARF2+ line number tables. This is generally desirable, because assembler-generated line-number tables are a lot more compact than those the compiler can generate itself. This option will be enabled by default if, at GCC configure time, the assembler was found to support such directives.
-gno-as-loc-support
Force GCC to generate DWARF2+ line number tables internally, if DWARF2+ line number tables are to be generated.
-gas-locview-support
Inform the compiler that the assembler supports view assignment and reset assertion checking in .loc directives. This option will be enabled by default if, at GCC configure time, the assembler was found to support them.
-gno-as-locview-support
Force GCC to assign view numbers internally, if -gvariable-location-views are explicitly requested.
-gcolumn-info
-gno-column-info

Emit location column information into DWARF debugging information, rather than just file and line. This option is enabled by default.

-gstatement-frontiers
-gno-statement-frontiers

This option causes GCC to create markers in the internal representation at the beginning of statements, and to keep them roughly in place throughout compilation, using them to guide the output of is_stmt markers in the line number table. This is enabled by default when compiling with optimization (-Os, -O, -O2, …), and outputting DWARF 2 debug information at the normal level.

-gvariable-location-views
-gvariable-location-views=incompat5
-gno-variable-location-views

Augment variable location lists with progressive view numbers implied from the line number table. This enables debug information consumers to inspect state at certain points of the program, even if no instructions associated with the corresponding source locations are present at that point. If the assembler lacks support for view numbers in line number tables, this will cause the compiler to emit the line number table, which generally makes them somewhat less compact. The augmented line number tables and location lists are fully backward-compatible, so they can be consumed by debug information consumers that are not aware of these augmentations, but they won’t derive any benefit from them either. This is enabled by default when outputting DWARF 2 debug information at the normal level, as long as there is assembler support, -fvar-tracking-assignments is enabled and -gstrict-dwarf is not. When assembler support is not available, this may still be enabled, but it will force GCC to output internal line number tables, and if -ginternal-reset-location-views is not enabled, that will most certainly lead to silently mismatching location views. There is a proposed representation for view numbers that is not backward compatible with the location list format introduced in DWARF 5, that can be enabled with -gvariable-location-views=incompat5. This option may be removed in the future, is only provided as a reference implementation of the proposed representation. Debug information consumers are not expected to support this extended format, and they would be rendered unable to decode location lists using it.

-ginternal-reset-location-views
-gno-internal-reset-location-views

Attempt to determine location views that can be omitted from location view lists. This requires the compiler to have very accurate insn length estimates, which isn’t always the case, and it may cause incorrect view lists to be generated silently when using an assembler that does not support location view lists. The GNU assembler will flag any such error as a view number mismatch. This is only enabled on ports that define a reliable estimation function.

-ginline-points
-gno-inline-points

Generate extended debug information for inlined functions. Location view tracking markers are inserted at inlined entry points, so that address and view numbers can be computed and output in debug information. This can be enabled independently of location views, in which case the view numbers won’t be output, but it can only be enabled along with statement frontiers, and it is only enabled by default if location views are enabled.

-gz[=type]
Produce compressed debug sections in DWARF format, if that is supported. If type is not given, the default type depends on the capabilities of the assembler and linker used. type may be one of none (don’t compress debug sections), zlib (use zlib compression in ELF gABI format), or zlib-gnu (use zlib compression in traditional GNU format). If the linker doesn’t support writing compressed debug sections, the option is rejected. Otherwise, if the assembler does not support them, -gz is silently ignored when producing object files.
-femit-struct-debug-baseonly
Emit debug information for struct-like types only when the base name of the compilation source file matches the base name of file in which the struct is defined. This option substantially reduces the size of debugging information, but at significant potential loss in type information to the debugger. See -femit-struct-debug-reduced for a less aggressive option. See -femit-struct-debug-detailed for more detailed control. This option works only with DWARF debug output.
-femit-struct-debug-reduced
Emit debug information for struct-like types only when the base name of the compilation source file matches the base name of file in which the type is defined, unless the struct is a template or defined in a system header. This option significantly reduces the size of debugging information, with some potential loss in type information to the debugger. See -femit-struct-debug-baseonly for a more aggressive option. See -femit-struct-debug-detailed for more detailed control. This option works only with DWARF debug output.
-femit-struct-debug-detailed[=spec-list]
Specify the struct-like types for which the compiler generates debug information. The intent is to reduce duplicate struct debug information between different object files within the same program. This option is a detailed version of -femit-struct-debug-reduced and -femit-struct-debug-baseonly, which serves for most needs. A specification has the syntax[*dir:*|*ind:*][*ord:*|*gen:*](any*|*sys*|*base*|*none) The optional first word limits the specification to structs that are used directly (dir:) or used indirectly (ind:). A struct type is used directly when it is the type of a variable, member. Indirect uses arise through pointers to structs. That is, when use of an incomplete struct is valid, the use is indirect. An example is struct one direct; struct two * indirect;. The optional second word limits the specification to ordinary structs (ord:) or generic structs (gen:). Generic structs are a bit complicated to explain. For C++, these are non-explicit specializations of template classes, or non-template classes within the above. Other programming languages have generics, but -femit-struct-debug-detailed does not yet implement them. The third word specifies the source files for those structs for which the compiler should emit debug information. The values none and any have the normal meaning. The value base means that the base of name of the file in which the type declaration appears must match the base of the name of the main compilation file. In practice, this means that when compiling foo.c, debug information is generated for types declared in that file and foo.h, but not other header files. The value sys means those types satisfying base or declared in system or compiler headers. You may need to experiment to determine the best settings for your application. The default is -femit-struct-debug-detailed=all. This option works only with DWARF debug output.
-fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm
Emit DWARF unwind info as compiler generated .eh_frame section instead of using GAS .cfi_* directives.
-fno-eliminate-unused-debug-types
Normally, when producing DWARF output, GCC avoids producing debug symbol output for types that are nowhere used in the source file being compiled. Sometimes it is useful to have GCC emit debugging information for all types declared in a compilation unit, regardless of whether or not they are actually used in that compilation unit, for example if, in the debugger, you want to cast a value to a type that is not actually used in your program (but is declared). More often, however, this results in a significant amount of wasted space.

### Options That Control Optimization

These options control various sorts of optimizations.

Without any optimization option, the compiler’s goal is to reduce the cost of compilation and to make debugging produce the expected results. Statements are independent: if you stop the program with a breakpoint between statements, you can then assign a new value to any variable or change the program counter to any other statement in the function and get exactly the results you expect from the source code.

Turning on optimization flags makes the compiler attempt to improve the performance and/or code size at the expense of compilation time and possibly the ability to debug the program.

The compiler performs optimization based on the knowledge it has of the program. Compiling multiple files at once to a single output file mode allows the compiler to use information gained from all of the files when compiling each of them.

Not all optimizations are controlled directly by a flag. Only optimizations that have a flag are listed in this section.

Most optimizations are completely disabled at -O0 or if an -O level is not set on the command line, even if individual optimization flags are specified. Similarly, -Og suppresses many optimization passes.

Depending on the target and how GCC was configured, a slightly different set of optimizations may be enabled at each -O level than those listed here. You can invoke GCC with -Q –help=optimizers to find out the exact set of optimizations that are enabled at each level.

-O
-O1

Optimize. Optimizing compilation takes somewhat more time, and a lot more memory for a large function. With -O, the compiler tries to reduce code size and execution time, without performing any optimizations that take a great deal of compilation time. -O turns on the following optimization flags: *-fauto-inc-dec * -fbranch-count-reg -fcombine-stack-adjustments -fcompare-elim -fcprop-registers -fdce -fdefer-pop -fdelayed-branch -fdse -fforward-propagate -fguess-branch-probability -fif-conversion -fif-conversion2 -finline-functions-called-once -fipa-modref -fipa-profile -fipa-pure-const -fipa-reference -fipa-reference-addressable -fmerge-constants -fmove-loop-invariants -fomit-frame-pointer -freorder-blocks -fshrink-wrap -fshrink-wrap-separate -fsplit-wide-types -fssa-backprop -fssa-phiopt -ftree-bit-ccp -ftree-ccp -ftree-ch -ftree-coalesce-vars -ftree-copy-prop -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse -ftree-forwprop -ftree-fre -ftree-phiprop -ftree-pta -ftree-scev-cprop -ftree-sink -ftree-slsr -ftree-sra -ftree-ter -funit-at-a-time

-O2
Optimize even more. GCC performs nearly all supported optimizations that do not involve a space-speed tradeoff. As compared to -O, this option increases both compilation time and the performance of the generated code. -O2 turns on all optimization flags specified by -O. It also turns on the following optimization flags: -falign-functions -falign-jumps * -falign-labels -falign-loops -fcaller-saves -fcode-hoisting -fcrossjumping -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks -fdelete-null-pointer-checks -fdevirtualize -fdevirtualize-speculatively -fexpensive-optimizations -ffinite-loops -fgcse -fgcse-lm -fhoist-adjacent-loads -finline-functions -finline-small-functions -findirect-inlining -fipa-bit-cp -fipa-cp -fipa-icf -fipa-ra -fipa-sra -fipa-vrp -fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference -flra-remat -foptimize-sibling-calls -foptimize-strlen -fpartial-inlining -fpeephole2 -freorder-blocks-algorithm=stc -freorder-blocks-and-partition -freorder-functions -frerun-cse-after-loop -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2 -fsched-interblock -fsched-spec -fstore-merging -fstrict-aliasing -fthread-jumps -ftree-builtin-call-dce -ftree-pre -ftree-switch-conversion -ftree-tail-merge -ftree-vrp Please note the warning under *-fgcse about invoking -O2 on programs that use computed gotos.
-O3
Optimize yet more. -O3 turns on all optimizations specified by -O2 and also turns on the following optimization flags: *-fgcse-after-reload * -fipa-cp-clone -floop-interchange -floop-unroll-and-jam -fpeel-loops -fpredictive-commoning -fsplit-loops -fsplit-paths -ftree-loop-distribution -ftree-loop-vectorize -ftree-partial-pre -ftree-slp-vectorize -funswitch-loops -fvect-cost-model -fvect-cost-model=dynamic -fversion-loops-for-strides
-O0
Reduce compilation time and make debugging produce the expected results. This is the default.
-Os

Optimize for size. -Os enables all -O2 optimizations except those that often increase code size: *-falign-functions -falign-jumps

• -falign-labels -falign-loops -fprefetch-loop-arrays

-freorder-blocks-algorithm=stc It also enables -finline-functions, causes the compiler to tune for code size rather than execution speed, and performs further optimizations designed to reduce code size.

-Ofast
Disregard strict standards compliance. -Ofast enables all -O3 optimizations. It also enables optimizations that are not valid for all standard-compliant programs. It turns on -ffast-math, -fallow-store-data-races and the Fortran-specific -fstack-arrays, unless -fmax-stack-var-size is specified, and -fno-protect-parens.
-Og
Optimize debugging experience. -Og should be the optimization level of choice for the standard edit-compile-debug cycle, offering a reasonable level of optimization while maintaining fast compilation and a good debugging experience. It is a better choice than -O0 for producing debuggable code because some compiler passes that collect debug information are disabled at -O0. Like -O0, -Og completely disables a number of optimization passes so that individual options controlling them have no effect. Otherwise -Og enables all -O1 optimization flags except for those that may interfere with debugging: *-fbranch-count-reg -fdelayed-branch * -fdse -fif-conversion -fif-conversion2 -finline-functions-called-once -fmove-loop-invariants -fssa-phiopt -ftree-bit-ccp -ftree-dse -ftree-pta -ftree-sra

If you use multiple -O options, with or without level numbers, the last such option is the one that is effective.

Options of the form -f*/flag/ specify machine-independent flags. Most flags have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of *-ffoo is -fno-foo. In the table below, only one of the forms is listed—the one you typically use. You can figure out the other form by either removing no- or adding it.

The following options control specific optimizations. They are either activated by -O options or are related to ones that are. You can use the following flags in the rare cases when fine-tuning of optimizations to be performed is desired.

-fno-defer-pop
For machines that must pop arguments after a function call, always pop the arguments as soon as each function returns. At levels -O1 and higher, -fdefer-pop is the default; this allows the compiler to let arguments accumulate on the stack for several function calls and pop them all at once.
-fforward-propagate
Perform a forward propagation pass on RTL. The pass tries to combine two instructions and checks if the result can be simplified. If loop unrolling is active, two passes are performed and the second is scheduled after loop unrolling. This option is enabled by default at optimization levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.
-ffp-contract=style
-ffp-contract=off disables floating-point expression contraction. -ffp-contract=fast enables floating-point expression contraction such as forming of fused multiply-add operations if the target has native support for them. -ffp-contract=on enables floating-point expression contraction if allowed by the language standard. This is currently not implemented and treated equal to -ffp-contract=off. The default is -ffp-contract=fast.
-fomit-frame-pointer
Omit the frame pointer in functions that don’t need one. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore the frame pointer; on many targets it also makes an extra register available. On some targets this flag has no effect because the standard calling sequence always uses a frame pointer, so it cannot be omitted. Note that -fno-omit-frame-pointer doesn’t guarantee the frame pointer is used in all functions. Several targets always omit the frame pointer in leaf functions. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-foptimize-sibling-calls
Optimize sibling and tail recursive calls. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-foptimize-strlen
Optimize various standard C string functions (e.g. strlen, strchr or strcpy) and their _FORTIFY_SOURCE counterparts into faster alternatives. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.
-fno-inline
Do not expand any functions inline apart from those marked with the always_inline attribute. This is the default when not optimizing. Single functions can be exempted from inlining by marking them with the noinline attribute.
-finline-small-functions
Integrate functions into their callers when their body is smaller than expected function call code (so overall size of program gets smaller). The compiler heuristically decides which functions are simple enough to be worth integrating in this way. This inlining applies to all functions, even those not declared inline. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-findirect-inlining
Inline also indirect calls that are discovered to be known at compile time thanks to previous inlining. This option has any effect only when inlining itself is turned on by the -finline-functions or -finline-small-functions options. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-finline-functions
Consider all functions for inlining, even if they are not declared inline. The compiler heuristically decides which functions are worth integrating in this way. If all calls to a given function are integrated, and the function is declared static, then the function is normally not output as assembler code in its own right. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. Also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-finline-functions-called-once
Consider all static functions called once for inlining into their caller even if they are not marked inline. If a call to a given function is integrated, then the function is not output as assembler code in its own right. Enabled at levels -O1, -O2, -O3 and -Os, but not -Og.
-fearly-inlining
Inline functions marked by always_inline and functions whose body seems smaller than the function call overhead early before doing -fprofile-generate instrumentation and real inlining pass. Doing so makes profiling significantly cheaper and usually inlining faster on programs having large chains of nested wrapper functions. Enabled by default.
-fipa-sra
Perform interprocedural scalar replacement of aggregates, removal of unused parameters and replacement of parameters passed by reference by parameters passed by value. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3 and -Os.
-finline-limit=n

By default, GCC limits the size of functions that can be inlined. This flag allows coarse control of this limit. n is the size of functions that can be inlined in number of pseudo instructions. Inlining is actually controlled by a number of parameters, which may be specified individually by using –param name/*=*/value. The *-finline-limit=*/n/ option sets some of these parameters as follows:

max-inline-insns-single
is set to /n//2.
max-inline-insns-auto
is set to /n//2.

See below for a documentation of the individual parameters controlling inlining and for the defaults of these parameters. Note: there may be no value to -finline-limit that results in default behavior. Note: pseudo instruction represents, in this particular context, an abstract measurement of function’s size. In no way does it represent a count of assembly instructions and as such its exact meaning might change from one release to an another.

-fno-keep-inline-dllexport
This is a more fine-grained version of -fkeep-inline-functions, which applies only to functions that are declared using the dllexport attribute or declspec.
-fkeep-inline-functions
In C, emit static functions that are declared inline into the object file, even if the function has been inlined into all of its callers. This switch does not affect functions using the extern inline extension in GNU C90. In C++, emit any and all inline functions into the object file.
-fkeep-static-functions
Emit static functions into the object file, even if the function is never used.
-fkeep-static-consts
Emit variables declared static const when optimization isn’t turned on, even if the variables aren’t referenced. GCC enables this option by default. If you want to force the compiler to check if a variable is referenced, regardless of whether or not optimization is turned on, use the -fno-keep-static-consts option.
-fmerge-constants
Attempt to merge identical constants (string constants and floating-point constants) across compilation units. This option is the default for optimized compilation if the assembler and linker support it. Use -fno-merge-constants to inhibit this behavior. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fmerge-all-constants
Attempt to merge identical constants and identical variables. This option implies -fmerge-constants. In addition to -fmerge-constants this considers e.g. even constant initialized arrays or initialized constant variables with integral or floating-point types. Languages like C or C++ require each variable, including multiple instances of the same variable in recursive calls, to have distinct locations, so using this option results in non-conforming behavior.
-fmodulo-sched
Perform swing modulo scheduling immediately before the first scheduling pass. This pass looks at innermost loops and reorders their instructions by overlapping different iterations.
-fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves
Perform more aggressive SMS-based modulo scheduling with register moves allowed. By setting this flag certain anti-dependences edges are deleted, which triggers the generation of reg-moves based on the life-range analysis. This option is effective only with -fmodulo-sched enabled.
-fno-branch-count-reg
Disable the optimization pass that scans for opportunities to use decrement and branch instructions on a count register instead of instruction sequences that decrement a register, compare it against zero, and then branch based upon the result. This option is only meaningful on architectures that support such instructions, which include x86, PowerPC, IA-64 and S/390. Note that the -fno-branch-count-reg option doesn’t remove the decrement and branch instructions from the generated instruction stream introduced by other optimization passes. The default is -fbranch-count-reg at -O1 and higher, except for -Og.
-fno-function-cse
Do not put function addresses in registers; make each instruction that calls a constant function contain the function’s address explicitly. This option results in less efficient code, but some strange hacks that alter the assembler output may be confused by the optimizations performed when this option is not used. The default is -ffunction-cse
-fno-zero-initialized-in-bss
If the target supports a BSS section, GCC by default puts variables that are initialized to zero into BSS. This can save space in the resulting code. This option turns off this behavior because some programs explicitly rely on variables going to the data section—e.g., so that the resulting executable can find the beginning of that section and/or make assumptions based on that. The default is -fzero-initialized-in-bss.
Perform optimizations that check to see if a jump branches to a location where another comparison subsumed by the first is found. If so, the first branch is redirected to either the destination of the second branch or a point immediately following it, depending on whether the condition is known to be true or false. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fsplit-wide-types
When using a type that occupies multiple registers, such as long long on a 32-bit system, split the registers apart and allocate them independently. This normally generates better code for those types, but may make debugging more difficult. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fsplit-wide-types-early
Fully split wide types early, instead of very late. This option has no effect unless -fsplit-wide-types is turned on. This is the default on some targets.
-fcse-follow-jumps
In common subexpression elimination (CSE), scan through jump instructions when the target of the jump is not reached by any other path. For example, when CSE encounters an if statement with an else clause, CSE follows the jump when the condition tested is false. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fcse-skip-blocks
This is similar to -fcse-follow-jumps, but causes CSE to follow jumps that conditionally skip over blocks. When CSE encounters a simple if statement with no else clause, -fcse-skip-blocks causes CSE to follow the jump around the body of the if. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-frerun-cse-after-loop
Re-run common subexpression elimination after loop optimizations are performed. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fgcse
Perform a global common subexpression elimination pass. This pass also performs global constant and copy propagation. Note: When compiling a program using computed gotos, a GCC extension, you may get better run-time performance if you disable the global common subexpression elimination pass by adding -fno-gcse to the command line. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fgcse-lm
When -fgcse-lm is enabled, global common subexpression elimination attempts to move loads that are only killed by stores into themselves. This allows a loop containing a load/store sequence to be changed to a load outside the loop, and a copy/store within the loop. Enabled by default when -fgcse is enabled.
-fgcse-sm
When -fgcse-sm is enabled, a store motion pass is run after global common subexpression elimination. This pass attempts to move stores out of loops. When used in conjunction with -fgcse-lm, loops containing a load/store sequence can be changed to a load before the loop and a store after the loop. Not enabled at any optimization level.
-fgcse-las
When -fgcse-las is enabled, the global common subexpression elimination pass eliminates redundant loads that come after stores to the same memory location (both partial and full redundancies). Not enabled at any optimization level.
When -fgcse-after-reload is enabled, a redundant load elimination pass is performed after reload. The purpose of this pass is to clean up redundant spilling. Enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-faggressive-loop-optimizations
This option tells the loop optimizer to use language constraints to derive bounds for the number of iterations of a loop. This assumes that loop code does not invoke undefined behavior by for example causing signed integer overflows or out-of-bound array accesses. The bounds for the number of iterations of a loop are used to guide loop unrolling and peeling and loop exit test optimizations. This option is enabled by default.
-funconstrained-commons
This option tells the compiler that variables declared in common blocks (e.g. Fortran) may later be overridden with longer trailing arrays. This prevents certain optimizations that depend on knowing the array bounds.
-fcrossjumping
Perform cross-jumping transformation. This transformation unifies equivalent code and saves code size. The resulting code may or may not perform better than without cross-jumping. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fauto-inc-dec
Combine increments or decrements of addresses with memory accesses. This pass is always skipped on architectures that do not have instructions to support this. Enabled by default at -O and higher on architectures that support this.
-fdce
Perform dead code elimination (DCE) on RTL. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fdse
Perform dead store elimination (DSE) on RTL. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fif-conversion
Attempt to transform conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents. This includes use of conditional moves, min, max, set flags and abs instructions, and some tricks doable by standard arithmetics. The use of conditional execution on chips where it is available is controlled by -fif-conversion2. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os, but not with -Og.
-fif-conversion2
Use conditional execution (where available) to transform conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os, but not with -Og.
-fdeclone-ctor-dtor
The C++ ABI requires multiple entry points for constructors and destructors: one for a base subobject, one for a complete object, and one for a virtual destructor that calls operator delete afterwards. For a hierarchy with virtual bases, the base and complete variants are clones, which means two copies of the function. With this option, the base and complete variants are changed to be thunks that call a common implementation. Enabled by -Os.
-fdelete-null-pointer-checks
Assume that programs cannot safely dereference null pointers, and that no code or data element resides at address zero. This option enables simple constant folding optimizations at all optimization levels. In addition, other optimization passes in GCC use this flag to control global dataflow analyses that eliminate useless checks for null pointers; these assume that a memory access to address zero always results in a trap, so that if a pointer is checked after it has already been dereferenced, it cannot be null. Note however that in some environments this assumption is not true. Use -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks to disable this optimization for programs that depend on that behavior. This option is enabled by default on most targets. On Nios II ELF, it defaults to off. On AVR, CR16, and MSP430, this option is completely disabled. Passes that use the dataflow information are enabled independently at different optimization levels.
-fdevirtualize
Attempt to convert calls to virtual functions to direct calls. This is done both within a procedure and interprocedurally as part of indirect inlining (-findirect-inlining) and interprocedural constant propagation (-fipa-cp). Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fdevirtualize-speculatively
Attempt to convert calls to virtual functions to speculative direct calls. Based on the analysis of the type inheritance graph, determine for a given call the set of likely targets. If the set is small, preferably of size 1, change the call into a conditional deciding between direct and indirect calls. The speculative calls enable more optimizations, such as inlining. When they seem useless after further optimization, they are converted back into original form.
-fdevirtualize-at-ltrans
Stream extra information needed for aggressive devirtualization when running the link-time optimizer in local transformation mode. This option enables more devirtualization but significantly increases the size of streamed data. For this reason it is disabled by default.
-fexpensive-optimizations
Perform a number of minor optimizations that are relatively expensive. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-free
Attempt to remove redundant extension instructions. This is especially helpful for the x86-64 architecture, which implicitly zero-extends in 64-bit registers after writing to their lower 32-bit half. Enabled for Alpha, AArch64 and x86 at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-flive-range-shrinkage
Attempt to decrease register pressure through register live range shrinkage. This is helpful for fast processors with small or moderate size register sets.
-fira-algorithm=algorithm
Use the specified coloring algorithm for the integrated register allocator. The algorithm argument can be priority, which specifies Chow’s priority coloring, or CB, which specifies Chaitin-Briggs coloring. Chaitin-Briggs coloring is not implemented for all architectures, but for those targets that do support it, it is the default because it generates better code.
-fira-region=region
Use specified regions for the integrated register allocator. The region argument should be one of the following:
all
Use all loops as register allocation regions. This can give the best results for machines with a small and/or irregular register set.
mixed
Use all loops except for loops with small register pressure as the regions. This value usually gives the best results in most cases and for most architectures, and is enabled by default when compiling with optimization for speed (-O, -O2, …).
one
Use all functions as a single region. This typically results in the smallest code size, and is enabled by default for -Os or -O0.
-fira-hoist-pressure
Use IRA to evaluate register pressure in the code hoisting pass for decisions to hoist expressions. This option usually results in smaller code, but it can slow the compiler down. This option is enabled at level -Os for all targets.
-fira-loop-pressure
Use IRA to evaluate register pressure in loops for decisions to move loop invariants. This option usually results in generation of faster and smaller code on machines with large register files (>= 32 registers), but it can slow the compiler down. This option is enabled at level -O3 for some targets.
-fno-ira-share-save-slots
Disable sharing of stack slots used for saving call-used hard registers living through a call. Each hard register gets a separate stack slot, and as a result function stack frames are larger.
-fno-ira-share-spill-slots
Disable sharing of stack slots allocated for pseudo-registers. Each pseudo-register that does not get a hard register gets a separate stack slot, and as a result function stack frames are larger.
-flra-remat
Enable CFG-sensitive rematerialization in LRA. Instead of loading values of spilled pseudos, LRA tries to rematerialize (recalculate) values if it is profitable. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fdelayed-branch
If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to exploit instruction slots available after delayed branch instructions. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os, but not at -Og.
-fschedule-insns
If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to eliminate execution stalls due to required data being unavailable. This helps machines that have slow floating point or memory load instructions by allowing other instructions to be issued until the result of the load or floating-point instruction is required. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.
-fschedule-insns2
Similar to -fschedule-insns, but requests an additional pass of instruction scheduling after register allocation has been done. This is especially useful on machines with a relatively small number of registers and where memory load instructions take more than one cycle. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fno-sched-interblock
Disable instruction scheduling across basic blocks, which is normally enabled when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fno-sched-spec
Disable speculative motion of non-load instructions, which is normally enabled when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-pressure
Enable register pressure sensitive insn scheduling before register allocation. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher. Usage of this option can improve the generated code and decrease its size by preventing register pressure increase above the number of available hard registers and subsequent spills in register allocation.
Allow speculative motion of some load instructions. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
Allow speculative motion of more load instructions. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-stalled-insns
-fsched-stalled-insns=n

Define how many insns (if any) can be moved prematurely from the queue of stalled insns into the ready list during the second scheduling pass. -fno-sched-stalled-insns means that no insns are moved prematurely, -fsched-stalled-insns=0 means there is no limit on how many queued insns can be moved prematurely. -fsched-stalled-insns without a value is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns=1.

-fsched-stalled-insns-dep
-fsched-stalled-insns-dep=n

Define how many insn groups (cycles) are examined for a dependency on a stalled insn that is a candidate for premature removal from the queue of stalled insns. This has an effect only during the second scheduling pass, and only if -fsched-stalled-insns is used. -fno-sched-stalled-insns-dep is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=0. -fsched-stalled-insns-dep without a value is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=1.

-fsched2-use-superblocks
When scheduling after register allocation, use superblock scheduling. This allows motion across basic block boundaries, resulting in faster schedules. This option is experimental, as not all machine descriptions used by GCC model the CPU closely enough to avoid unreliable results from the algorithm. This only makes sense when scheduling after register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-group-heuristic
Enable the group heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction that belongs to a schedule group. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-critical-path-heuristic
Enable the critical-path heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors instructions on the critical path. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-spec-insn-heuristic
Enable the speculative instruction heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors speculative instructions with greater dependency weakness. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-rank-heuristic
Enable the rank heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction belonging to a basic block with greater size or frequency. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-last-insn-heuristic
Enable the last-instruction heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction that is less dependent on the last instruction scheduled. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-dep-count-heuristic
Enable the dependent-count heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction that has more instructions depending on it. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops
Modulo scheduling is performed before traditional scheduling. If a loop is modulo scheduled, later scheduling passes may change its schedule. Use this option to control that behavior.
-fselective-scheduling
Schedule instructions using selective scheduling algorithm. Selective scheduling runs instead of the first scheduler pass.
-fselective-scheduling2
Schedule instructions using selective scheduling algorithm. Selective scheduling runs instead of the second scheduler pass.
-fsel-sched-pipelining
Enable software pipelining of innermost loops during selective scheduling. This option has no effect unless one of -fselective-scheduling or -fselective-scheduling2 is turned on.
-fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops
When pipelining loops during selective scheduling, also pipeline outer loops. This option has no effect unless -fsel-sched-pipelining is turned on.
-fsemantic-interposition
Some object formats, like ELF, allow interposing of symbols by the dynamic linker. This means that for symbols exported from the DSO, the compiler cannot perform interprocedural propagation, inlining and other optimizations in anticipation that the function or variable in question may change. While this feature is useful, for example, to rewrite memory allocation functions by a debugging implementation, it is expensive in the terms of code quality. With -fno-semantic-interposition the compiler assumes that if interposition happens for functions the overwriting function will have precisely the same semantics (and side effects). Similarly if interposition happens for variables, the constructor of the variable will be the same. The flag has no effect for functions explicitly declared inline (where it is never allowed for interposition to change semantics) and for symbols explicitly declared weak.
-fshrink-wrap
Emit function prologues only before parts of the function that need it, rather than at the top of the function. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fshrink-wrap-separate
Shrink-wrap separate parts of the prologue and epilogue separately, so that those parts are only executed when needed. This option is on by default, but has no effect unless -fshrink-wrap is also turned on and the target supports this.
-fcaller-saves
Enable allocation of values to registers that are clobbered by function calls, by emitting extra instructions to save and restore the registers around such calls. Such allocation is done only when it seems to result in better code. This option is always enabled by default on certain machines, usually those which have no call-preserved registers to use instead. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
Tracks stack adjustments (pushes and pops) and stack memory references and then tries to find ways to combine them. Enabled by default at -O1 and higher.
-fipa-ra
Use caller save registers for allocation if those registers are not used by any called function. In that case it is not necessary to save and restore them around calls. This is only possible if called functions are part of same compilation unit as current function and they are compiled before it. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os, however the option is disabled if generated code will be instrumented for profiling (-p, or -pg) or if callee’s register usage cannot be known exactly (this happens on targets that do not expose prologues and epilogues in RTL).
-fconserve-stack
Attempt to minimize stack usage. The compiler attempts to use less stack space, even if that makes the program slower. This option implies setting the large-stack-frame parameter to 100 and the large-stack-frame-growth parameter to 400.
-ftree-reassoc
Perform reassociation on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fcode-hoisting
Perform code hoisting. Code hoisting tries to move the evaluation of expressions executed on all paths to the function exit as early as possible. This is especially useful as a code size optimization, but it often helps for code speed as well. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher.
-ftree-pre
Perform partial redundancy elimination (PRE) on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and -O3.
-ftree-partial-pre
Make partial redundancy elimination (PRE) more aggressive. This flag is enabled by default at -O3.
-ftree-forwprop
Perform forward propagation on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-fre
Perform full redundancy elimination (FRE) on trees. The difference between FRE and PRE is that FRE only considers expressions that are computed on all paths leading to the redundant computation. This analysis is faster than PRE, though it exposes fewer redundancies. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-phiprop
Perform hoisting of loads from conditional pointers on trees. This pass is enabled by default at -O and higher.
Speculatively hoist loads from both branches of an if-then-else if the loads are from adjacent locations in the same structure and the target architecture has a conditional move instruction. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher.
-ftree-copy-prop
Perform copy propagation on trees. This pass eliminates unnecessary copy operations. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-pure-const
Discover which functions are pure or constant. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-reference
Discover which static variables do not escape the compilation unit. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
Discover read-only, write-only and non-addressable static variables. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-stack-alignment
Reduce stack alignment on call sites if possible. Enabled by default.
-fipa-pta
Perform interprocedural pointer analysis and interprocedural modification and reference analysis. This option can cause excessive memory and compile-time usage on large compilation units. It is not enabled by default at any optimization level.
-fipa-profile
Perform interprocedural profile propagation. The functions called only from cold functions are marked as cold. Also functions executed once (such as cold, noreturn, static constructors or destructors) are identified. Cold functions and loop less parts of functions executed once are then optimized for size. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-modref
Perform interprocedural mod/ref analysis. This optimization analyzes the side effects of functions (memory locations that are modified or referenced) and enables better optimization across the function call boundary. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-cp
Perform interprocedural constant propagation. This optimization analyzes the program to determine when values passed to functions are constants and then optimizes accordingly. This optimization can substantially increase performance if the application has constants passed to functions. This flag is enabled by default at -O2, -Os and -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-fipa-cp-clone
Perform function cloning to make interprocedural constant propagation stronger. When enabled, interprocedural constant propagation performs function cloning when externally visible function can be called with constant arguments. Because this optimization can create multiple copies of functions, it may significantly increase code size (see –param ipa-cp-unit-growth=*/value/). This flag is enabled by default at *-O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-fipa-bit-cp
When enabled, perform interprocedural bitwise constant propagation. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. It requires that -fipa-cp is enabled.
-fipa-vrp
When enabled, perform interprocedural propagation of value ranges. This flag is enabled by default at -O2. It requires that -fipa-cp is enabled.
-fipa-icf
Perform Identical Code Folding for functions and read-only variables. The optimization reduces code size and may disturb unwind stacks by replacing a function by equivalent one with a different name. The optimization works more effectively with link-time optimization enabled. Although the behavior is similar to the Gold Linker’s ICF optimization, GCC ICF works on different levels and thus the optimizations are not same - there are equivalences that are found only by GCC and equivalences found only by Gold. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and -Os.
-flive-patching=level

Control GCC’s optimizations to produce output suitable for live-patching. If the compiler’s optimization uses a function’s body or information extracted from its body to optimize/change another function, the latter is called an impacted function of the former. If a function is patched, its impacted functions should be patched too. The impacted functions are determined by the compiler’s interprocedural optimizations. For example, a caller is impacted when inlining a function into its caller, cloning a function and changing its caller to call this new clone, or extracting a function’s pureness/constness information to optimize its direct or indirect callers, etc. Usually, the more IPA optimizations enabled, the larger the number of impacted functions for each function. In order to control the number of impacted functions and more easily compute the list of impacted function, IPA optimizations can be partially enabled at two different levels. The level argument should be one of the following:

inline-clone
Only enable inlining and cloning optimizations, which includes inlining, cloning, interprocedural scalar replacement of aggregates and partial inlining. As a result, when patching a function, all its callers and its clones’ callers are impacted, therefore need to be patched as well. -flive-patching=inline-clone disables the following optimization flags: *-fwhole-program -fipa-pta -fipa-reference -fipa-ra * -fipa-icf -fipa-icf-functions -fipa-icf-variables -fipa-bit-cp -fipa-vrp -fipa-pure-const -fipa-reference-addressable -fipa-stack-alignment -fipa-modref
inline-only-static
Only enable inlining of static functions. As a result, when patching a static function, all its callers are impacted and so need to be patched as well. In addition to all the flags that -flive-patching=inline-clone disables, -flive-patching=inline-only-static disables the following additional optimization flags: -fipa-cp-clone -fipa-sra -fpartial-inlining -fipa-cp

When -flive-patching is specified without any value, the default value is inline-clone. This flag is disabled by default. Note that -flive-patching is not supported with link-time optimization (-flto).

-fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference
Detect paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due to dereferencing a null pointer. Isolate those paths from the main control flow and turn the statement with erroneous or undefined behavior into a trap. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher and depends on -fdelete-null-pointer-checks also being enabled.
-fisolate-erroneous-paths-attribute
Detect paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due to a null value being used in a way forbidden by a returns_nonnull or nonnull attribute. Isolate those paths from the main control flow and turn the statement with erroneous or undefined behavior into a trap. This is not currently enabled, but may be enabled by -O2 in the future.
-ftree-sink
Perform forward store motion on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-bit-ccp
Perform sparse conditional bit constant propagation on trees and propagate pointer alignment information. This pass only operates on local scalar variables and is enabled by default at -O1 and higher, except for -Og. It requires that -ftree-ccp is enabled.
-ftree-ccp
Perform sparse conditional constant propagation (CCP) on trees. This pass only operates on local scalar variables and is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fssa-backprop
Propagate information about uses of a value up the definition chain in order to simplify the definitions. For example, this pass strips sign operations if the sign of a value never matters. The flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fssa-phiopt
Perform pattern matching on SSA PHI nodes to optimize conditional code. This pass is enabled by default at -O1 and higher, except for -Og.
-ftree-switch-conversion
Perform conversion of simple initializations in a switch to initializations from a scalar array. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher.
-ftree-tail-merge
Look for identical code sequences. When found, replace one with a jump to the other. This optimization is known as tail merging or cross jumping. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher. The compilation time in this pass can be limited using max-tail-merge-comparisons parameter and max-tail-merge-iterations parameter.
-ftree-dce
Perform dead code elimination (DCE) on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-builtin-call-dce
Perform conditional dead code elimination (DCE) for calls to built-in functions that may set errno but are otherwise free of side effects. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher if -Os is not also specified.
-ffinite-loops
Assume that a loop with an exit will eventually take the exit and not loop indefinitely. This allows the compiler to remove loops that otherwise have no side-effects, not considering eventual endless looping as such. This option is enabled by default at -O2 for C++ with -std=c++11 or higher.
-ftree-dominator-opts
Perform a variety of simple scalar cleanups (constant/copy propagation, redundancy elimination, range propagation and expression simplification) based on a dominator tree traversal. This also performs jump threading (to reduce jumps to jumps). This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-dse
Perform dead store elimination (DSE) on trees. A dead store is a store into a memory location that is later overwritten by another store without any intervening loads. In this case the earlier store can be deleted. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-ch
Perform loop header copying on trees. This is beneficial since it increases effectiveness of code motion optimizations. It also saves one jump. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher. It is not enabled for -Os, since it usually increases code size.
-ftree-loop-optimize
Perform loop optimizations on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-loop-linear
-floop-strip-mine
-floop-block

Perform loop nest optimizations. Same as -floop-nest-optimize. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with –with-isl to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.

-fgraphite-identity
Enable the identity transformation for graphite. For every SCoP we generate the polyhedral representation and transform it back to gimple. Using -fgraphite-identity we can check the costs or benefits of the GIMPLE -> GRAPHITE -> GIMPLE transformation. Some minimal optimizations are also performed by the code generator isl, like index splitting and dead code elimination in loops.
-floop-nest-optimize
Enable the isl based loop nest optimizer. This is a generic loop nest optimizer based on the Pluto optimization algorithms. It calculates a loop structure optimized for data-locality and parallelism. This option is experimental.
-floop-parallelize-all
Use the Graphite data dependence analysis to identify loops that can be parallelized. Parallelize all the loops that can be analyzed to not contain loop carried dependences without checking that it is profitable to parallelize the loops.
-ftree-coalesce-vars
While transforming the program out of the SSA representation, attempt to reduce copying by coalescing versions of different user-defined variables, instead of just compiler temporaries. This may severely limit the ability to debug an optimized program compiled with -fno-var-tracking-assignments. In the negated form, this flag prevents SSA coalescing of user variables. This option is enabled by default if optimization is enabled, and it does very little otherwise.
-ftree-loop-if-convert
Attempt to transform conditional jumps in the innermost loops to branch-less equivalents. The intent is to remove control-flow from the innermost loops in order to improve the ability of the vectorization pass to handle these loops. This is enabled by default if vectorization is enabled.
-ftree-loop-distribution
Perform loop distribution. This flag can improve cache performance on big loop bodies and allow further loop optimizations, like parallelization or vectorization, to take place. For example, the loop DO I = 1, N A(I) = B(I) + C D(I) = E(I) * F ENDDO is transformed to DO I = 1, N A(I) = B(I) + C ENDDO DO I = 1, N D(I) = E(I) * F ENDDO This flag is enabled by default at -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-ftree-loop-distribute-patterns
Perform loop distribution of patterns that can be code generated with calls to a library. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher, and by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. This pass distributes the initialization loops and generates a call to memset zero. For example, the loop DO I = 1, N A(I) = 0 B(I) = A(I) + I ENDDO is transformed to DO I = 1, N A(I) = 0 ENDDO DO I = 1, N B(I) = A(I) + I ENDDO and the initialization loop is transformed into a call to memset zero. This flag is enabled by default at -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-floop-interchange
Perform loop interchange outside of graphite. This flag can improve cache performance on loop nest and allow further loop optimizations, like vectorization, to take place. For example, the loop for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) for (int k = 0; k < N; k++) c[i][j] = c[i][j] + a[i][k]*b[k][j]; is transformed to for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) for (int k = 0; k < N; k++) for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) c[i][j] = c[i][j] + a[i][k]*b[k][j]; This flag is enabled by default at -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-floop-unroll-and-jam
Apply unroll and jam transformations on feasible loops. In a loop nest this unrolls the outer loop by some factor and fuses the resulting multiple inner loops. This flag is enabled by default at -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-ftree-loop-im
Perform loop invariant motion on trees. This pass moves only invariants that are hard to handle at RTL level (function calls, operations that expand to nontrivial sequences of insns). With -funswitch-loops it also moves operands of conditions that are invariant out of the loop, so that we can use just trivial invariantness analysis in loop unswitching. The pass also includes store motion.
-ftree-loop-ivcanon
Create a canonical counter for number of iterations in loops for which determining number of iterations requires complicated analysis. Later optimizations then may determine the number easily. Useful especially in connection with unrolling.
-ftree-scev-cprop
Perform final value replacement. If a variable is modified in a loop in such a way that its value when exiting the loop can be determined using only its initial value and the number of loop iterations, replace uses of the final value by such a computation, provided it is sufficiently cheap. This reduces data dependencies and may allow further simplifications. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fivopts
Perform induction variable optimizations (strength reduction, induction variable merging and induction variable elimination) on trees.
-ftree-parallelize-loops=n
Parallelize loops, i.e., split their iteration space to run in n threads. This is only possible for loops whose iterations are independent and can be arbitrarily reordered. The optimization is only profitable on multiprocessor machines, for loops that are CPU-intensive, rather than constrained e.g. by memory bandwidth. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread.
-ftree-pta
Perform function-local points-to analysis on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O1 and higher, except for -Og.
-ftree-sra
Perform scalar replacement of aggregates. This pass replaces structure references with scalars to prevent committing structures to memory too early. This flag is enabled by default at -O1 and higher, except for -Og.
-fstore-merging
Perform merging of narrow stores to consecutive memory addresses. This pass merges contiguous stores of immediate values narrower than a word into fewer wider stores to reduce the number of instructions. This is enabled by default at -O2 and higher as well as -Os.
-ftree-ter
Perform temporary expression replacement during the SSA->normal phase. Single use/single def temporaries are replaced at their use location with their defining expression. This results in non-GIMPLE code, but gives the expanders much more complex trees to work on resulting in better RTL generation. This is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-slsr
Perform straight-line strength reduction on trees. This recognizes related expressions involving multiplications and replaces them by less expensive calculations when possible. This is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-vectorize
Perform vectorization on trees. This flag enables -ftree-loop-vectorize and -ftree-slp-vectorize if not explicitly specified.
-ftree-loop-vectorize
Perform loop vectorization on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O3 and by -ftree-vectorize, -fprofile-use, and -fauto-profile.
-ftree-slp-vectorize
Perform basic block vectorization on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O3 and by -ftree-vectorize, -fprofile-use, and -fauto-profile.
-fvect-cost-model=model
Alter the cost model used for vectorization. The model argument should be one of unlimited, dynamic, cheap or very-cheap. With the unlimited model the vectorized code-path is assumed to be profitable while with the dynamic model a runtime check guards the vectorized code-path to enable it only for iteration counts that will likely execute faster than when executing the original scalar loop. The cheap model disables vectorization of loops where doing so would be cost prohibitive for example due to required runtime checks for data dependence or alignment but otherwise is equal to the dynamic model. The very-cheap model only allows vectorization if the vector code would entirely replace the scalar code that is being vectorized. For example, if each iteration of a vectorized loop would only be able to handle exactly four iterations of the scalar loop, the very-cheap model would only allow vectorization if the scalar iteration count is known to be a multiple of four. The default cost model depends on other optimization flags and is either dynamic or cheap.
-fsimd-cost-model=model
Alter the cost model used for vectorization of loops marked with the OpenMP simd directive. The model argument should be one of unlimited, dynamic, cheap. All values of model have the same meaning as described in -fvect-cost-model and by default a cost model defined with -fvect-cost-model is used.
-ftree-vrp
Perform Value Range Propagation on trees. This is similar to the constant propagation pass, but instead of values, ranges of values are propagated. This allows the optimizers to remove unnecessary range checks like array bound checks and null pointer checks. This is enabled by default at -O2 and higher. Null pointer check elimination is only done if -fdelete-null-pointer-checks is enabled.
-fsplit-paths
Split paths leading to loop backedges. This can improve dead code elimination and common subexpression elimination. This is enabled by default at -O3 and above.
-fsplit-ivs-in-unroller
Enables expression of values of induction variables in later iterations of the unrolled loop using the value in the first iteration. This breaks long dependency chains, thus improving efficiency of the scheduling passes. A combination of -fweb and CSE is often sufficient to obtain the same effect. However, that is not reliable in cases where the loop body is more complicated than a single basic block. It also does not work at all on some architectures due to restrictions in the CSE pass. This optimization is enabled by default.
-fvariable-expansion-in-unroller
With this option, the compiler creates multiple copies of some local variables when unrolling a loop, which can result in superior code. This optimization is enabled by default for PowerPC targets, but disabled by default otherwise.
-fpartial-inlining
Inline parts of functions. This option has any effect only when inlining itself is turned on by the -finline-functions or -finline-small-functions options. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fpredictive-commoning
Perform predictive commoning optimization, i.e., reusing computations (especially memory loads and stores) performed in previous iterations of loops. This option is enabled at level -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile.
-fprefetch-loop-arrays
If supported by the target machine, generate instructions to prefetch memory to improve the performance of loops that access large arrays. This option may generate better or worse code; results are highly dependent on the structure of loops within the source code. Disabled at level -Os.
-fno-printf-return-value
Do not substitute constants for known return value of formatted output functions such as sprintf, snprintf, vsprintf, and vsnprintf (but not printf of fprintf). This transformation allows GCC to optimize or even eliminate branches based on the known return value of these functions called with arguments that are either constant, or whose values are known to be in a range that makes determining the exact return value possible. For example, when -fprintf-return-value is in effect, both the branch and the body of the if statement (but not the call to snprint) can be optimized away when i is a 32-bit or smaller integer because the return value is guaranteed to be at most 8. char buf[9]; if (snprintf (buf, “%08x”, i) >= sizeof buf) … The -fprintf-return-value option relies on other optimizations and yields best results with -O2 and above. It works in tandem with the -Wformat-overflow and -Wformat-truncation options. The -fprintf-return-value option is enabled by default.
-fno-peephole
-fno-peephole2

Disable any machine-specific peephole optimizations. The difference between -fno-peephole and -fno-peephole2 is in how they are implemented in the compiler; some targets use one, some use the other, a few use both. -fpeephole is enabled by default. -fpeephole2 enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-guess-branch-probability
Do not guess branch probabilities using heuristics. GCC uses heuristics to guess branch probabilities if they are not provided by profiling feedback (-fprofile-arcs). These heuristics are based on the control flow graph. If some branch probabilities are specified by _ _builtin_expect, then the heuristics are used to guess branch probabilities for the rest of the control flow graph, taking the _ _builtin_expect info into account. The interactions between the heuristics and _ _builtin_expect can be complex, and in some cases, it may be useful to disable the heuristics so that the effects of _ _builtin_expect are easier to understand. It is also possible to specify expected probability of the expression with _ _builtin_expect_with_probability built-in function. The default is -fguess-branch-probability at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.
-freorder-blocks
Reorder basic blocks in the compiled function in order to reduce number of taken branches and improve code locality. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.
-freorder-blocks-algorithm=algorithm
Use the specified algorithm for basic block reordering. The algorithm argument can be simple, which does not increase code size (except sometimes due to secondary effects like alignment), or stc, the software trace cache algorithm, which tries to put all often executed code together, minimizing the number of branches executed by making extra copies of code. The default is simple at levels -O, -Os, and stc at levels -O2, -O3.
-freorder-blocks-and-partition
In addition to reordering basic blocks in the compiled function, in order to reduce number of taken branches, partitions hot and cold basic blocks into separate sections of the assembly and .o files, to improve paging and cache locality performance. This optimization is automatically turned off in the presence of exception handling or unwind tables (on targets using setjump/longjump or target specific scheme), for linkonce sections, for functions with a user-defined section attribute and on any architecture that does not support named sections. When -fsplit-stack is used this option is not enabled by default (to avoid linker errors), but may be enabled explicitly (if using a working linker). Enabled for x86 at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-freorder-functions
Reorder functions in the object file in order to improve code locality. This is implemented by using special subsections .text.hot for most frequently executed functions and .text.unlikely for unlikely executed functions. Reordering is done by the linker so object file format must support named sections and linker must place them in a reasonable way. This option isn’t effective unless you either provide profile feedback (see -fprofile-arcs for details) or manually annotate functions with hot or cold attributes. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fstrict-aliasing
Allow the compiler to assume the strictest aliasing rules applicable to the language being compiled. For C (and C++), this activates optimizations based on the type of expressions. In particular, an object of one type is assumed never to reside at the same address as an object of a different type, unless the types are almost the same. For example, an unsigned int can alias an int, but not a void* or a double. A character type may alias any other type. Pay special attention to code like this: union a_union { int i; double d; }; int f() { union a_union t; t.d = 3.0; return t.i; } The practice of reading from a different union member than the one most recently written to (called type-punning) is common. Even with -fstrict-aliasing, type-punning is allowed, provided the memory is accessed through the union type. So, the code above works as expected. However, this code might not: int f() { union a_union t; int* ip; t.d = 3.0; ip = &t.i; return ip; } Similarly, access by taking the address, casting the resulting pointer and dereferencing the result has undefined behavior, even if the cast uses a union type, e.g.: int f() { double d = 3.0; return ((union a_union *) &d)->i; } The *-fstrict-aliasing option is enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-falign-functions
-falign-functions=n
-falign-functions=n:m
-falign-functions=n:m:n2
-falign-functions=n:m:n2:m2

Align the start of functions to the next power-of-two greater than or equal to n, skipping up to m-1 bytes. This ensures that at least the first m bytes of the function can be fetched by the CPU without crossing an n-byte alignment boundary. If m is not specified, it defaults to n. Examples: -falign-functions=32 aligns functions to the next 32-byte boundary, -falign-functions=24 aligns to the next 32-byte boundary only if this can be done by skipping 23 bytes or less, -falign-functions=32:7 aligns to the next 32-byte boundary only if this can be done by skipping 6 bytes or less. The second pair of n2:/m2/ values allows you to specify a secondary alignment: -falign-functions=64:7:32:3 aligns to the next 64-byte boundary if this can be done by skipping 6 bytes or less, otherwise aligns to the next 32-byte boundary if this can be done by skipping 2 bytes or less. If m2 is not specified, it defaults to n2. Some assemblers only support this flag when n is a power of two; in that case, it is rounded up. -fno-align-functions and -falign-functions=1 are equivalent and mean that functions are not aligned. If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default. The maximum allowed n option value is 65536. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-flimit-function-alignment
If this option is enabled, the compiler tries to avoid unnecessarily overaligning functions. It attempts to instruct the assembler to align by the amount specified by -falign-functions, but not to skip more bytes than the size of the function.
-falign-labels
-falign-labels=n
-falign-labels=n:m
-falign-labels=n:m:n2
-falign-labels=n:m:n2:m2

Align all branch targets to a power-of-two boundary. Parameters of this option are analogous to the -falign-functions option. -fno-align-labels and -falign-labels=1 are equivalent and mean that labels are not aligned. If -falign-loops or -falign-jumps are applicable and are greater than this value, then their values are used instead. If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default which is very likely to be 1, meaning no alignment. The maximum allowed n option value is 65536. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-loops
-falign-loops=n
-falign-loops=n:m
-falign-loops=n:m:n2
-falign-loops=n:m:n2:m2

Align loops to a power-of-two boundary. If the loops are executed many times, this makes up for any execution of the dummy padding instructions. If -falign-labels is greater than this value, then its value is used instead. Parameters of this option are analogous to the -falign-functions option. -fno-align-loops and -falign-loops=1 are equivalent and mean that loops are not aligned. The maximum allowed n option value is 65536. If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-jumps
-falign-jumps=n
-falign-jumps=n:m
-falign-jumps=n:m:n2
-falign-jumps=n:m:n2:m2

Align branch targets to a power-of-two boundary, for branch targets where the targets can only be reached by jumping. In this case, no dummy operations need be executed. If -falign-labels is greater than this value, then its value is used instead. Parameters of this option are analogous to the -falign-functions option. -fno-align-jumps and -falign-jumps=1 are equivalent and mean that loops are not aligned. If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default. The maximum allowed n option value is 65536. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-fno-allocation-dce
Do not remove unused C++ allocations in dead code elimination.
-fallow-store-data-races
Allow the compiler to perform optimizations that may introduce new data races on stores, without proving that the variable cannot be concurrently accessed by other threads. Does not affect optimization of local data. It is safe to use this option if it is known that global data will not be accessed by multiple threads. Examples of optimizations enabled by -fallow-store-data-races include hoisting or if-conversions that may cause a value that was already in memory to be re-written with that same value. Such re-writing is safe in a single threaded context but may be unsafe in a multi-threaded context. Note that on some processors, if-conversions may be required in order to enable vectorization. Enabled at level -Ofast.
-funit-at-a-time
This option is left for compatibility reasons. -funit-at-a-time has no effect, while -fno-unit-at-a-time implies -fno-toplevel-reorder and -fno-section-anchors. Enabled by default.
-fno-toplevel-reorder
Do not reorder top-level functions, variables, and asm statements. Output them in the same order that they appear in the input file. When this option is used, unreferenced static variables are not removed. This option is intended to support existing code that relies on a particular ordering. For new code, it is better to use attributes when possible. -ftoplevel-reorder is the default at -O1 and higher, and also at -O0 if -fsection-anchors is explicitly requested. Additionally -fno-toplevel-reorder implies -fno-section-anchors.
-fweb
Constructs webs as commonly used for register allocation purposes and assign each web individual pseudo register. This allows the register allocation pass to operate on pseudos directly, but also strengthens several other optimization passes, such as CSE, loop optimizer and trivial dead code remover. It can, however, make debugging impossible, since variables no longer stay in a home register. Enabled by default with -funroll-loops.
-fwhole-program
Assume that the current compilation unit represents the whole program being compiled. All public functions and variables with the exception of main and those merged by attribute externally_visible become static functions and in effect are optimized more aggressively by interprocedural optimizers. This option should not be used in combination with -flto. Instead relying on a linker plugin should provide safer and more precise information.
-flto[=n]

• B<-fno-pic> = B<-fno-pic> B<-fpic/-fPIC> + (no option) = (no option)

-flto-partition=alg
Specify the partitioning algorithm used by the link-time optimizer. The value is either 1to1 to specify a partitioning mirroring the original source files or balanced to specify partitioning into equally sized chunks (whenever possible) or max to create new partition for every symbol where possible. Specifying none as an algorithm disables partitioning and streaming completely. The default value is balanced. While 1to1 can be used as an workaround for various code ordering issues, the max partitioning is intended for internal testing only. The value one specifies that exactly one partition should be used while the value none bypasses partitioning and executes the link-time optimization step directly from the WPA phase.
-flto-compression-level=n
This option specifies the level of compression used for intermediate language written to LTO object files, and is only meaningful in conjunction with LTO mode (-flto). GCC currently supports two LTO compression algorithms. For zstd, valid values are 0 (no compression) to 19 (maximum compression), while zlib supports values from 0 to 9. Values outside this range are clamped to either minimum or maximum of the supported values. If the option is not given, a default balanced compression setting is used.
Enables the use of a linker plugin during link-time optimization. This option relies on plugin support in the linker, which is available in gold or in GNU ld 2.21 or newer. This option enables the extraction of object files with GIMPLE bytecode out of library archives. This improves the quality of optimization by exposing more code to the link-time optimizer. This information specifies what symbols can be accessed externally (by non-LTO object or during dynamic linking). Resulting code quality improvements on binaries (and shared libraries that use hidden visibility) are similar to -fwhole-program. See -flto for a description of the effect of this flag and how to use it. This option is enabled by default when LTO support in GCC is enabled and GCC was configured for use with a linker supporting plugins (GNU ld 2.21 or newer or gold).
-ffat-lto-objects
Fat LTO objects are object files that contain both the intermediate language and the object code. This makes them usable for both LTO linking and normal linking. This option is effective only when compiling with -flto and is ignored at link time. -fno-fat-lto-objects improves compilation time over plain LTO, but requires the complete toolchain to be aware of LTO. It requires a linker with linker plugin support for basic functionality. Additionally, nm, ar and ranlib need to support linker plugins to allow a full-featured build environment (capable of building static libraries etc). GCC provides the gcc-ar, gcc-nm, gcc-ranlib wrappers to pass the right options to these tools. With non fat LTO makefiles need to be modified to use them. Note that modern binutils provide plugin auto-load mechanism. Installing the linker plugin into =libdir=/bfd-plugins has the same effect as usage of the command wrappers (gcc-ar, gcc-nm and gcc-ranlib). The default is -fno-fat-lto-objects on targets with linker plugin support. -fcompare-elim After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction splitting, identify arithmetic instructions that compute processor flags similar to a comparison operation based on that arithmetic. If possible, eliminate the explicit comparison operation. This pass only applies to certain targets that cannot explicitly represent the comparison operation before register allocation is complete. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fcprop-registers After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction splitting, perform a copy-propagation pass to try to reduce scheduling dependencies and occasionally eliminate the copy. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fprofile-correction Profiles collected using an instrumented binary for multi-threaded programs may be inconsistent due to missed counter updates. When this option is specified, GCC uses heuristics to correct or smooth out such inconsistencies. By default, GCC emits an error message when an inconsistent profile is detected. This option is enabled by -fauto-profile. -fprofile-partial-training With -fprofile-use all portions of programs not executed during train run are optimized agressively for size rather than speed. In some cases it is not practical to train all possible hot paths in the program. (For example, program may contain functions specific for a given hardware and trianing may not cover all hardware configurations program is run on.) With -fprofile-partial-training profile feedback will be ignored for all functions not executed during the train run leading them to be optimized as if they were compiled without profile feedback. This leads to better performance when train run is not representative but also leads to significantly bigger code. -fprofile-use -fprofile-use=path Enable profile feedback-directed optimizations, and the following optimizations, many of which are generally profitable only with profile feedback available: -fbranch-probabilities -fprofile-values * -funroll-loops -fpeel-loops -ftracer -fvpt -finline-functions -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-clone -fipa-bit-cp -fpredictive-commoning -fsplit-loops -funswitch-loops -fgcse-after-reload -ftree-loop-vectorize -ftree-slp-vectorize -fvect-cost-model=dynamic -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns -fprofile-reorder-functions Before you can use this option, you must first generate profiling information. By default, GCC emits an error message if the feedback profiles do not match the source code. This error can be turned into a warning by using *-Wno-error=coverage-mismatch. Note this may result in poorly optimized code. Additionally, by default, GCC also emits a warning message if the feedback profiles do not exist (see -Wmissing-profile). If path is specified, GCC looks at the path to find the profile feedback data files. See -fprofile-dir. -fauto-profile -fauto-profile=path Enable sampling-based feedback-directed optimizations, and the following optimizations, many of which are generally profitable only with profile feedback available: -fbranch-probabilities -fprofile-values * -funroll-loops -fpeel-loops -ftracer -fvpt -finline-functions -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-clone -fipa-bit-cp -fpredictive-commoning -fsplit-loops -funswitch-loops -fgcse-after-reload -ftree-loop-vectorize -ftree-slp-vectorize -fvect-cost-model=dynamic -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns -fprofile-correction path is the name of a file containing AutoFDO profile information. If omitted, it defaults to fbdata.afdo in the current directory. Producing an AutoFDO profile data file requires running your program with the *perf utility on a supported GNU/Linux target system. For more information, see <*https://perf.wiki.kernel.org/*>. E.g. perf record -e br_inst_retired:near_taken -b -o perf.data \ – your_program Then use the create_gcov tool to convert the raw profile data to a format that can be used by GCC. You must also supply the unstripped binary for your program to this tool. See <*https://github.com/google/autofdo*>. E.g. create_gcov –binary=your_program.unstripped –profile=perf.data \ –gcov=profile.afdo The following options control compiler behavior regarding floating-point arithmetic. These options trade off between speed and correctness. All must be specifically enabled. -ffloat-store Do not store floating-point variables in registers, and inhibit other options that might change whether a floating-point value is taken from a register or memory. This option prevents undesirable excess precision on machines such as the 68000 where the floating registers (of the 68881) keep more precision than a double is supposed to have. Similarly for the x86 architecture. For most programs, the excess precision does only good, but a few programs rely on the precise definition of IEEE floating point. Use -ffloat-store for such programs, after modifying them to store all pertinent intermediate computations into variables. -fexcess-precision=style This option allows further control over excess precision on machines where floating-point operations occur in a format with more precision or range than the IEEE standard and interchange floating-point types. By default, -fexcess-precision=fast is in effect; this means that operations may be carried out in a wider precision than the types specified in the source if that would result in faster code, and it is unpredictable when rounding to the types specified in the source code takes place. When compiling C, if -fexcess-precision=standard is specified then excess precision follows the rules specified in ISO C99; in particular, both casts and assignments cause values to be rounded to their semantic types (whereas -ffloat-store only affects assignments). This option is enabled by default for C if a strict conformance option such as -std=c99 is used. -ffast-math enables -fexcess-precision=fast by default regardless of whether a strict conformance option is used. -fexcess-precision=standard is not implemented for languages other than C. On the x86, it has no effect if -mfpmath=sse or -mfpmath=sse+387 is specified; in the former case, IEEE semantics apply without excess precision, and in the latter, rounding is unpredictable. -ffast-math Sets the options -fno-math-errno, -funsafe-math-optimizations, -ffinite-math-only, -fno-rounding-math, -fno-signaling-nans, -fcx-limited-range and -fexcess-precision=fast. This option causes the preprocessor macro _ _FAST_MATH_ _ to be defined. This option is not turned on by any -O option besides -Ofast since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications. -fno-math-errno Do not set errno after calling math functions that are executed with a single instruction, e.g., sqrt. A program that relies on IEEE exceptions for math error handling may want to use this flag for speed while maintaining IEEE arithmetic compatibility. This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications. The default is -fmath-errno. On Darwin systems, the math library never sets errno. There is therefore no reason for the compiler to consider the possibility that it might, and -fno-math-errno is the default. -funsafe-math-optimizations Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that (a) assume that arguments and results are valid and (b) may violate IEEE or ANSI standards. When used at link time, it may include libraries or startup files that change the default FPU control word or other similar optimizations. This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications. Enables -fno-signed-zeros, -fno-trapping-math, -fassociative-math and -freciprocal-math. The default is -fno-unsafe-math-optimizations. -fassociative-math Allow re-association of operands in series of floating-point operations. This violates the ISO C and C++ language standard by possibly changing computation result. NOTE: re-ordering may change the sign of zero as well as ignore NaNs and inhibit or create underflow or overflow (and thus cannot be used on code that relies on rounding behavior like (x + 2**52) - 2**52. May also reorder floating-point comparisons and thus may not be used when ordered comparisons are required. This option requires that both -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math be in effect. Moreover, it doesn’t make much sense with -frounding-math. For Fortran the option is automatically enabled when both -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math are in effect. The default is -fno-associative-math. -freciprocal-math Allow the reciprocal of a value to be used instead of dividing by the value if this enables optimizations. For example x / y can be replaced with x * (1/y), which is useful if (1/y) is subject to common subexpression elimination. Note that this loses precision and increases the number of flops operating on the value. The default is -fno-reciprocal-math. -ffinite-math-only Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that assume that arguments and results are not NaNs or +-Infs. This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications. The default is -fno-finite-math-only. -fno-signed-zeros Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that ignore the signedness of zero. IEEE arithmetic specifies the behavior of distinct +0.0 and -0.0 values, which then prohibits simplification of expressions such as x+0.0 or 0.0*x (even with -ffinite-math-only). This option implies that the sign of a zero result isn’t significant. The default is -fsigned-zeros. -fno-trapping-math Compile code assuming that floating-point operations cannot generate user-visible traps. These traps include division by zero, overflow, underflow, inexact result and invalid operation. This option requires that -fno-signaling-nans be in effect. Setting this option may allow faster code if one relies on non-stop IEEE arithmetic, for example. This option should never be turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. The default is -ftrapping-math. -frounding-math Disable transformations and optimizations that assume default floating-point rounding behavior. This is round-to-zero for all floating point to integer conversions, and round-to-nearest for all other arithmetic truncations. This option should be specified for programs that change the FP rounding mode dynamically, or that may be executed with a non-default rounding mode. This option disables constant folding of floating-point expressions at compile time (which may be affected by rounding mode) and arithmetic transformations that are unsafe in the presence of sign-dependent rounding modes. The default is -fno-rounding-math. This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to disable all GCC optimizations that are affected by rounding mode. Future versions of GCC may provide finer control of this setting using C99’s FENV_ACCESS pragma. This command-line option will be used to specify the default state for FENV_ACCESS. -fsignaling-nans Compile code assuming that IEEE signaling NaNs may generate user-visible traps during floating-point operations. Setting this option disables optimizations that may change the number of exceptions visible with signaling NaNs. This option implies -ftrapping-math. This option causes the preprocessor macro _ _SUPPORT_SNAN_ _ to be defined. The default is -fno-signaling-nans. This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to disable all GCC optimizations that affect signaling NaN behavior. -fno-fp-int-builtin-inexact Do not allow the built-in functions ceil, floor, round and trunc, and their float and long double variants, to generate code that raises the inexact floating-point exception for noninteger arguments. ISO C99 and C11 allow these functions to raise the inexact exception, but ISO/IEC TS 18661-1:2014, the C bindings to IEEE 754-2008, as integrated into ISO C2X, does not allow these functions to do so. The default is -ffp-int-builtin-inexact, allowing the exception to be raised, unless C2X or a later C standard is selected. This option does nothing unless -ftrapping-math is in effect. Even if -fno-fp-int-builtin-inexact is used, if the functions generate a call to a library function then the inexact exception may be raised if the library implementation does not follow TS 18661. -fsingle-precision-constant Treat floating-point constants as single precision instead of implicitly converting them to double-precision constants. -fcx-limited-range When enabled, this option states that a range reduction step is not needed when performing complex division. Also, there is no checking whether the result of a complex multiplication or division is NaN + I*NaN, with an attempt to rescue the situation in that case. The default is -fno-cx-limited-range, but is enabled by -ffast-math. This option controls the default setting of the ISO C99 CX_LIMITED_RANGE pragma. Nevertheless, the option applies to all languages. -fcx-fortran-rules Complex multiplication and division follow Fortran rules. Range reduction is done as part of complex division, but there is no checking whether the result of a complex multiplication or division is NaN + I*NaN, with an attempt to rescue the situation in that case. The default is -fno-cx-fortran-rules. The following options control optimizations that may improve performance, but are not enabled by any -O options. This section includes experimental options that may produce broken code. -fbranch-probabilities After running a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs, you can compile it a second time using -fbranch-probabilities, to improve optimizations based on the number of times each branch was taken. When a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs exits, it saves arc execution counts to a file called sourcename.gcda for each source file. The information in this data file is very dependent on the structure of the generated code, so you must use the same source code and the same optimization options for both compilations. With -fbranch-probabilities, GCC puts a REG_BR_PROB note on each JUMP_INSN and CALL_INSN. These can be used to improve optimization. Currently, they are only used in one place: in reorg.c, instead of guessing which path a branch is most likely to take, the REG_BR_PROB values are used to exactly determine which path is taken more often. Enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -fprofile-values If combined with -fprofile-arcs, it adds code so that some data about values of expressions in the program is gathered. With -fbranch-probabilities, it reads back the data gathered from profiling values of expressions for usage in optimizations. Enabled by -fprofile-generate, -fprofile-use, and -fauto-profile. -fprofile-reorder-functions Function reordering based on profile instrumentation collects first time of execution of a function and orders these functions in ascending order. Enabled with -fprofile-use. -fvpt If combined with -fprofile-arcs, this option instructs the compiler to add code to gather information about values of expressions. With -fbranch-probabilities, it reads back the data gathered and actually performs the optimizations based on them. Currently the optimizations include specialization of division operations using the knowledge about the value of the denominator. Enabled with -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -frename-registers Attempt to avoid false dependencies in scheduled code by making use of registers left over after register allocation. This optimization most benefits processors with lots of registers. Depending on the debug information format adopted by the target, however, it can make debugging impossible, since variables no longer stay in a home register. Enabled by default with -funroll-loops. -fschedule-fusion Performs a target dependent pass over the instruction stream to schedule instructions of same type together because target machine can execute them more efficiently if they are adjacent to each other in the instruction flow. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -ftracer Perform tail duplication to enlarge superblock size. This transformation simplifies the control flow of the function allowing other optimizations to do a better job. Enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -funroll-loops Unroll loops whose number of iterations can be determined at compile time or upon entry to the loop. -funroll-loops implies -frerun-cse-after-loop, -fweb and -frename-registers. It also turns on complete loop peeling (i.e. complete removal of loops with a small constant number of iterations). This option makes code larger, and may or may not make it run faster. Enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -funroll-all-loops Unroll all loops, even if their number of iterations is uncertain when the loop is entered. This usually makes programs run more slowly. -funroll-all-loops implies the same options as -funroll-loops. -fpeel-loops Peels loops for which there is enough information that they do not roll much (from profile feedback or static analysis). It also turns on complete loop peeling (i.e. complete removal of loops with small constant number of iterations). Enabled by -O3, -fprofile-use, and -fauto-profile. -fmove-loop-invariants Enables the loop invariant motion pass in the RTL loop optimizer. Enabled at level -O1 and higher, except for -Og. -fsplit-loops Split a loop into two if it contains a condition that’s always true for one side of the iteration space and false for the other. Enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -funswitch-loops Move branches with loop invariant conditions out of the loop, with duplicates of the loop on both branches (modified according to result of the condition). Enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -fversion-loops-for-strides If a loop iterates over an array with a variable stride, create another version of the loop that assumes the stride is always one. For example: for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) x[i * stride] = …; becomes: if (stride == 1) for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) x[i] = …; else for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) x[i * stride] = …; This is particularly useful for assumed-shape arrays in Fortran where (for example) it allows better vectorization assuming contiguous accesses. This flag is enabled by default at -O3. It is also enabled by -fprofile-use and -fauto-profile. -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections Place each function or data item into its own section in the output file if the target supports arbitrary sections. The name of the function or the name of the data item determines the section’s name in the output file. Use these options on systems where the linker can perform optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction space. Most systems using the ELF object format have linkers with such optimizations. On AIX, the linker rearranges sections (CSECTs) based on the call graph. The performance impact varies. Together with a linker garbage collection (linker –gc-sections option) these options may lead to smaller statically-linked executables (after stripping). On ELF/DWARF systems these options do not degenerate the quality of the debug information. There could be issues with other object files/debug info formats. Only use these options when there are significant benefits from doing so. When you specify these options, the assembler and linker create larger object and executable files and are also slower. These options affect code generation. They prevent optimizations by the compiler and assembler using relative locations inside a translation unit since the locations are unknown until link time. An example of such an optimization is relaxing calls to short call instructions. -fstdarg-opt Optimize the prologue of variadic argument functions with respect to usage of those arguments. -fsection-anchors Try to reduce the number of symbolic address calculations by using shared anchor symbols to address nearby objects. This transformation can help to reduce the number of GOT entries and GOT accesses on some targets. For example, the implementation of the following function foo: static int a, b, c; int foo (void) { return a + b + c; } usually calculates the addresses of all three variables, but if you compile it with -fsection-anchors, it accesses the variables from a common anchor point instead. The effect is similar to the following pseudocode (which isn’t valid C): int foo (void) { register int *xr = &x; return xr[&a - &x] + xr[&b - &x] + xr[&c - &x]; } Not all targets support this option. -fzero-call-used-regs=choice Zero call-used registers at function return to increase program security by either mitigating Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) attacks or preventing information leakage through registers. The possible values of choice are the same as for the zero_call_used_regs attribute. The default is skip. You can control this behavior for a specific function by using the function attribute zero_call_used_regs. –param name=value In some places, GCC uses various constants to control the amount of optimization that is done. For example, GCC does not inline functions that contain more than a certain number of instructions. You can control some of these constants on the command line using the –param option. The names of specific parameters, and the meaning of the values, are tied to the internals of the compiler, and are subject to change without notice in future releases. In order to get minimal, maximal and default value of a parameter, one can use –help=param -Q options. In each case, the value is an integer. The following choices of name are recognized for all targets: predictable-branch-outcome When branch is predicted to be taken with probability lower than this threshold (in percent), then it is considered well predictable. max-rtl-if-conversion-insns RTL if-conversion tries to remove conditional branches around a block and replace them with conditionally executed instructions. This parameter gives the maximum number of instructions in a block which should be considered for if-conversion. The compiler will also use other heuristics to decide whether if-conversion is likely to be profitable. max-rtl-if-conversion-predictable-cost RTL if-conversion will try to remove conditional branches around a block and replace them with conditionally executed instructions. These parameters give the maximum permissible cost for the sequence that would be generated by if-conversion depending on whether the branch is statically determined to be predictable or not. The units for this parameter are the same as those for the GCC internal seq_cost metric. The compiler will try to provide a reasonable default for this parameter using the BRANCH_COST target macro. max-crossjump-edges The maximum number of incoming edges to consider for cross-jumping. The algorithm used by -fcrossjumping is O(N^2) in the number of edges incoming to each block. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably small improvement in executable size. min-crossjump-insns The minimum number of instructions that must be matched at the end of two blocks before cross-jumping is performed on them. This value is ignored in the case where all instructions in the block being cross-jumped from are matched. max-grow-copy-bb-insns The maximum code size expansion factor when copying basic blocks instead of jumping. The expansion is relative to a jump instruction. max-goto-duplication-insns The maximum number of instructions to duplicate to a block that jumps to a computed goto. To avoid O(N^2) behavior in a number of passes, GCC factors computed gotos early in the compilation process, and unfactors them as late as possible. Only computed jumps at the end of a basic blocks with no more than max-goto-duplication-insns are unfactored. max-delay-slot-insn-search The maximum number of instructions to consider when looking for an instruction to fill a delay slot. If more than this arbitrary number of instructions are searched, the time savings from filling the delay slot are minimal, so stop searching. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably small improvement in execution time. max-delay-slot-live-search When trying to fill delay slots, the maximum number of instructions to consider when searching for a block with valid live register information. Increasing this arbitrarily chosen value means more aggressive optimization, increasing the compilation time. This parameter should be removed when the delay slot code is rewritten to maintain the control-flow graph. max-gcse-memory The approximate maximum amount of memory in kB that can be allocated in order to perform the global common subexpression elimination optimization. If more memory than specified is required, the optimization is not done. max-gcse-insertion-ratio If the ratio of expression insertions to deletions is larger than this value for any expression, then RTL PRE inserts or removes the expression and thus leaves partially redundant computations in the instruction stream. max-pending-list-length The maximum number of pending dependencies scheduling allows before flushing the current state and starting over. Large functions with few branches or calls can create excessively large lists which needlessly consume memory and resources. max-modulo-backtrack-attempts The maximum number of backtrack attempts the scheduler should make when modulo scheduling a loop. Larger values can exponentially increase compilation time. max-inline-insns-single Several parameters control the tree inliner used in GCC. This number sets the maximum number of instructions (counted in GCC’s internal representation) in a single function that the tree inliner considers for inlining. This only affects functions declared inline and methods implemented in a class declaration (C++). max-inline-insns-auto When you use -finline-functions (included in -O3), a lot of functions that would otherwise not be considered for inlining by the compiler are investigated. To those functions, a different (more restrictive) limit compared to functions declared inline can be applied (–param max-inline-insns-auto). max-inline-insns-small This is bound applied to calls which are considered relevant with -finline-small-functions. max-inline-insns-size This is bound applied to calls which are optimized for size. Small growth may be desirable to anticipate optimization oppurtunities exposed by inlining. uninlined-function-insns Number of instructions accounted by inliner for function overhead such as function prologue and epilogue. uninlined-function-time Extra time accounted by inliner for function overhead such as time needed to execute function prologue and epilogue inline-heuristics-hint-percent The scale (in percents) applied to inline-insns-single, inline-insns-single-O2, inline-insns-auto when inline heuristics hints that inlining is very profitable (will enable later optimizations). uninlined-thunk-insns uninlined-thunk-time Same as –param uninlined-function-insns and –param uninlined-function-time but applied to function thunks inline-min-speedup When estimated performance improvement of caller + callee runtime exceeds this threshold (in percent), the function can be inlined regardless of the limit on –param max-inline-insns-single and –param max-inline-insns-auto. large-function-insns The limit specifying really large functions. For functions larger than this limit after inlining, inlining is constrained by –param large-function-growth. This parameter is useful primarily to avoid extreme compilation time caused by non-linear algorithms used by the back end. large-function-growth Specifies maximal growth of large function caused by inlining in percents. For example, parameter value 100 limits large function growth to 2.0 times the original size. large-unit-insns The limit specifying large translation unit. Growth caused by inlining of units larger than this limit is limited by –param inline-unit-growth. For small units this might be too tight. For example, consider a unit consisting of function A that is inline and B that just calls A three times. If B is small relative to A, the growth of unit is 300\% and yet such inlining is very sane. For very large units consisting of small inlineable functions, however, the overall unit growth limit is needed to avoid exponential explosion of code size. Thus for smaller units, the size is increased to –param large-unit-insns before applying –param inline-unit-growth. lazy-modules Maximum number of concurrently open C++ module files when lazy loading. inline-unit-growth Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused by inlining. For example, parameter value 20 limits unit growth to 1.2 times the original size. Cold functions (either marked cold via an attribute or by profile feedback) are not accounted into the unit size. ipa-cp-unit-growth Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused by interprocedural constant propagation. For example, parameter value 10 limits unit growth to 1.1 times the original size. ipa-cp-large-unit-insns The size of translation unit that IPA-CP pass considers large. large-stack-frame The limit specifying large stack frames. While inlining the algorithm is trying to not grow past this limit too much. large-stack-frame-growth Specifies maximal growth of large stack frames caused by inlining in percents. For example, parameter value 1000 limits large stack frame growth to 11 times the original size. max-inline-insns-recursive max-inline-insns-recursive-auto Specifies the maximum number of instructions an out-of-line copy of a self-recursive inline function can grow into by performing recursive inlining. –param max-inline-insns-recursive applies to functions declared inline. For functions not declared inline, recursive inlining happens only when -finline-functions (included in -O3) is enabled; –param max-inline-insns-recursive-auto applies instead. max-inline-recursive-depth max-inline-recursive-depth-auto Specifies the maximum recursion depth used for recursive inlining. –param max-inline-recursive-depth applies to functions declared inline. For functions not declared inline, recursive inlining happens only when -finline-functions (included in -O3) is enabled; –param max-inline-recursive-depth-auto applies instead. min-inline-recursive-probability Recursive inlining is profitable only for function having deep recursion in average and can hurt for function having little recursion depth by increasing the prologue size or complexity of function body to other optimizers. When profile feedback is available (see -fprofile-generate) the actual recursion depth can be guessed from the probability that function recurses via a given call expression. This parameter limits inlining only to call expressions whose probability exceeds the given threshold (in percents). early-inlining-insns Specify growth that the early inliner can make. In effect it increases the amount of inlining for code having a large abstraction penalty. max-early-inliner-iterations Limit of iterations of the early inliner. This basically bounds the number of nested indirect calls the early inliner can resolve. Deeper chains are still handled by late inlining. comdat-sharing-probability Probability (in percent) that C++ inline function with comdat visibility are shared across multiple compilation units. modref-max-bases modref-max-refs modref-max-accesses Specifies the maximal number of base pointers, references and accesses stored for a single function by mod/ref analysis. modref-max-tests Specifies the maxmal number of tests alias oracle can perform to disambiguate memory locations using the mod/ref information. This parameter ought to be bigger than –param modref-max-bases and –param modref-max-refs. modref-max-depth Specifies the maximum depth of DFS walk used by modref escape analysis. Setting to 0 disables the analysis completely. modref-max-escape-points Specifies the maximum number of escape points tracked by modref per SSA-name. profile-func-internal-id A parameter to control whether to use function internal id in profile database lookup. If the value is 0, the compiler uses an id that is based on function assembler name and filename, which makes old profile data more tolerant to source changes such as function reordering etc. min-vect-loop-bound The minimum number of iterations under which loops are not vectorized when -ftree-vectorize is used. The number of iterations after vectorization needs to be greater than the value specified by this option to allow vectorization. gcse-cost-distance-ratio Scaling factor in calculation of maximum distance an expression can be moved by GCSE optimizations. This is currently supported only in the code hoisting pass. The bigger the ratio, the more aggressive code hoisting is with simple expressions, i.e., the expressions that have cost less than gcse-unrestricted-cost. Specifying 0 disables hoisting of simple expressions. gcse-unrestricted-cost Cost, roughly measured as the cost of a single typical machine instruction, at which GCSE optimizations do not constrain the distance an expression can travel. This is currently supported only in the code hoisting pass. The lesser the cost, the more aggressive code hoisting is. Specifying 0 allows all expressions to travel unrestricted distances. max-hoist-depth The depth of search in the dominator tree for expressions to hoist. This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in hoisting algorithm. The value of 0 does not limit on the search, but may slow down compilation of huge functions. max-tail-merge-comparisons The maximum amount of similar bbs to compare a bb with. This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in tree tail merging. max-tail-merge-iterations The maximum amount of iterations of the pass over the function. This is used to limit compilation time in tree tail merging. store-merging-allow-unaligned Allow the store merging pass to introduce unaligned stores if it is legal to do so. max-stores-to-merge The maximum number of stores to attempt to merge into wider stores in the store merging pass. max-store-chains-to-track The maximum number of store chains to track at the same time in the attempt to merge them into wider stores in the store merging pass. max-stores-to-track The maximum number of stores to track at the same time in the attemt to to merge them into wider stores in the store merging pass. max-unrolled-insns The maximum number of instructions that a loop may have to be unrolled. If a loop is unrolled, this parameter also determines how many times the loop code is unrolled. max-average-unrolled-insns The maximum number of instructions biased by probabilities of their execution that a loop may have to be unrolled. If a loop is unrolled, this parameter also determines how many times the loop code is unrolled. max-unroll-times The maximum number of unrollings of a single loop. max-peeled-insns The maximum number of instructions that a loop may have to be peeled. If a loop is peeled, this parameter also determines how many times the loop code is peeled. max-peel-times The maximum number of peelings of a single loop. max-peel-branches The maximum number of branches on the hot path through the peeled sequence. max-completely-peeled-insns The maximum number of insns of a completely peeled loop. max-completely-peel-times The maximum number of iterations of a loop to be suitable for complete peeling. max-completely-peel-loop-nest-depth The maximum depth of a loop nest suitable for complete peeling. max-unswitch-insns The maximum number of insns of an unswitched loop. max-unswitch-level The maximum number of branches unswitched in a single loop. lim-expensive The minimum cost of an expensive expression in the loop invariant motion. min-loop-cond-split-prob When FDO profile information is available, min-loop-cond-split-prob specifies minimum threshold for probability of semi-invariant condition statement to trigger loop split. iv-consider-all-candidates-bound Bound on number of candidates for induction variables, below which all candidates are considered for each use in induction variable optimizations. If there are more candidates than this, only the most relevant ones are considered to avoid quadratic time complexity. iv-max-considered-uses The induction variable optimizations give up on loops that contain more induction variable uses. iv-always-prune-cand-set-bound If the number of candidates in the set is smaller than this value, always try to remove unnecessary ivs from the set when adding a new one. avg-loop-niter Average number of iterations of a loop. dse-max-object-size Maximum size (in bytes) of objects tracked bytewise by dead store elimination. Larger values may result in larger compilation times. dse-max-alias-queries-per-store Maximum number of queries into the alias oracle per store. Larger values result in larger compilation times and may result in more removed dead stores. scev-max-expr-size Bound on size of expressions used in the scalar evolutions analyzer. Large expressions slow the analyzer. scev-max-expr-complexity Bound on the complexity of the expressions in the scalar evolutions analyzer. Complex expressions slow the analyzer. max-tree-if-conversion-phi-args Maximum number of arguments in a PHI supported by TREE if conversion unless the loop is marked with simd pragma. vect-max-version-for-alignment-checks The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed when doing loop versioning for alignment in the vectorizer. vect-max-version-for-alias-checks The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed when doing loop versioning for alias in the vectorizer. vect-max-peeling-for-alignment The maximum number of loop peels to enhance access alignment for vectorizer. Value -1 means no limit. max-iterations-to-track The maximum number of iterations of a loop the brute-force algorithm for analysis of the number of iterations of the loop tries to evaluate. hot-bb-count-fraction The denominator n of fraction 1/n of the maximal execution count of a basic block in the entire program that a basic block needs to at least have in order to be considered hot. The default is 10000, which means that a basic block is considered hot if its execution count is greater than 1/10000 of the maximal execution count. 0 means that it is never considered hot. Used in non-LTO mode. hot-bb-count-ws-permille The number of most executed permilles, ranging from 0 to 1000, of the profiled execution of the entire program to which the execution count of a basic block must be part of in order to be considered hot. The default is 990, which means that a basic block is considered hot if its execution count contributes to the upper 990 permilles, or 99.0%, of the profiled execution of the entire program. 0 means that it is never considered hot. Used in LTO mode. hot-bb-frequency-fraction The denominator n of fraction 1/n of the execution frequency of the entry block of a function that a basic block of this function needs to at least have in order to be considered hot. The default is 1000, which means that a basic block is considered hot in a function if it is executed more frequently than 1/1000 of the frequency of the entry block of the function. 0 means that it is never considered hot. unlikely-bb-count-fraction The denominator n of fraction 1/n of the number of profiled runs of the entire program below which the execution count of a basic block must be in order for the basic block to be considered unlikely executed. The default is 20, which means that a basic block is considered unlikely executed if it is executed in fewer than 1/20, or 5%, of the runs of the program. 0 means that it is always considered unlikely executed. max-predicted-iterations The maximum number of loop iterations we predict statically. This is useful in cases where a function contains a single loop with known bound and another loop with unknown bound. The known number of iterations is predicted correctly, while the unknown number of iterations average to roughly 10. This means that the loop without bounds appears artificially cold relative to the other one. builtin-expect-probability Control the probability of the expression having the specified value. This parameter takes a percentage (i.e. 0 … 100) as input. builtin-string-cmp-inline-length The maximum length of a constant string for a builtin string cmp call eligible for inlining. align-threshold Select fraction of the maximal frequency of executions of a basic block in a function to align the basic block. align-loop-iterations A loop expected to iterate at least the selected number of iterations is aligned. tracer-dynamic-coverage tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback This value is used to limit superblock formation once the given percentage of executed instructions is covered. This limits unnecessary code size expansion. The tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback parameter is used only when profile feedback is available. The real profiles (as opposed to statically estimated ones) are much less balanced allowing the threshold to be larger value. tracer-max-code-growth Stop tail duplication once code growth has reached given percentage. This is a rather artificial limit, as most of the duplicates are eliminated later in cross jumping, so it may be set to much higher values than is the desired code growth. tracer-min-branch-ratio Stop reverse growth when the reverse probability of best edge is less than this threshold (in percent). tracer-min-branch-probability tracer-min-branch-probability-feedback Stop forward growth if the best edge has probability lower than this threshold. Similarly to tracer-dynamic-coverage two parameters are provided. tracer-min-branch-probability-feedback is used for compilation with profile feedback and tracer-min-branch-probability compilation without. The value for compilation with profile feedback needs to be more conservative (higher) in order to make tracer effective. stack-clash-protection-guard-size Specify the size of the operating system provided stack guard as 2 raised to num bytes. Higher values may reduce the number of explicit probes, but a value larger than the operating system provided guard will leave code vulnerable to stack clash style attacks. stack-clash-protection-probe-interval Stack clash protection involves probing stack space as it is allocated. This param controls the maximum distance between probes into the stack as 2 raised to num bytes. Higher values may reduce the number of explicit probes, but a value larger than the operating system provided guard will leave code vulnerable to stack clash style attacks. max-cse-path-length The maximum number of basic blocks on path that CSE considers. max-cse-insns The maximum number of instructions CSE processes before flushing. ggc-min-expand GCC uses a garbage collector to manage its own memory allocation. This parameter specifies the minimum percentage by which the garbage collector’s heap should be allowed to expand between collections. Tuning this may improve compilation speed; it has no effect on code generation. The default is 30% + 70% * (RAM/1GB) with an upper bound of 100% when RAM >= 1GB. If getrlimit is available, the notion of RAM is the smallest of actual RAM and RLIMIT_DATA or RLIMIT_AS. If GCC is not able to calculate RAM on a particular platform, the lower bound of 30% is used. Setting this parameter and ggc-min-heapsize to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity. This is extremely slow, but can be useful for debugging. ggc-min-heapsize Minimum size of the garbage collector’s heap before it begins bothering to collect garbage. The first collection occurs after the heap expands by ggc-min-expand*% beyond *ggc-min-heapsize. Again, tuning this may improve compilation speed, and has no effect on code generation. The default is the smaller of RAM/8, RLIMIT_RSS, or a limit that tries to ensure that RLIMIT_DATA or RLIMIT_AS are not exceeded, but with a lower bound of 4096 (four megabytes) and an upper bound of 131072 (128 megabytes). If GCC is not able to calculate RAM on a particular platform, the lower bound is used. Setting this parameter very large effectively disables garbage collection. Setting this parameter and ggc-min-expand to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity. max-reload-search-insns The maximum number of instruction reload should look backward for equivalent register. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably slightly better performance. max-cselib-memory-locations The maximum number of memory locations cselib should take into account. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably slightly better performance. max-sched-ready-insns The maximum number of instructions ready to be issued the scheduler should consider at any given time during the first scheduling pass. Increasing values mean more thorough searches, making the compilation time increase with probably little benefit. max-sched-region-blocks The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for interblock scheduling. max-pipeline-region-blocks The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for pipelining in the selective scheduler. max-sched-region-insns The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for interblock scheduling. max-pipeline-region-insns The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for pipelining in the selective scheduler. min-spec-prob The minimum probability (in percents) of reaching a source block for interblock speculative scheduling. max-sched-extend-regions-iters The maximum number of iterations through CFG to extend regions. A value of 0 disables region extensions. max-sched-insn-conflict-delay The maximum conflict delay for an insn to be considered for speculative motion. sched-spec-prob-cutoff The minimal probability of speculation success (in percents), so that speculative insns are scheduled. sched-state-edge-prob-cutoff The minimum probability an edge must have for the scheduler to save its state across it. sched-mem-true-dep-cost Minimal distance (in CPU cycles) between store and load targeting same memory locations. selsched-max-lookahead The maximum size of the lookahead window of selective scheduling. It is a depth of search for available instructions. selsched-max-sched-times The maximum number of times that an instruction is scheduled during selective scheduling. This is the limit on the number of iterations through which the instruction may be pipelined. selsched-insns-to-rename The maximum number of best instructions in the ready list that are considered for renaming in the selective scheduler. sms-min-sc The minimum value of stage count that swing modulo scheduler generates. max-last-value-rtl The maximum size measured as number of RTLs that can be recorded in an expression in combiner for a pseudo register as last known value of that register. max-combine-insns The maximum number of instructions the RTL combiner tries to combine. integer-share-limit Small integer constants can use a shared data structure, reducing the compiler’s memory usage and increasing its speed. This sets the maximum value of a shared integer constant. ssp-buffer-size The minimum size of buffers (i.e. arrays) that receive stack smashing protection when -fstack-protection is used. min-size-for-stack-sharing The minimum size of variables taking part in stack slot sharing when not optimizing. max-jump-thread-duplication-stmts Maximum number of statements allowed in a block that needs to be duplicated when threading jumps. max-fields-for-field-sensitive Maximum number of fields in a structure treated in a field sensitive manner during pointer analysis. prefetch-latency Estimate on average number of instructions that are executed before prefetch finishes. The distance prefetched ahead is proportional to this constant. Increasing this number may also lead to less streams being prefetched (see simultaneous-prefetches). simultaneous-prefetches Maximum number of prefetches that can run at the same time. l1-cache-line-size The size of cache line in L1 data cache, in bytes. l1-cache-size The size of L1 data cache, in kilobytes. l2-cache-size The size of L2 data cache, in kilobytes. prefetch-dynamic-strides Whether the loop array prefetch pass should issue software prefetch hints for strides that are non-constant. In some cases this may be beneficial, though the fact the stride is non-constant may make it hard to predict when there is clear benefit to issuing these hints. Set to 1 if the prefetch hints should be issued for non-constant strides. Set to 0 if prefetch hints should be issued only for strides that are known to be constant and below prefetch-minimum-stride. prefetch-minimum-stride Minimum constant stride, in bytes, to start using prefetch hints for. If the stride is less than this threshold, prefetch hints will not be issued. This setting is useful for processors that have hardware prefetchers, in which case there may be conflicts between the hardware prefetchers and the software prefetchers. If the hardware prefetchers have a maximum stride they can handle, it should be used here to improve the use of software prefetchers. A value of -1 means we don’t have a threshold and therefore prefetch hints can be issued for any constant stride. This setting is only useful for strides that are known and constant. loop-interchange-max-num-stmts The maximum number of stmts in a loop to be interchanged. loop-interchange-stride-ratio The minimum ratio between stride of two loops for interchange to be profitable. min-insn-to-prefetch-ratio The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the number of prefetches to enable prefetching in a loop. prefetch-min-insn-to-mem-ratio The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the number of memory references to enable prefetching in a loop. use-canonical-types Whether the compiler should use the canonical type system. Should always be 1, which uses a more efficient internal mechanism for comparing types in C++ and Objective-C++. However, if bugs in the canonical type system are causing compilation failures, set this value to 0 to disable canonical types. switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio Switch initialization conversion refuses to create arrays that are bigger than switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio times the number of branches in the switch. max-partial-antic-length Maximum length of the partial antic set computed during the tree partial redundancy elimination optimization (-ftree-pre) when optimizing at -O3 and above. For some sorts of source code the enhanced partial redundancy elimination optimization can run away, consuming all of the memory available on the host machine. This parameter sets a limit on the length of the sets that are computed, which prevents the runaway behavior. Setting a value of 0 for this parameter allows an unlimited set length. rpo-vn-max-loop-depth Maximum loop depth that is value-numbered optimistically. When the limit hits the innermost rpo-vn-max-loop-depth loops and the outermost loop in the loop nest are value-numbered optimistically and the remaining ones not. sccvn-max-alias-queries-per-access Maximum number of alias-oracle queries we perform when looking for redundancies for loads and stores. If this limit is hit the search is aborted and the load or store is not considered redundant. The number of queries is algorithmically limited to the number of stores on all paths from the load to the function entry. ira-max-loops-num IRA uses regional register allocation by default. If a function contains more loops than the number given by this parameter, only at most the given number of the most frequently-executed loops form regions for regional register allocation. ira-max-conflict-table-size Although IRA uses a sophisticated algorithm to compress the conflict table, the table can still require excessive amounts of memory for huge functions. If the conflict table for a function could be more than the size in MB given by this parameter, the register allocator instead uses a faster, simpler, and lower-quality algorithm that does not require building a pseudo-register conflict table. ira-loop-reserved-regs IRA can be used to evaluate more accurate register pressure in loops for decisions to move loop invariants (see -O3). The number of available registers reserved for some other purposes is given by this parameter. Default of the parameter is the best found from numerous experiments. lra-inheritance-ebb-probability-cutoff LRA tries to reuse values reloaded in registers in subsequent insns. This optimization is called inheritance. EBB is used as a region to do this optimization. The parameter defines a minimal fall-through edge probability in percentage used to add BB to inheritance EBB in LRA. The default value was chosen from numerous runs of SPEC2000 on x86-64. loop-invariant-max-bbs-in-loop Loop invariant motion can be very expensive, both in compilation time and in amount of needed compile-time memory, with very large loops. Loops with more basic blocks than this parameter won’t have loop invariant motion optimization performed on them. loop-max-datarefs-for-datadeps Building data dependencies is expensive for very large loops. This parameter limits the number of data references in loops that are considered for data dependence analysis. These large loops are no handled by the optimizations using loop data dependencies. max-vartrack-size Sets a maximum number of hash table slots to use during variable tracking dataflow analysis of any function. If this limit is exceeded with variable tracking at assignments enabled, analysis for that function is retried without it, after removing all debug insns from the function. If the limit is exceeded even without debug insns, var tracking analysis is completely disabled for the function. Setting the parameter to zero makes it unlimited. max-vartrack-expr-depth Sets a maximum number of recursion levels when attempting to map variable names or debug temporaries to value expressions. This trades compilation time for more complete debug information. If this is set too low, value expressions that are available and could be represented in debug information may end up not being used; setting this higher may enable the compiler to find more complex debug expressions, but compile time and memory use may grow. max-debug-marker-count Sets a threshold on the number of debug markers (e.g. begin stmt markers) to avoid complexity explosion at inlining or expanding to RTL. If a function has more such gimple stmts than the set limit, such stmts will be dropped from the inlined copy of a function, and from its RTL expansion. min-nondebug-insn-uid Use uids starting at this parameter for nondebug insns. The range below the parameter is reserved exclusively for debug insns created by -fvar-tracking-assignments, but debug insns may get (non-overlapping) uids above it if the reserved range is exhausted. ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor IPA-SRA replaces a pointer to an aggregate with one or more new parameters only when their cumulative size is less or equal to ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor times the size of the original pointer parameter. ipa-sra-max-replacements Maximum pieces of an aggregate that IPA-SRA tracks. As a consequence, it is also the maximum number of replacements of a formal parameter. sra-max-scalarization-size-Ospeed sra-max-scalarization-size-Osize The two Scalar Reduction of Aggregates passes (SRA and IPA-SRA) aim to replace scalar parts of aggregates with uses of independent scalar variables. These parameters control the maximum size, in storage units, of aggregate which is considered for replacement when compiling for speed (sra-max-scalarization-size-Ospeed) or size (sra-max-scalarization-size-Osize) respectively. sra-max-propagations The maximum number of artificial accesses that Scalar Replacement of Aggregates (SRA) will track, per one local variable, in order to facilitate copy propagation. tm-max-aggregate-size When making copies of thread-local variables in a transaction, this parameter specifies the size in bytes after which variables are saved with the logging functions as opposed to save/restore code sequence pairs. This option only applies when using -fgnu-tm. graphite-max-nb-scop-params To avoid exponential effects in the Graphite loop transforms, the number of parameters in a Static Control Part (SCoP) is bounded. A value of zero can be used to lift the bound. A variable whose value is unknown at compilation time and defined outside a SCoP is a parameter of the SCoP. loop-block-tile-size Loop blocking or strip mining transforms, enabled with -floop-block or -floop-strip-mine, strip mine each loop in the loop nest by a given number of iterations. The strip length can be changed using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. ipa-jump-function-lookups Specifies number of statements visited during jump function offset discovery. ipa-cp-value-list-size IPA-CP attempts to track all possible values and types passed to a function’s parameter in order to propagate them and perform devirtualization. ipa-cp-value-list-size is the maximum number of values and types it stores per one formal parameter of a function. ipa-cp-eval-threshold IPA-CP calculates its own score of cloning profitability heuristics and performs those cloning opportunities with scores that exceed ipa-cp-eval-threshold. ipa-cp-max-recursive-depth Maximum depth of recursive cloning for self-recursive function. ipa-cp-min-recursive-probability Recursive cloning only when the probability of call being executed exceeds the parameter. ipa-cp-recursion-penalty Percentage penalty the recursive functions will receive when they are evaluated for cloning. ipa-cp-single-call-penalty Percentage penalty functions containing a single call to another function will receive when they are evaluated for cloning. ipa-max-agg-items IPA-CP is also capable to propagate a number of scalar values passed in an aggregate. ipa-max-agg-items controls the maximum number of such values per one parameter. ipa-cp-loop-hint-bonus When IPA-CP determines that a cloning candidate would make the number of iterations of a loop known, it adds a bonus of ipa-cp-loop-hint-bonus to the profitability score of the candidate. ipa-max-loop-predicates The maximum number of different predicates IPA will use to describe when loops in a function have known properties. ipa-max-aa-steps During its analysis of function bodies, IPA-CP employs alias analysis in order to track values pointed to by function parameters. In order not spend too much time analyzing huge functions, it gives up and consider all memory clobbered after examining ipa-max-aa-steps statements modifying memory. ipa-max-switch-predicate-bounds Maximal number of boundary endpoints of case ranges of switch statement. For switch exceeding this limit, IPA-CP will not construct cloning cost predicate, which is used to estimate cloning benefit, for default case of the switch statement. ipa-max-param-expr-ops IPA-CP will analyze conditional statement that references some function parameter to estimate benefit for cloning upon certain constant value. But if number of operations in a parameter expression exceeds ipa-max-param-expr-ops, the expression is treated as complicated one, and is not handled by IPA analysis. lto-partitions Specify desired number of partitions produced during WHOPR compilation. The number of partitions should exceed the number of CPUs used for compilation. lto-min-partition Size of minimal partition for WHOPR (in estimated instructions). This prevents expenses of splitting very small programs into too many partitions. lto-max-partition Size of max partition for WHOPR (in estimated instructions). to provide an upper bound for individual size of partition. Meant to be used only with balanced partitioning. lto-max-streaming-parallelism Maximal number of parallel processes used for LTO streaming. cxx-max-namespaces-for-diagnostic-help The maximum number of namespaces to consult for suggestions when C++ name lookup fails for an identifier. sink-frequency-threshold The maximum relative execution frequency (in percents) of the target block relative to a statement’s original block to allow statement sinking of a statement. Larger numbers result in more aggressive statement sinking. A small positive adjustment is applied for statements with memory operands as those are even more profitable so sink. max-stores-to-sink The maximum number of conditional store pairs that can be sunk. Set to 0 if either vectorization (-ftree-vectorize) or if-conversion (-ftree-loop-if-convert) is disabled. case-values-threshold The smallest number of different values for which it is best to use a jump-table instead of a tree of conditional branches. If the value is 0, use the default for the machine. jump-table-max-growth-ratio-for-size The maximum code size growth ratio when expanding into a jump table (in percent). The parameter is used when optimizing for size. jump-table-max-growth-ratio-for-speed The maximum code size growth ratio when expanding into a jump table (in percent). The parameter is used when optimizing for speed. tree-reassoc-width Set the maximum number of instructions executed in parallel in reassociated tree. This parameter overrides target dependent heuristics used by default if has non zero value. sched-pressure-algorithm Choose between the two available implementations of -fsched-pressure. Algorithm 1 is the original implementation and is the more likely to prevent instructions from being reordered. Algorithm 2 was designed to be a compromise between the relatively conservative approach taken by algorithm 1 and the rather aggressive approach taken by the default scheduler. It relies more heavily on having a regular register file and accurate register pressure classes. See haifa-sched.c in the GCC sources for more details. The default choice depends on the target. max-slsr-cand-scan Set the maximum number of existing candidates that are considered when seeking a basis for a new straight-line strength reduction candidate. asan-globals Enable buffer overflow detection for global objects. This kind of protection is enabled by default if you are using -fsanitize=address option. To disable global objects protection use –param asan-globals=0. asan-stack Enable buffer overflow detection for stack objects. This kind of protection is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=address. To disable stack protection use –param asan-stack=0 option. asan-instrument-reads Enable buffer overflow detection for memory reads. This kind of protection is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=address. To disable memory reads protection use –param asan-instrument-reads=0. asan-instrument-writes Enable buffer overflow detection for memory writes. This kind of protection is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=address. To disable memory writes protection use –param asan-instrument-writes=0 option. asan-memintrin Enable detection for built-in functions. This kind of protection is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=address. To disable built-in functions protection use –param asan-memintrin=0. asan-use-after-return Enable detection of use-after-return. This kind of protection is enabled by default when using the -fsanitize=address option. To disable it use –param asan-use-after-return=0. Note: By default the check is disabled at run time. To enable it, add detect_stack_use_after_return=1 to the environment variable ASAN_OPTIONS. asan-instrumentation-with-call-threshold If number of memory accesses in function being instrumented is greater or equal to this number, use callbacks instead of inline checks. E.g. to disable inline code use –param asan-instrumentation-with-call-threshold=0. hwasan-instrument-stack Enable hwasan instrumentation of statically sized stack-allocated variables. This kind of instrumentation is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=hwaddress and disabled by default when using -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress. To disable stack instrumentation use –param hwasan-instrument-stack=0, and to enable it use –param hwasan-instrument-stack=1. hwasan-random-frame-tag When using stack instrumentation, decide tags for stack variables using a deterministic sequence beginning at a random tag for each frame. With this parameter unset tags are chosen using the same sequence but beginning from 1. This is enabled by default for -fsanitize=hwaddress and unavailable for -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress. To disable it use –param hwasan-random-frame-tag=0. hwasan-instrument-allocas Enable hwasan instrumentation of dynamically sized stack-allocated variables. This kind of instrumentation is enabled by default when using -fsanitize=hwaddress and disabled by default when using -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress. To disable instrumentation of such variables use –param hwasan-instrument-allocas=0, and to enable it use –param hwasan-instrument-allocas=1. hwasan-instrument-reads Enable hwasan checks on memory reads. Instrumentation of reads is enabled by default for both -fsanitize=hwaddress and -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress. To disable checking memory reads use –param hwasan-instrument-reads=0. hwasan-instrument-writes Enable hwasan checks on memory writes. Instrumentation of writes is enabled by default for both -fsanitize=hwaddress and -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress. To disable checking memory writes use –param hwasan-instrument-writes=0. hwasan-instrument-mem-intrinsics Enable hwasan instrumentation of builtin functions. Instrumentation of these builtin functions is enabled by default for both -fsanitize=hwaddress and -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress. To disable instrumentation of builtin functions use –param hwasan-instrument-mem-intrinsics=0. use-after-scope-direct-emission-threshold If the size of a local variable in bytes is smaller or equal to this number, directly poison (or unpoison) shadow memory instead of using run-time callbacks. tsan-distinguish-volatile Emit special instrumentation for accesses to volatiles. tsan-instrument-func-entry-exit Emit instrumentation calls to _ _tsan_func_entry() and _ _tsan_func_exit(). max-fsm-thread-path-insns Maximum number of instructions to copy when duplicating blocks on a finite state automaton jump thread path. max-fsm-thread-length Maximum number of basic blocks on a finite state automaton jump thread path. max-fsm-thread-paths Maximum number of new jump thread paths to create for a finite state automaton. parloops-chunk-size Chunk size of omp schedule for loops parallelized by parloops. parloops-schedule Schedule type of omp schedule for loops parallelized by parloops (static, dynamic, guided, auto, runtime). parloops-min-per-thread The minimum number of iterations per thread of an innermost parallelized loop for which the parallelized variant is preferred over the single threaded one. Note that for a parallelized loop nest the minimum number of iterations of the outermost loop per thread is two. max-ssa-name-query-depth Maximum depth of recursion when querying properties of SSA names in things like fold routines. One level of recursion corresponds to following a use-def chain. max-speculative-devirt-maydefs The maximum number of may-defs we analyze when looking for a must-def specifying the dynamic type of an object that invokes a virtual call we may be able to devirtualize speculatively. max-vrp-switch-assertions The maximum number of assertions to add along the default edge of a switch statement during VRP. evrp-mode Specifies the mode Early VRP should operate in. unroll-jam-min-percent The minimum percentage of memory references that must be optimized away for the unroll-and-jam transformation to be considered profitable. unroll-jam-max-unroll The maximum number of times the outer loop should be unrolled by the unroll-and-jam transformation. max-rtl-if-conversion-unpredictable-cost Maximum permissible cost for the sequence that would be generated by the RTL if-conversion pass for a branch that is considered unpredictable. max-variable-expansions-in-unroller If -fvariable-expansion-in-unroller is used, the maximum number of times that an individual variable will be expanded during loop unrolling. tracer-min-branch-probability-feedback Stop forward growth if the probability of best edge is less than this threshold (in percent). Used when profile feedback is available. partial-inlining-entry-probability Maximum probability of the entry BB of split region (in percent relative to entry BB of the function) to make partial inlining happen. max-tracked-strlens Maximum number of strings for which strlen optimization pass will track string lengths. gcse-after-reload-partial-fraction The threshold ratio for performing partial redundancy elimination after reload. gcse-after-reload-critical-fraction The threshold ratio of critical edges execution count that permit performing redundancy elimination after reload. max-loop-header-insns The maximum number of insns in loop header duplicated by the copy loop headers pass. vect-epilogues-nomask Enable loop epilogue vectorization using smaller vector size. vect-partial-vector-usage Controls when the loop vectorizer considers using partial vector loads and stores as an alternative to falling back to scalar code. 0 stops the vectorizer from ever using partial vector loads and stores. 1 allows partial vector loads and stores if vectorization removes the need for the code to iterate. 2 allows partial vector loads and stores in all loops. The parameter only has an effect on targets that support partial vector loads and stores. avoid-fma-max-bits Maximum number of bits for which we avoid creating FMAs. sms-loop-average-count-threshold A threshold on the average loop count considered by the swing modulo scheduler. sms-dfa-history The number of cycles the swing modulo scheduler considers when checking conflicts using DFA. max-inline-insns-recursive-auto The maximum number of instructions non-inline function can grow to via recursive inlining. graphite-allow-codegen-errors Whether codegen errors should be ICEs when -fchecking. sms-max-ii-factor A factor for tuning the upper bound that swing modulo scheduler uses for scheduling a loop. lra-max-considered-reload-pseudos The max number of reload pseudos which are considered during spilling a non-reload pseudo. max-pow-sqrt-depth Maximum depth of sqrt chains to use when synthesizing exponentiation by a real constant. max-dse-active-local-stores Maximum number of active local stores in RTL dead store elimination. asan-instrument-allocas Enable asan allocas/VLAs protection. max-iterations-computation-cost Bound on the cost of an expression to compute the number of iterations. max-isl-operations Maximum number of isl operations, 0 means unlimited. graphite-max-arrays-per-scop Maximum number of arrays per scop. max-vartrack-reverse-op-size Max. size of loc list for which reverse ops should be added. tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback The percentage of function, weighted by execution frequency, that must be covered by trace formation. Used when profile feedback is available. max-inline-recursive-depth-auto The maximum depth of recursive inlining for non-inline functions. fsm-scale-path-stmts Scale factor to apply to the number of statements in a threading path when comparing to the number of (scaled) blocks. fsm-maximum-phi-arguments Maximum number of arguments a PHI may have before the FSM threader will not try to thread through its block. uninit-control-dep-attempts Maximum number of nested calls to search for control dependencies during uninitialized variable analysis. sra-max-scalarization-size-Osize Maximum size, in storage units, of an aggregate which should be considered for scalarization when compiling for size. fsm-scale-path-blocks Scale factor to apply to the number of blocks in a threading path when comparing to the number of (scaled) statements. sched-autopref-queue-depth Hardware autoprefetcher scheduler model control flag. Number of lookahead cycles the model looks into; at ’ ’ only enable instruction sorting heuristic. loop-versioning-max-inner-insns The maximum number of instructions that an inner loop can have before the loop versioning pass considers it too big to copy. loop-versioning-max-outer-insns The maximum number of instructions that an outer loop can have before the loop versioning pass considers it too big to copy, discounting any instructions in inner loops that directly benefit from versioning. ssa-name-def-chain-limit The maximum number of SSA_NAME assignments to follow in determining a property of a variable such as its value. This limits the number of iterations or recursive calls GCC performs when optimizing certain statements or when determining their validity prior to issuing diagnostics. store-merging-max-size Maximum size of a single store merging region in bytes. hash-table-verification-limit The number of elements for which hash table verification is done for each searched element. max-find-base-term-values Maximum number of VALUEs handled during a single find_base_term call. analyzer-max-enodes-per-program-point The maximum number of exploded nodes per program point within the analyzer, before terminating analysis of that point. analyzer-max-constraints The maximum number of constraints per state. analyzer-min-snodes-for-call-summary The minimum number of supernodes within a function for the analyzer to consider summarizing its effects at call sites. analyzer-max-enodes-for-full-dump The maximum depth of exploded nodes that should appear in a dot dump before switching to a less verbose format. analyzer-max-recursion-depth The maximum number of times a callsite can appear in a call stack within the analyzer, before terminating analysis of a call that would recurse deeper. analyzer-max-svalue-depth The maximum depth of a symbolic value, before approximating the value as unknown. analyzer-max-infeasible-edges The maximum number of infeasible edges to reject before declaring a diagnostic as infeasible. gimple-fe-computed-hot-bb-threshold The number of executions of a basic block which is considered hot. The parameter is used only in GIMPLE FE. analyzer-bb-explosion-factor The maximum number of ’after supernode’ exploded nodes within the analyzer per supernode, before terminating analysis. ranger-logical-depth Maximum depth of logical expression evaluation ranger will look through when evaluating outgoing edge ranges. openacc-kernels Specify mode of OpenACC kernels’ constructs handling. With –param=openacc-kernels=decompose, OpenACC kernels’ constructs are decomposed into parts, a sequence of compute constructs, each then handled individually. This is work in progress. With –param=openacc-kernels=parloops, OpenACC kernels’ constructs are handled by the parloops pass, en bloc. This is the current default. The following choices of name are available on AArch64 targets: aarch64-sve-compare-costs When vectorizing for SVE, consider using unpacked vectors for smaller elements and use the cost model to pick the cheapest approach. Also use the cost model to choose between SVE and Advanced SIMD vectorization. Using unpacked vectors includes storing smaller elements in larger containers and accessing elements with extending loads and truncating stores. aarch64-float-recp-precision The number of Newton iterations for calculating the reciprocal for float type. The precision of division is proportional to this param when division approximation is enabled. The default value is 1. aarch64-double-recp-precision The number of Newton iterations for calculating the reciprocal for double type. The precision of division is propotional to this param when division approximation is enabled. The default value is 2. aarch64-autovec-preference Force an ISA selection strategy for auto-vectorization. Accepts values from 0 to 4, inclusive. 1. Use the default heuristics. 2. Use only Advanced SIMD for auto-vectorization. 3. Use only SVE for auto-vectorization. 4. Use both Advanced SIMD and SVE. Prefer Advanced SIMD when the costs are deemed equal. 5. Use both Advanced SIMD and SVE. Prefer SVE when the costs are deemed equal. The default value is 0. aarch64-loop-vect-issue-rate-niters The tuning for some AArch64 CPUs tries to take both latencies and issue rates into account when deciding whether a loop should be vectorized using SVE, vectorized using Advanced SIMD, or not vectorized at all. If this parameter is set to n, GCC will not use this heuristic for loops that are known to execute in fewer than n Advanced SIMD iterations. ### Program Instrumentation Options GCC supports a number of command-line options that control adding run-time instrumentation to the code it normally generates. For example, one purpose of instrumentation is collect profiling statistics for use in finding program hot spots, code coverage analysis, or profile-guided optimizations. Another class of program instrumentation is adding run-time checking to detect programming errors like invalid pointer dereferences or out-of-bounds array accesses, as well as deliberately hostile attacks such as stack smashing or C++ vtable hijacking. There is also a general hook which can be used to implement other forms of tracing or function-level instrumentation for debug or program analysis purposes. -p -pg Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the analysis program prof (for -p) or gprof (for -pg). You must use this option when compiling the source files you want data about, and you must also use it when linking. You can use the function attribute no_instrument_function to suppress profiling of individual functions when compiling with these options. -fprofile-arcs Add code so that program flow arcs are instrumented. During execution the program records how many times each branch and call is executed and how many times it is taken or returns. On targets that support constructors with priority support, profiling properly handles constructors, destructors and C++ constructors (and destructors) of classes which are used as a type of a global variable. When the compiled program exits it saves this data to a file called auxname.gcda for each source file. The data may be used for profile-directed optimizations (-fbranch-probabilities), or for test coverage analysis (-ftest-coverage). Each object file’s auxname is generated from the name of the output file, if explicitly specified and it is not the final executable, otherwise it is the basename of the source file. In both cases any suffix is removed (e.g. foo.gcda for input file dir/foo.c, or dir/foo.gcda for output file specified as -o dir/foo.o). –coverage This option is used to compile and link code instrumented for coverage analysis. The option is a synonym for -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage (when compiling) and -lgcov (when linking). See the documentation for those options for more details. • Compile the source files with -fprofile-arcs plus optimization and code generation options. For test coverage analysis, use the additional -ftest-coverage option. You do not need to profile every source file in a program. • Compile the source files additionally with -fprofile-abs-path to create absolute path names in the .gcno files. This allows gcov to find the correct sources in projects where compilations occur with different working directories. • Link your object files with -lgcov or -fprofile-arcs (the latter implies the former). • Run the program on a representative workload to generate the arc profile information. This may be repeated any number of times. You can run concurrent instances of your program, and provided that the file system supports locking, the data files will be correctly updated. Unless a strict ISO C dialect option is in effect, fork calls are detected and correctly handled without double counting. • For profile-directed optimizations, compile the source files again with the same optimization and code generation options plus -fbranch-probabilities. • For test coverage analysis, use gcov to produce human readable information from the .gcno and .gcda files. Refer to the gcov documentation for further information. With -fprofile-arcs, for each function of your program GCC creates a program flow graph, then finds a spanning tree for the graph. Only arcs that are not on the spanning tree have to be instrumented: the compiler adds code to count the number of times that these arcs are executed. When an arc is the only exit or only entrance to a block, the instrumentation code can be added to the block; otherwise, a new basic block must be created to hold the instrumentation code. -ftest-coverage Produce a notes file that the gcov code-coverage utility can use to show program coverage. Each source file’s note file is called auxname.gcno. Refer to the -fprofile-arcs option above for a description of auxname and instructions on how to generate test coverage data. Coverage data matches the source files more closely if you do not optimize. -fprofile-abs-path Automatically convert relative source file names to absolute path names in the .gcno files. This allows gcov to find the correct sources in projects where compilations occur with different working directories. -fprofile-dir=path Set the directory to search for the profile data files in to path. This option affects only the profile data generated by -fprofile-generate, -ftest-coverage, -fprofile-arcs and used by -fprofile-use and -fbranch-probabilities and its related options. Both absolute and relative paths can be used. By default, GCC uses the current directory as path, thus the profile data file appears in the same directory as the object file. In order to prevent the file name clashing, if the object file name is not an absolute path, we mangle the absolute path of the sourcename.gcda file and use it as the file name of a .gcda file. See similar option -fprofile-note. When an executable is run in a massive parallel environment, it is recommended to save profile to different folders. That can be done with variables in path that are exported during run-time: %p process ID. %q{VAR} value of environment variable VAR -fprofile-generate -fprofile-generate=path Enable options usually used for instrumenting application to produce profile useful for later recompilation with profile feedback based optimization. You must use -fprofile-generate both when compiling and when linking your program. The following options are enabled: -fprofile-arcs, -fprofile-values, -finline-functions, and -fipa-bit-cp. If path is specified, GCC looks at the path to find the profile feedback data files. See -fprofile-dir. To optimize the program based on the collected profile information, use -fprofile-use. -fprofile-info-section -fprofile-info-section=name Register the profile information in the specified section instead of using a constructor/destructor. The section name is name if it is specified, otherwise the section name defaults to .gcov_info. A pointer to the profile information generated by -fprofile-arcs or -ftest-coverage is placed in the specified section for each translation unit. This option disables the profile information registration through a constructor and it disables the profile information processing through a destructor. This option is not intended to be used in hosted environments such as GNU/Linux. It targets systems with limited resources which do not support constructors and destructors. The linker could collect the input sections in a continuous memory block and define start and end symbols. The runtime support could dump the profiling information registered in this linker set during program termination to a serial line for example. A GNU linker script example which defines a linker output section follows: .gcov_info : { PROVIDE (_ gcov_info_start = .); KEEP (*(.gcov_info)) PROVIDE ( _gcov_info_end = .); } -fprofile-note=path If path is specified, GCC saves .gcno file into path location. If you combine the option with multiple source files, the .gcno file will be overwritten. -fprofile-prefix-path=path This option can be used in combination with *profile-generate=*/profile_dir/ and *profile-use=*/profile_dir/ to inform GCC where is the base directory of built source tree. By default profile_dir will contain files with mangled absolute paths of all object files in the built project. This is not desirable when directory used to build the instrumented binary differs from the directory used to build the binary optimized with profile feedback because the profile data will not be found during the optimized build. In such setups *-fprofile-prefix-path=*/path/ with path pointing to the base directory of the build can be used to strip the irrelevant part of the path and keep all file names relative to the main build directory. -fprofile-update=method Alter the update method for an application instrumented for profile feedback based optimization. The method argument should be one of single, atomic or prefer-atomic. The first one is useful for single-threaded applications, while the second one prevents profile corruption by emitting thread-safe code. Warning: When an application does not properly join all threads (or creates an detached thread), a profile file can be still corrupted. Using prefer-atomic would be transformed either to atomic, when supported by a target, or to single otherwise. The GCC driver automatically selects prefer-atomic when -pthread is present in the command line. -fprofile-filter-files=regex Instrument only functions from files whose name matches any of the regular expressions (separated by semi-colons). For example, -fprofile-filter-files=main\.c;module.\.c* will instrument only main.c and all C files starting with ’module’. -fprofile-exclude-files=regex Instrument only functions from files whose name does not match any of the regular expressions (separated by semi-colons). For example, -fprofile-exclude-files=/usr/.* will prevent instrumentation of all files that are located in the usr folder. -fprofile-reproducible=[multithreaded|parallel-runs|serial] Control level of reproducibility of profile gathered by -fprofile-generate. This makes it possible to rebuild program with same outcome which is useful, for example, for distribution packages. With -fprofile-reproducible=serial the profile gathered by -fprofile-generate is reproducible provided the trained program behaves the same at each invocation of the train run, it is not multi-threaded and profile data streaming is always done in the same order. Note that profile streaming happens at the end of program run but also before fork function is invoked. Note that it is quite common that execution counts of some part of programs depends, for example, on length of temporary file names or memory space randomization (that may affect hash-table collision rate). Such non-reproducible part of programs may be annotated by no_instrument_function function attribute. gcov-dump with -l can be used to dump gathered data and verify that they are indeed reproducible. With -fprofile-reproducible=parallel-runs collected profile stays reproducible regardless the order of streaming of the data into gcda files. This setting makes it possible to run multiple instances of instrumented program in parallel (such as with make -j). This reduces quality of gathered data, in particular of indirect call profiling. -fsanitize=address Enable AddressSanitizer, a fast memory error detector. Memory access instructions are instrumented to detect out-of-bounds and use-after-free bugs. The option enables -fsanitize-address-use-after-scope. See <*https://github.com/google/sanitizers/wiki/AddressSanitizer*> for more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using the ASAN_OPTIONS environment variable. When set to help=1, the available options are shown at startup of the instrumented program. See <*https://github.com/google/sanitizers/wiki/AddressSanitizerFlags#run-time-flags*> for a list of supported options. The option cannot be combined with -fsanitize=thread or -fsanitize=hwaddress. Note that the only target -fsanitize=hwaddress is currently supported on is AArch64. -fsanitize=kernel-address Enable AddressSanitizer for Linux kernel. See <*https://github.com/google/kasan*> for more details. -fsanitize=hwaddress Enable Hardware-assisted AddressSanitizer, which uses a hardware ability to ignore the top byte of a pointer to allow the detection of memory errors with a low memory overhead. Memory access instructions are instrumented to detect out-of-bounds and use-after-free bugs. The option enables -fsanitize-address-use-after-scope. See <*https://clang.llvm.org/docs/HardwareAssistedAddressSanitizerDesign.html*> for more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using the HWASAN_OPTIONS environment variable. When set to help=1, the available options are shown at startup of the instrumented program. The option cannot be combined with -fsanitize=thread or -fsanitize=address, and is currently only available on AArch64. -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress Enable Hardware-assisted AddressSanitizer for compilation of the Linux kernel. Similar to -fsanitize=kernel-address but using an alternate instrumentation method, and similar to -fsanitize=hwaddress but with instrumentation differences necessary for compiling the Linux kernel. These differences are to avoid hwasan library initialization calls and to account for the stack pointer having a different value in its top byte. Note: This option has different defaults to the -fsanitize=hwaddress. Instrumenting the stack and alloca calls are not on by default but are still possible by specifying the command-line options –param hwasan-instrument-stack=1 and –param hwasan-instrument-allocas=1 respectively. Using a random frame tag is not implemented for kernel instrumentation. -fsanitize=pointer-compare Instrument comparison operation (<, <=, >, >=) with pointer operands. The option must be combined with either -fsanitize=kernel-address or -fsanitize=address The option cannot be combined with -fsanitize=thread. Note: By default the check is disabled at run time. To enable it, add detect_invalid_pointer_pairs=2 to the environment variable ASAN_OPTIONS. Using detect_invalid_pointer_pairs=1 detects invalid operation only when both pointers are non-null. -fsanitize=pointer-subtract Instrument subtraction with pointer operands. The option must be combined with either -fsanitize=kernel-address or -fsanitize=address The option cannot be combined with -fsanitize=thread. Note: By default the check is disabled at run time. To enable it, add detect_invalid_pointer_pairs=2 to the environment variable ASAN_OPTIONS. Using detect_invalid_pointer_pairs=1 detects invalid operation only when both pointers are non-null. -fsanitize=thread Enable ThreadSanitizer, a fast data race detector. Memory access instructions are instrumented to detect data race bugs. See <*https://github.com/google/sanitizers/wiki#threadsanitizer*> for more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using the TSAN_OPTIONS environment variable; see <*https://github.com/google/sanitizers/wiki/ThreadSanitizerFlags*> for a list of supported options. The option cannot be combined with -fsanitize=address, -fsanitize=leak. Note that sanitized atomic builtins cannot throw exceptions when operating on invalid memory addresses with non-call exceptions (-fnon-call-exceptions). -fsanitize=leak Enable LeakSanitizer, a memory leak detector. This option only matters for linking of executables and the executable is linked against a library that overrides malloc and other allocator functions. See <*https://github.com/google/sanitizers/wiki/AddressSanitizerLeakSanitizer*> for more details. The run-time behavior can be influenced using the LSAN_OPTIONS environment variable. The option cannot be combined with -fsanitize=thread. -fsanitize=undefined Enable UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer, a fast undefined behavior detector. Various computations are instrumented to detect undefined behavior at runtime. Current suboptions are: -fsanitize=shift This option enables checking that the result of a shift operation is not undefined. Note that what exactly is considered undefined differs slightly between C and C++, as well as between ISO C90 and C99, etc. This option has two suboptions, -fsanitize=shift-base and -fsanitize=shift-exponent. -fsanitize=shift-exponent This option enables checking that the second argument of a shift operation is not negative and is smaller than the precision of the promoted first argument. -fsanitize=shift-base If the second argument of a shift operation is within range, check that the result of a shift operation is not undefined. Note that what exactly is considered undefined differs slightly between C and C++, as well as between ISO C90 and C99, etc. -fsanitize=integer-divide-by-zero Detect integer division by zero as well as INT_MIN / -1 division. -fsanitize=unreachable With this option, the compiler turns the _ _builtin_unreachable call into a diagnostics message call instead. When reaching the _ _builtin_unreachable call, the behavior is undefined. -fsanitize=vla-bound This option instructs the compiler to check that the size of a variable length array is positive. -fsanitize=null This option enables pointer checking. Particularly, the application built with this option turned on will issue an error message when it tries to dereference a NULL pointer, or if a reference (possibly an rvalue reference) is bound to a NULL pointer, or if a method is invoked on an object pointed by a NULL pointer. -fsanitize=return This option enables return statement checking. Programs built with this option turned on will issue an error message when the end of a non-void function is reached without actually returning a value. This option works in C++ only. -fsanitize=signed-integer-overflow This option enables signed integer overflow checking. We check that the result of +, *, and both unary and binary - does not overflow in the signed arithmetics. Note, integer promotion rules must be taken into account. That is, the following is not an overflow: signed char a = SCHAR_MAX; a++; -fsanitize=bounds This option enables instrumentation of array bounds. Various out of bounds accesses are detected. Flexible array members, flexible array member-like arrays, and initializers of variables with static storage are not instrumented. -fsanitize=bounds-strict This option enables strict instrumentation of array bounds. Most out of bounds accesses are detected, including flexible array members and flexible array member-like arrays. Initializers of variables with static storage are not instrumented. -fsanitize=alignment This option enables checking of alignment of pointers when they are dereferenced, or when a reference is bound to insufficiently aligned target, or when a method or constructor is invoked on insufficiently aligned object. -fsanitize=object-size This option enables instrumentation of memory references using the _ _builtin_object_size function. Various out of bounds pointer accesses are detected. -fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero Detect floating-point division by zero. Unlike other similar options, -fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero is not enabled by -fsanitize=undefined, since floating-point division by zero can be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs. -fsanitize=float-cast-overflow This option enables floating-point type to integer conversion checking. We check that the result of the conversion does not overflow. Unlike other similar options, -fsanitize=float-cast-overflow is not enabled by -fsanitize=undefined. This option does not work well with FE_INVALID exceptions enabled. -fsanitize=nonnull-attribute This option enables instrumentation of calls, checking whether null values are not passed to arguments marked as requiring a non-null value by the nonnull function attribute. -fsanitize=returns-nonnull-attribute This option enables instrumentation of return statements in functions marked with returns_nonnull function attribute, to detect returning of null values from such functions. -fsanitize=bool This option enables instrumentation of loads from bool. If a value other than 0/1 is loaded, a run-time error is issued. -fsanitize=enum This option enables instrumentation of loads from an enum type. If a value outside the range of values for the enum type is loaded, a run-time error is issued. -fsanitize=vptr This option enables instrumentation of C++ member function calls, member accesses and some conversions between pointers to base and derived classes, to verify the referenced object has the correct dynamic type. -fsanitize=pointer-overflow This option enables instrumentation of pointer arithmetics. If the pointer arithmetics overflows, a run-time error is issued. -fsanitize=builtin This option enables instrumentation of arguments to selected builtin functions. If an invalid value is passed to such arguments, a run-time error is issued. E.g. passing 0 as the argument to _ _builtin_ctz or _ _builtin_clz invokes undefined behavior and is diagnosed by this option. While -ftrapv causes traps for signed overflows to be emitted, -fsanitize=undefined gives a diagnostic message. This currently works only for the C family of languages. -fno-sanitize=all This option disables all previously enabled sanitizers. -fsanitize=all is not allowed, as some sanitizers cannot be used together. -fasan-shadow-offset=number This option forces GCC to use custom shadow offset in AddressSanitizer checks. It is useful for experimenting with different shadow memory layouts in Kernel AddressSanitizer. -fsanitize-sections=s1,s2,… Sanitize global variables in selected user-defined sections. si may contain wildcards. -fsanitize-recover[=opts] -fsanitize-recover= controls error recovery mode for sanitizers mentioned in comma-separated list of opts. Enabling this option for a sanitizer component causes it to attempt to continue running the program as if no error happened. This means multiple runtime errors can be reported in a single program run, and the exit code of the program may indicate success even when errors have been reported. The -fno-sanitize-recover= option can be used to alter this behavior: only the first detected error is reported and program then exits with a non-zero exit code. Currently this feature only works for -fsanitize=undefined (and its suboptions except for -fsanitize=unreachable and -fsanitize=return), -fsanitize=float-cast-overflow, -fsanitize=float-divide-by-zero, -fsanitize=bounds-strict, -fsanitize=kernel-address and -fsanitize=address. For these sanitizers error recovery is turned on by default, except -fsanitize=address, for which this feature is experimental. -fsanitize-recover=all and -fno-sanitize-recover=all is also accepted, the former enables recovery for all sanitizers that support it, the latter disables recovery for all sanitizers that support it. Even if a recovery mode is turned on the compiler side, it needs to be also enabled on the runtime library side, otherwise the failures are still fatal. The runtime library defaults to halt_on_error=0 for ThreadSanitizer and UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer, while default value for AddressSanitizer is halt_on_error=1. This can be overridden through setting the halt_on_error flag in the corresponding environment variable. Syntax without an explicit opts parameter is deprecated. It is equivalent to specifying an opts list of: undefined,float-cast-overflow,float-divide-by-zero,bounds-strict -fsanitize-address-use-after-scope Enable sanitization of local variables to detect use-after-scope bugs. The option sets -fstack-reuse to none. -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error The -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error option instructs the compiler to report undefined behavior using _ _builtin_trap rather than a libubsan library routine. The advantage of this is that the libubsan library is not needed and is not linked in, so this is usable even in freestanding environments. -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc Enable coverage-guided fuzzing code instrumentation. Inserts a call to _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_pc into every basic block. -fsanitize-coverage=trace-cmp Enable dataflow guided fuzzing code instrumentation. Inserts a call to _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp1, _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp2, _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp4 or _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp8 for integral comparison with both operands variable or _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp1, _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp2, _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp4 or _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp8 for integral comparison with one operand constant, _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_cmpf or _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_cmpd for float or double comparisons and _ _sanitizer_cov_trace_switch for switch statements. -fcf-protection=[full|branch|return|none|check] Enable code instrumentation of control-flow transfers to increase program security by checking that target addresses of control-flow transfer instructions (such as indirect function call, function return, indirect jump) are valid. This prevents diverting the flow of control to an unexpected target. This is intended to protect against such threats as Return-oriented Programming (ROP), and similarly call/jmp-oriented programming (COP/JOP). The value branch tells the compiler to implement checking of validity of control-flow transfer at the point of indirect branch instructions, i.e. call/jmp instructions. The value return implements checking of validity at the point of returning from a function. The value full is an alias for specifying both branch and return. The value none turns off instrumentation. The value check is used for the final link with link-time optimization (LTO). An error is issued if LTO object files are compiled with different -fcf-protection values. The value check is ignored at the compile time. The macro _ _CET_ _ is defined when -fcf-protection is used. The first bit of _ _CET_ _ is set to 1 for the value branch and the second bit of _ _CET_ _ is set to 1 for the return. You can also use the nocf_check attribute to identify which functions and calls should be skipped from instrumentation. Currently the x86 GNU/Linux target provides an implementation based on Intel Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET). -fstack-protector Emit extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack smashing attacks. This is done by adding a guard variable to functions with vulnerable objects. This includes functions that call alloca, and functions with buffers larger than or equal to 8 bytes. The guards are initialized when a function is entered and then checked when the function exits. If a guard check fails, an error message is printed and the program exits. Only variables that are actually allocated on the stack are considered, optimized away variables or variables allocated in registers don’t count. -fstack-protector-all Like -fstack-protector except that all functions are protected. -fstack-protector-strong Like -fstack-protector but includes additional functions to be protected — those that have local array definitions, or have references to local frame addresses. Only variables that are actually allocated on the stack are considered, optimized away variables or variables allocated in registers don’t count. -fstack-protector-explicit Like -fstack-protector but only protects those functions which have the stack_protect attribute. -fstack-check Generate code to verify that you do not go beyond the boundary of the stack. You should specify this flag if you are running in an environment with multiple threads, but you only rarely need to specify it in a single-threaded environment since stack overflow is automatically detected on nearly all systems if there is only one stack. Note that this switch does not actually cause checking to be done; the operating system or the language runtime must do that. The switch causes generation of code to ensure that they see the stack being extended. You can additionally specify a string parameter: no means no checking, generic means force the use of old-style checking, specific means use the best checking method and is equivalent to bare -fstack-check. Old-style checking is a generic mechanism that requires no specific target support in the compiler but comes with the following drawbacks: 1. Modified allocation strategy for large objects: they are always allocated dynamically if their size exceeds a fixed threshold. Note this may change the semantics of some code. 2. Fixed limit on the size of the static frame of functions: when it is topped by a particular function, stack checking is not reliable and a warning is issued by the compiler. 3. Inefficiency: because of both the modified allocation strategy and the generic implementation, code performance is hampered. Note that old-style stack checking is also the fallback method for specific if no target support has been added in the compiler. -fstack-check= is designed for Ada’s needs to detect infinite recursion and stack overflows. specific is an excellent choice when compiling Ada code. It is not generally sufficient to protect against stack-clash attacks. To protect against those you want -fstack-clash-protection. -fstack-clash-protection Generate code to prevent stack clash style attacks. When this option is enabled, the compiler will only allocate one page of stack space at a time and each page is accessed immediately after allocation. Thus, it prevents allocations from jumping over any stack guard page provided by the operating system. Most targets do not fully support stack clash protection. However, on those targets -fstack-clash-protection will protect dynamic stack allocations. -fstack-clash-protection may also provide limited protection for static stack allocations if the target supports -fstack-check=specific. -fstack-limit-register=reg -fstack-limit-symbol=sym -fno-stack-limit Generate code to ensure that the stack does not grow beyond a certain value, either the value of a register or the address of a symbol. If a larger stack is required, a signal is raised at run time. For most targets, the signal is raised before the stack overruns the boundary, so it is possible to catch the signal without taking special precautions. For instance, if the stack starts at absolute address 0x80000000 and grows downwards, you can use the flags -fstack-limit-symbol=_ _stack_limit and -Wl,–defsym,_ _stack_limit=0x7ffe0000 to enforce a stack limit of 128KB. Note that this may only work with the GNU linker. You can locally override stack limit checking by using the no_stack_limit function attribute. -fsplit-stack Generate code to automatically split the stack before it overflows. The resulting program has a discontiguous stack which can only overflow if the program is unable to allocate any more memory. This is most useful when running threaded programs, as it is no longer necessary to calculate a good stack size to use for each thread. This is currently only implemented for the x86 targets running GNU/Linux. When code compiled with -fsplit-stack calls code compiled without -fsplit-stack, there may not be much stack space available for the latter code to run. If compiling all code, including library code, with -fsplit-stack is not an option, then the linker can fix up these calls so that the code compiled without -fsplit-stack always has a large stack. Support for this is implemented in the gold linker in GNU binutils release 2.21 and later. -fvtable-verify=[std|preinit|none] This option is only available when compiling C++ code. It turns on (or off, if using -fvtable-verify=none) the security feature that verifies at run time, for every virtual call, that the vtable pointer through which the call is made is valid for the type of the object, and has not been corrupted or overwritten. If an invalid vtable pointer is detected at run time, an error is reported and execution of the program is immediately halted. This option causes run-time data structures to be built at program startup, which are used for verifying the vtable pointers. The options std and preinit control the timing of when these data structures are built. In both cases the data structures are built before execution reaches main. Using -fvtable-verify=std causes the data structures to be built after shared libraries have been loaded and initialized. -fvtable-verify=preinit causes them to be built before shared libraries have been loaded and initialized. If this option appears multiple times in the command line with different values specified, none takes highest priority over both std and preinit; preinit takes priority over std. -fvtv-debug When used in conjunction with -fvtable-verify=std or -fvtable-verify=preinit, causes debug versions of the runtime functions for the vtable verification feature to be called. This flag also causes the compiler to log information about which vtable pointers it finds for each class. This information is written to a file named vtv_set_ptr_data.log in the directory named by the environment variable VTV_LOGS_DIR if that is defined or the current working directory otherwise. Note: This feature appends data to the log file. If you want a fresh log file, be sure to delete any existing one. -fvtv-counts This is a debugging flag. When used in conjunction with -fvtable-verify=std or -fvtable-verify=preinit, this causes the compiler to keep track of the total number of virtual calls it encounters and the number of verifications it inserts. It also counts the number of calls to certain run-time library functions that it inserts and logs this information for each compilation unit. The compiler writes this information to a file named vtv_count_data.log in the directory named by the environment variable VTV_LOGS_DIR if that is defined or the current working directory otherwise. It also counts the size of the vtable pointer sets for each class, and writes this information to vtv_class_set_sizes.log in the same directory. Note: This feature appends data to the log files. To get fresh log files, be sure to delete any existing ones. -finstrument-functions Generate instrumentation calls for entry and exit to functions. Just after function entry and just before function exit, the following profiling functions are called with the address of the current function and its call site. (On some platforms, _ _builtin_return_address does not work beyond the current function, so the call site information may not be available to the profiling functions otherwise.) void _ _cyg_profile_func_enter (void *this_fn, void *call_site); void _ _cyg_profile_func_exit (void *this_fn, void *call_site); The first argument is the address of the start of the current function, which may be looked up exactly in the symbol table. This instrumentation is also done for functions expanded inline in other functions. The profiling calls indicate where, conceptually, the inline function is entered and exited. This means that addressable versions of such functions must be available. If all your uses of a function are expanded inline, this may mean an additional expansion of code size. If you use extern inline in your C code, an addressable version of such functions must be provided. (This is normally the case anyway, but if you get lucky and the optimizer always expands the functions inline, you might have gotten away without providing static copies.) A function may be given the attribute no_instrument_function, in which case this instrumentation is not done. This can be used, for example, for the profiling functions listed above, high-priority interrupt routines, and any functions from which the profiling functions cannot safely be called (perhaps signal handlers, if the profiling routines generate output or allocate memory). -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=file,file,… Set the list of functions that are excluded from instrumentation (see the description of -finstrument-functions). If the file that contains a function definition matches with one of file, then that function is not instrumented. The match is done on substrings: if the file parameter is a substring of the file name, it is considered to be a match. For example: -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=/bits/stl,include/sys excludes any inline function defined in files whose pathnames contain /bits/stl or include/sys. If, for some reason, you want to include letter , in one of sym, write ,. For example, -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=’,,tmp’ (note the single quote surrounding the option). -finstrument-functions-exclude-function-list=sym,sym,… This is similar to -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list, but this option sets the list of function names to be excluded from instrumentation. The function name to be matched is its user-visible name, such as vector<int> blah(const vector<int> &), not the internal mangled name (e.g., _Z4blahRSt6vectorIiSaIiEE). The match is done on substrings: if the sym parameter is a substring of the function name, it is considered to be a match. For C99 and C++ extended identifiers, the function name must be given in UTF-8, not using universal character names. -fpatchable-function-entry=N[,M] Generate N NOPs right at the beginning of each function, with the function entry point before the M/th NOP. If /M is omitted, it defaults to 0 so the function entry points to the address just at the first NOP. The NOP instructions reserve extra space which can be used to patch in any desired instrumentation at run time, provided that the code segment is writable. The amount of space is controllable indirectly via the number of NOPs; the NOP instruction used corresponds to the instruction emitted by the internal GCC back-end interface gen_nop. This behavior is target-specific and may also depend on the architecture variant and/or other compilation options. For run-time identification, the starting addresses of these areas, which correspond to their respective function entries minus M, are additionally collected in the _ _patchable_function_entries section of the resulting binary. Note that the value of _ _attribute_ _ ((patchable_function_entry (N,M))) takes precedence over command-line option -fpatchable-function-entry=N,M. This can be used to increase the area size or to remove it completely on a single function. If N=0, no pad location is recorded. The NOP instructions are inserted at—and maybe before, depending on M—the function entry address, even before the prologue. The maximum value of N and M is 65535. ### Options Controlling the Preprocessor These options control the C preprocessor, which is run on each C source file before actual compilation. If you use the -E option, nothing is done except preprocessing. Some of these options make sense only together with -E because they cause the preprocessor output to be unsuitable for actual compilation. In addition to the options listed here, there are a number of options to control search paths for include files documented in Directory Options. Options to control preprocessor diagnostics are listed in Warning Options. -D name Predefine name as a macro, with definition 1. -D name=definition The contents of definition are tokenized and processed as if they appeared during translation phase three in a #define directive. In particular, the definition is truncated by embedded newline characters. If you are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like program you may need to use the shell’s quoting syntax to protect characters such as spaces that have a meaning in the shell syntax. If you wish to define a function-like macro on the command line, write its argument list with surrounding parentheses before the equals sign (if any). Parentheses are meaningful to most shells, so you should quote the option. With sh and csh, -D’*/name/*(*/args…/)=*/definition/*’* works. -D and -U options are processed in the order they are given on the command line. All -imacros file and -include file options are processed after all -D and -U options. -U name Cancel any previous definition of name, either built in or provided with a -D option. -include file Process file as if #include "file" appeared as the first line of the primary source file. However, the first directory searched for file is the preprocessor’s working directory instead of the directory containing the main source file. If not found there, it is searched for in the remainder of the #include "..." search chain as normal. If multiple -include options are given, the files are included in the order they appear on the command line. -imacros file Exactly like -include, except that any output produced by scanning file is thrown away. Macros it defines remain defined. This allows you to acquire all the macros from a header without also processing its declarations. All files specified by -imacros are processed before all files specified by -include. -undef Do not predefine any system-specific or GCC-specific macros. The standard predefined macros remain defined. -pthread Define additional macros required for using the POSIX threads library. You should use this option consistently for both compilation and linking. This option is supported on GNU/Linux targets, most other Unix derivatives, and also on x86 Cygwin and MinGW targets. -M Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a rule suitable for make describing the dependencies of the main source file. The preprocessor outputs one make rule containing the object file name for that source file, a colon, and the names of all the included files, including those coming from -include or -imacros command-line options. Unless specified explicitly (with -MT or -MQ), the object file name consists of the name of the source file with any suffix replaced with object file suffix and with any leading directory parts removed. If there are many included files then the rule is split into several lines using \-newline. The rule has no commands. This option does not suppress the preprocessor’s debug output, such as -dM. To avoid mixing such debug output with the dependency rules you should explicitly specify the dependency output file with -MF, or use an environment variable like DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT. Debug output is still sent to the regular output stream as normal. Passing -M to the driver implies -E, and suppresses warnings with an implicit -w. -MM Like -M but do not mention header files that are found in system header directories, nor header files that are included, directly or indirectly, from such a header. This implies that the choice of angle brackets or double quotes in an #include directive does not in itself determine whether that header appears in -MM dependency output. -MF file When used with -M or -MM, specifies a file to write the dependencies to. If no -MF switch is given the preprocessor sends the rules to the same place it would send preprocessed output. When used with the driver options -MD or -MMD, -MF overrides the default dependency output file. If file is -, then the dependencies are written to stdout. -MG In conjunction with an option such as -M requesting dependency generation, -MG assumes missing header files are generated files and adds them to the dependency list without raising an error. The dependency filename is taken directly from the #include directive without prepending any path. -MG also suppresses preprocessed output, as a missing header file renders this useless. This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles. -Mno-modules Disable dependency generation for compiled module interfaces. -MP This option instructs CPP to add a phony target for each dependency other than the main file, causing each to depend on nothing. These dummy rules work around errors make gives if you remove header files without updating the Makefile to match. This is typical output: test.o: test.c test.h test.h: -MT target Change the target of the rule emitted by dependency generation. By default CPP takes the name of the main input file, deletes any directory components and any file suffix such as .c, and appends the platform’s usual object suffix. The result is the target. An -MT option sets the target to be exactly the string you specify. If you want multiple targets, you can specify them as a single argument to -MT, or use multiple -MT options. For example, -MT ’(objpfx)foo.o’ might give $(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c -MQ target Same as -MT, but it quotes any characters which are special to Make. -MQ ’$(objpfx)foo.o’ gives (objpfx)foo.o: foo.c The default target is automatically quoted, as if it were given with -MQ.
-MD
-MD is equivalent to -M -MF file, except that -E is not implied. The driver determines file based on whether an -o option is given. If it is, the driver uses its argument but with a suffix of .d, otherwise it takes the name of the input file, removes any directory components and suffix, and applies a .d suffix. If -MD is used in conjunction with -E, any -o switch is understood to specify the dependency output file, but if used without -E, each -o is understood to specify a target object file. Since -E is not implied, -MD can be used to generate a dependency output file as a side effect of the compilation process.
-MMD
Like -MD except mention only user header files, not system header files.
-fpreprocessed
Indicate to the preprocessor that the input file has already been preprocessed. This suppresses things like macro expansion, trigraph conversion, escaped newline splicing, and processing of most directives. The preprocessor still recognizes and removes comments, so that you can pass a file preprocessed with -C to the compiler without problems. In this mode the integrated preprocessor is little more than a tokenizer for the front ends. -fpreprocessed is implicit if the input file has one of the extensions .i, .ii or .mi. These are the extensions that GCC uses for preprocessed files created by -save-temps.
-fdirectives-only
When preprocessing, handle directives, but do not expand macros. The option’s behavior depends on the -E and -fpreprocessed options. With -E, preprocessing is limited to the handling of directives such as #define, #ifdef, and #error. Other preprocessor operations, such as macro expansion and trigraph conversion are not performed. In addition, the -dD option is implicitly enabled. With -fpreprocessed, predefinition of command line and most builtin macros is disabled. Macros such as _ _LINE_ _, which are contextually dependent, are handled normally. This enables compilation of files previously preprocessed with -E -fdirectives-only. With both -E and -fpreprocessed, the rules for -fpreprocessed take precedence. This enables full preprocessing of files previously preprocessed with -E -fdirectives-only.
-fdollars-in-identifiers
Accept $in identifiers. -fextended-identifiers Accept universal character names and extended characters in identifiers. This option is enabled by default for C99 (and later C standard versions) and C++. -fno-canonical-system-headers When preprocessing, do not shorten system header paths with canonicalization. -fmax-include-depth=depth Set the maximum depth of the nested #include. The default is 200. -ftabstop=width Set the distance between tab stops. This helps the preprocessor report correct column numbers in warnings or errors, even if tabs appear on the line. If the value is less than 1 or greater than 100, the option is ignored. The default is 8. -ftrack-macro-expansion[=level] Track locations of tokens across macro expansions. This allows the compiler to emit diagnostic about the current macro expansion stack when a compilation error occurs in a macro expansion. Using this option makes the preprocessor and the compiler consume more memory. The level parameter can be used to choose the level of precision of token location tracking thus decreasing the memory consumption if necessary. Value 0 of level de-activates this option. Value 1 tracks tokens locations in a degraded mode for the sake of minimal memory overhead. In this mode all tokens resulting from the expansion of an argument of a function-like macro have the same location. Value 2 tracks tokens locations completely. This value is the most memory hungry. When this option is given no argument, the default parameter value is 2. Note that -ftrack-macro-expansion=2 is activated by default. -fmacro-prefix-map=old=new When preprocessing files residing in directory old, expand the _ _FILE_ _ and _ _BASE_FILE_ _ macros as if the files resided in directory new instead. This can be used to change an absolute path to a relative path by using . for new which can result in more reproducible builds that are location independent. This option also affects _ _builtin_FILE() during compilation. See also -ffile-prefix-map. -fexec-charset=charset Set the execution character set, used for string and character constants. The default is UTF-8. charset can be any encoding supported by the system’s iconv library routine. -fwide-exec-charset=charset Set the wide execution character set, used for wide string and character constants. The default is UTF-32 or UTF-16, whichever corresponds to the width of wchar_t. As with -fexec-charset, charset can be any encoding supported by the system’s iconv library routine; however, you will have problems with encodings that do not fit exactly in wchar_t. -finput-charset=charset Set the input character set, used for translation from the character set of the input file to the source character set used by GCC. If the locale does not specify, or GCC cannot get this information from the locale, the default is UTF-8. This can be overridden by either the locale or this command-line option. Currently the command-line option takes precedence if there’s a conflict. charset can be any encoding supported by the system’s iconv library routine. -fpch-deps When using precompiled headers, this flag causes the dependency-output flags to also list the files from the precompiled header’s dependencies. If not specified, only the precompiled header are listed and not the files that were used to create it, because those files are not consulted when a precompiled header is used. -fpch-preprocess This option allows use of a precompiled header together with -E. It inserts a special #pragma, #pragma GCC pch_preprocess "=/=filename=/“= in the output to mark the place where the precompiled header was found, and its filename. When -fpreprocessed is in use, GCC recognizes this #pragma and loads the PCH. This option is off by default, because the resulting preprocessed output is only really suitable as input to GCC. It is switched on by -save-temps. You should not write this #pragma in your own code, but it is safe to edit the filename if the PCH file is available in a different location. The filename may be absolute or it may be relative to GCC’s current directory. -fworking-directory Enable generation of linemarkers in the preprocessor output that let the compiler know the current working directory at the time of preprocessing. When this option is enabled, the preprocessor emits, after the initial linemarker, a second linemarker with the current working directory followed by two slashes. GCC uses this directory, when it’s present in the preprocessed input, as the directory emitted as the current working directory in some debugging information formats. This option is implicitly enabled if debugging information is enabled, but this can be inhibited with the negated form -fno-working-directory. If the -P flag is present in the command line, this option has no effect, since no #line directives are emitted whatsoever. -A predicate=answer Make an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer. This form is preferred to the older form -A /predicate/*(answer)*, which is still supported, because it does not use shell special characters. -A -predicate=answer Cancel an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer. -C Do not discard comments. All comments are passed through to the output file, except for comments in processed directives, which are deleted along with the directive. You should be prepared for side effects when using -C; it causes the preprocessor to treat comments as tokens in their own right. For example, comments appearing at the start of what would be a directive line have the effect of turning that line into an ordinary source line, since the first token on the line is no longer a #. -CC Do not discard comments, including during macro expansion. This is like -C, except that comments contained within macros are also passed through to the output file where the macro is expanded. In addition to the side effects of the -C option, the -CC option causes all C++-style comments inside a macro to be converted to C-style comments. This is to prevent later use of that macro from inadvertently commenting out the remainder of the source line. The -CC option is generally used to support lint comments. -P Inhibit generation of linemarkers in the output from the preprocessor. This might be useful when running the preprocessor on something that is not C code, and will be sent to a program which might be confused by the linemarkers. -traditional -traditional-cpp Try to imitate the behavior of pre-standard C preprocessors, as opposed to ISO C preprocessors. See the GNU CPP manual for details. Note that GCC does not otherwise attempt to emulate a pre-standard C compiler, and these options are only supported with the -E switch, or when invoking CPP explicitly. -trigraphs Support ISO C trigraphs. These are three-character sequences, all starting with ??, that are defined by ISO C to stand for single characters. For example, ??/ stands for \, so ’??/n’ is a character constant for a newline. The nine trigraphs and their replacements are Trigraph: ??( ??) ??< ??> ??= ??/ ?? ??! ??- Replacement: [ ] { } # \ ^ | ~ By default, GCC ignores trigraphs, but in standard-conforming modes it converts them. See the -std and -ansi options. -remap Enable special code to work around file systems which only permit very short file names, such as MS-DOS. -H Print the name of each header file used, in addition to other normal activities. Each name is indented to show how deep in the #include stack it is. Precompiled header files are also printed, even if they are found to be invalid; an invalid precompiled header file is printed with …x and a valid one with …! . -dletters Says to make debugging dumps during compilation as specified by letters. The flags documented here are those relevant to the preprocessor. Other letters are interpreted by the compiler proper, or reserved for future versions of GCC, and so are silently ignored. If you specify letters whose behavior conflicts, the result is undefined. -dM Instead of the normal output, generate a list of #define directives for all the macros defined during the execution of the preprocessor, including predefined macros. This gives you a way of finding out what is predefined in your version of the preprocessor. Assuming you have no file foo.h, the command touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h shows all the predefined macros. If you use -dM without the -E option, -dM is interpreted as a synonym for -fdump-rtl-mach. -dD Like -dM except in two respects: it does not include the predefined macros, and it outputs both the #define directives and the result of preprocessing. Both kinds of output go to the standard output file. -dN Like -dD, but emit only the macro names, not their expansions. -dI Output #include directives in addition to the result of preprocessing. -dU Like -dD except that only macros that are expanded, or whose definedness is tested in preprocessor directives, are output; the output is delayed until the use or test of the macro; and #undef directives are also output for macros tested but undefined at the time. -fdebug-cpp This option is only useful for debugging GCC. When used from CPP or with -E, it dumps debugging information about location maps. Every token in the output is preceded by the dump of the map its location belongs to. When used from GCC without -E, this option has no effect. -Wp,option You can use -Wp,*/option/ to bypass the compiler driver and pass option directly through to the preprocessor. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas. However, many options are modified, translated or interpreted by the compiler driver before being passed to the preprocessor, and *-Wp forcibly bypasses this phase. The preprocessor’s direct interface is undocumented and subject to change, so whenever possible you should avoid using -Wp and let the driver handle the options instead. -Xpreprocessor option Pass option as an option to the preprocessor. You can use this to supply system-specific preprocessor options that GCC does not recognize. If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use -Xpreprocessor twice, once for the option and once for the argument. -no-integrated-cpp Perform preprocessing as a separate pass before compilation. By default, GCC performs preprocessing as an integrated part of input tokenization and parsing. If this option is provided, the appropriate language front end (cc1, cc1plus, or cc1obj for C, C++, and Objective-C, respectively) is instead invoked twice, once for preprocessing only and once for actual compilation of the preprocessed input. This option may be useful in conjunction with the -B or -wrapper options to specify an alternate preprocessor or perform additional processing of the program source between normal preprocessing and compilation. -flarge-source-files Adjust GCC to expect large source files, at the expense of slower compilation and higher memory usage. Specifically, GCC normally tracks both column numbers and line numbers within source files and it normally prints both of these numbers in diagnostics. However, once it has processed a certain number of source lines, it stops tracking column numbers and only tracks line numbers. This means that diagnostics for later lines do not include column numbers. It also means that options like -Wmisleading-indentation cease to work at that point, although the compiler prints a note if this happens. Passing -flarge-source-files significantly increases the number of source lines that GCC can process before it stops tracking columns. ### Passing Options to the Assembler You can pass options to the assembler. -Wa,option Pass option as an option to the assembler. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas. -Xassembler option Pass option as an option to the assembler. You can use this to supply system-specific assembler options that GCC does not recognize. If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use -Xassembler twice, once for the option and once for the argument. ### Options for Linking These options come into play when the compiler links object files into an executable output file. They are meaningless if the compiler is not doing a link step. object-file-name A file name that does not end in a special recognized suffix is considered to name an object file or library. (Object files are distinguished from libraries by the linker according to the file contents.) If linking is done, these object files are used as input to the linker. -c -S -E If any of these options is used, then the linker is not run, and object file names should not be used as arguments. -flinker-output=type This option controls code generation of the link-time optimizer. By default the linker output is automatically determined by the linker plugin. For debugging the compiler and if incremental linking with a non-LTO object file is desired, it may be useful to control the type manually. If type is exec, code generation produces a static binary. In this case -fpic and -fpie are both disabled. If type is dyn, code generation produces a shared library. In this case -fpic or -fPIC is preserved, but not enabled automatically. This allows to build shared libraries without position-independent code on architectures where this is possible, i.e. on x86. If type is pie, code generation produces an -fpie executable. This results in similar optimizations as exec except that -fpie is not disabled if specified at compilation time. If type is rel, the compiler assumes that incremental linking is done. The sections containing intermediate code for link-time optimization are merged, pre-optimized, and output to the resulting object file. In addition, if -ffat-lto-objects is specified, binary code is produced for future non-LTO linking. The object file produced by incremental linking is smaller than a static library produced from the same object files. At link time the result of incremental linking also loads faster than a static library assuming that the majority of objects in the library are used. Finally nolto-rel configures the compiler for incremental linking where code generation is forced, a final binary is produced, and the intermediate code for later link-time optimization is stripped. When multiple object files are linked together the resulting code is better optimized than with link-time optimizations disabled (for example, cross-module inlining happens), but most of benefits of whole program optimizations are lost. During the incremental link (by -r) the linker plugin defaults to rel. With current interfaces to GNU Binutils it is however not possible to incrementally link LTO objects and non-LTO objects into a single mixed object file. If any of object files in incremental link cannot be used for link-time optimization, the linker plugin issues a warning and uses nolto-rel. To maintain whole program optimization, it is recommended to link such objects into static library instead. Alternatively it is possible to use H.J. Lu’s binutils with support for mixed objects. -fuse-ld=bfd Use the bfd linker instead of the default linker. -fuse-ld=gold Use the gold linker instead of the default linker. -fuse-ld=lld Use the LLVM lld linker instead of the default linker. -llibrary -l library Search the library named library when linking. (The second alternative with the library as a separate argument is only for POSIX compliance and is not recommended.) The -l option is passed directly to the linker by GCC. Refer to your linker documentation for exact details. The general description below applies to the GNU linker. The linker searches a standard list of directories for the library. The directories searched include several standard system directories plus any that you specify with -L. Static libraries are archives of object files, and have file names like liblibrary.a. Some targets also support shared libraries, which typically have names like liblibrary.so. If both static and shared libraries are found, the linker gives preference to linking with the shared library unless the -static option is used. It makes a difference where in the command you write this option; the linker searches and processes libraries and object files in the order they are specified. Thus, foo.o -lz bar.o searches library z after file foo.o but before bar.o. If bar.o refers to functions in z, those functions may not be loaded. -lobjc You need this special case of the -l option in order to link an Objective-C or Objective-C++ program. -nostartfiles Do not use the standard system startup files when linking. The standard system libraries are used normally, unless -nostdlib, -nolibc, or -nodefaultlibs is used. -nodefaultlibs Do not use the standard system libraries when linking. Only the libraries you specify are passed to the linker, and options specifying linkage of the system libraries, such as -static-libgcc or -shared-libgcc, are ignored. The standard startup files are used normally, unless -nostartfiles is used. The compiler may generate calls to memcmp, memset, memcpy and memmove. These entries are usually resolved by entries in libc. These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism when this option is specified. -nolibc Do not use the C library or system libraries tightly coupled with it when linking. Still link with the startup files, libgcc or toolchain provided language support libraries such as libgnat, libgfortran or libstdc++ unless options preventing their inclusion are used as well. This typically removes -lc from the link command line, as well as system libraries that normally go with it and become meaningless when absence of a C library is assumed, for example -lpthread or -lm in some configurations. This is intended for bare-board targets when there is indeed no C library available. -nostdlib Do not use the standard system startup files or libraries when linking. No startup files and only the libraries you specify are passed to the linker, and options specifying linkage of the system libraries, such as -static-libgcc or -shared-libgcc, are ignored. The compiler may generate calls to memcmp, memset, memcpy and memmove. These entries are usually resolved by entries in libc. These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism when this option is specified. One of the standard libraries bypassed by -nostdlib and -nodefaultlibs is libgcc.a, a library of internal subroutines which GCC uses to overcome shortcomings of particular machines, or special needs for some languages. In most cases, you need libgcc.a even when you want to avoid other standard libraries. In other words, when you specify -nostdlib or -nodefaultlibs you should usually specify -lgcc as well. This ensures that you have no unresolved references to internal GCC library subroutines. (An example of such an internal subroutine is _ _main, used to ensure C++ constructors are called.) -e entry –entry=entry Specify that the program entry point is entry. The argument is interpreted by the linker; the GNU linker accepts either a symbol name or an address. -pie Produce a dynamically linked position independent executable on targets that support it. For predictable results, you must also specify the same set of options used for compilation (-fpie, -fPIE, or model suboptions) when you specify this linker option. -no-pie Don’t produce a dynamically linked position independent executable. -static-pie Produce a static position independent executable on targets that support it. A static position independent executable is similar to a static executable, but can be loaded at any address without a dynamic linker. For predictable results, you must also specify the same set of options used for compilation (-fpie, -fPIE, or model suboptions) when you specify this linker option. -pthread Link with the POSIX threads library. This option is supported on GNU/Linux targets, most other Unix derivatives, and also on x86 Cygwin and MinGW targets. On some targets this option also sets flags for the preprocessor, so it should be used consistently for both compilation and linking. -r Produce a relocatable object as output. This is also known as partial linking. -rdynamic Pass the flag -export-dynamic to the ELF linker, on targets that support it. This instructs the linker to add all symbols, not only used ones, to the dynamic symbol table. This option is needed for some uses of dlopen or to allow obtaining backtraces from within a program. -s Remove all symbol table and relocation information from the executable. -static On systems that support dynamic linking, this overrides -pie and prevents linking with the shared libraries. On other systems, this option has no effect. -shared Produce a shared object which can then be linked with other objects to form an executable. Not all systems support this option. For predictable results, you must also specify the same set of options used for compilation (-fpic, -fPIC, or model suboptions) when you specify this linker option.[1] -shared-libgcc -static-libgcc On systems that provide libgcc as a shared library, these options force the use of either the shared or static version, respectively. If no shared version of libgcc was built when the compiler was configured, these options have no effect. There are several situations in which an application should use the shared libgcc instead of the static version. The most common of these is when the application wishes to throw and catch exceptions across different shared libraries. In that case, each of the libraries as well as the application itself should use the shared libgcc. Therefore, the G++ driver automatically adds -shared-libgcc whenever you build a shared library or a main executable, because C++ programs typically use exceptions, so this is the right thing to do. If, instead, you use the GCC driver to create shared libraries, you may find that they are not always linked with the shared libgcc. If GCC finds, at its configuration time, that you have a non-GNU linker or a GNU linker that does not support option –eh-frame-hdr, it links the shared version of libgcc into shared libraries by default. Otherwise, it takes advantage of the linker and optimizes away the linking with the shared version of libgcc, linking with the static version of libgcc by default. This allows exceptions to propagate through such shared libraries, without incurring relocation costs at library load time. However, if a library or main executable is supposed to throw or catch exceptions, you must link it using the G++ driver, or using the option -shared-libgcc, such that it is linked with the shared libgcc. -static-libasan When the -fsanitize=address option is used to link a program, the GCC driver automatically links against libasan. If libasan is available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this links against the shared version of libasan. The -static-libasan option directs the GCC driver to link libasan statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically. -static-libtsan When the -fsanitize=thread option is used to link a program, the GCC driver automatically links against libtsan. If libtsan is available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this links against the shared version of libtsan. The -static-libtsan option directs the GCC driver to link libtsan statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically. -static-liblsan When the -fsanitize=leak option is used to link a program, the GCC driver automatically links against liblsan. If liblsan is available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this links against the shared version of liblsan. The -static-liblsan option directs the GCC driver to link liblsan statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically. -static-libubsan When the -fsanitize=undefined option is used to link a program, the GCC driver automatically links against libubsan. If libubsan is available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this links against the shared version of libubsan. The -static-libubsan option directs the GCC driver to link libubsan statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically. -static-libstdc++ When the g++ program is used to link a C++ program, it normally automatically links against libstdc++. If libstdc++ is available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this links against the shared version of libstdc++. That is normally fine. However, it is sometimes useful to freeze the version of libstdc++ used by the program without going all the way to a fully static link. The -static-libstdc++ option directs the g++ driver to link libstdc++ statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically. -symbolic Bind references to global symbols when building a shared object. Warn about any unresolved references (unless overridden by the link editor option -Xlinker -z -Xlinker defs). Only a few systems support this option. -T script Use script as the linker script. This option is supported by most systems using the GNU linker. On some targets, such as bare-board targets without an operating system, the -T option may be required when linking to avoid references to undefined symbols. -Xlinker option Pass option as an option to the linker. You can use this to supply system-specific linker options that GCC does not recognize. If you want to pass an option that takes a separate argument, you must use -Xlinker twice, once for the option and once for the argument. For example, to pass -assert definitions, you must write -Xlinker -assert -Xlinker definitions. It does not work to write -Xlinker -assert definitions, because this passes the entire string as a single argument, which is not what the linker expects. When using the GNU linker, it is usually more convenient to pass arguments to linker options using the option/*=*/value syntax than as separate arguments. For example, you can specify -Xlinker -Map=output.map rather than -Xlinker -Map -Xlinker output.map. Other linkers may not support this syntax for command-line options. -Wl,option Pass option as an option to the linker. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas. You can use this syntax to pass an argument to the option. For example, -Wl,-Map,output.map passes -Map output.map to the linker. When using the GNU linker, you can also get the same effect with -Wl,-Map=output.map. -u symbol Pretend the symbol symbol is undefined, to force linking of library modules to define it. You can use -u multiple times with different symbols to force loading of additional library modules. -z keyword -z is passed directly on to the linker along with the keyword keyword. See the section in the documentation of your linker for permitted values and their meanings. ### Options for Directory Search These options specify directories to search for header files, for libraries and for parts of the compiler: -I dir -iquote dir -isystem dir -idirafter dir Add the directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for header files during preprocessing. If dir begins with = or $SYSROOT, then the = or SYSROOT is replaced by the sysroot prefix; see –sysroot and -isysroot. Directories specified with -iquote apply only to the quote form of the directive, #include "=/=file=/. Directories specified with *-I*, *-isystem*, or *-idirafter* apply to lookup for both the =#include "=/=file=/”= and #include <=/=file=/=> directives. You can specify any number or combination of these options on the command line to search for header files in several directories. The lookup order is as follows: 1. For the quote form of the include directive, the directory of the current file is searched first. 2. For the quote form of the include directive, the directories specified by -iquote options are searched in left-to-right order, as they appear on the command line. 3. Directories specified with -I options are scanned in left-to-right order. 4. Directories specified with -isystem options are scanned in left-to-right order. 5. Standard system directories are scanned. 6. Directories specified with -idirafter options are scanned in left-to-right order. You can use -I to override a system header file, substituting your own version, since these directories are searched before the standard system header file directories. However, you should not use this option to add directories that contain vendor-supplied system header files; use -isystem for that. The -isystem and -idirafter options also mark the directory as a system directory, so that it gets the same special treatment that is applied to the standard system directories. If a standard system include directory, or a directory specified with -isystem, is also specified with -I, the -I option is ignored. The directory is still searched but as a system directory at its normal position in the system include chain. This is to ensure that GCC’s procedure to fix buggy system headers and the ordering for the #include_next directive are not inadvertently changed. If you really need to change the search order for system directories, use the -nostdinc and/or -isystem options. -I- Split the include path. This option has been deprecated. Please use -iquote instead for -I directories before the -I- and remove the -I- option. Any directories specified with -I options before -I- are searched only for headers requested with #include "=/=file=/; they are not searched for =#include <=/=file=/=>. If additional directories are specified with -I options after the -I-, those directories are searched for all #include directives. In addition, -I- inhibits the use of the directory of the current file directory as the first search directory for #include "=/=file=/”=. There is no way to override this effect of -I-. -iprefix prefix Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent -iwithprefix options. If the prefix represents a directory, you should include the final /. -iwithprefix dir -iwithprefixbefore dir Append dir to the prefix specified previously with -iprefix, and add the resulting directory to the include search path. -iwithprefixbefore puts it in the same place -I would; -iwithprefix puts it where -idirafter would. -isysroot dir This option is like the –sysroot option, but applies only to header files (except for Darwin targets, where it applies to both header files and libraries). See the –sysroot option for more information. -imultilib dir Use dir as a subdirectory of the directory containing target-specific C++ headers. -nostdinc Do not search the standard system directories for header files. Only the directories explicitly specified with -I, -iquote, -isystem, and/or -idirafter options (and the directory of the current file, if appropriate) are searched. -nostdinc++ Do not search for header files in the C++-specific standard directories, but do still search the other standard directories. (This option is used when building the C++ library.) -iplugindir=dir Set the directory to search for plugins that are passed by -fplugin=*/name/ instead of *-fplugin=*/path/*/*/name/.so*. This option is not meant to be used by the user, but only passed by the driver. -Ldir Add directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for -l. -Bprefix This option specifies where to find the executables, libraries, include files, and data files of the compiler itself. The compiler driver program runs one or more of the subprograms cpp, cc1, as and ld. It tries prefix as a prefix for each program it tries to run, both with and without machine/*/*/version/*/* for the corresponding target machine and compiler version. For each subprogram to be run, the compiler driver first tries the -B prefix, if any. If that name is not found, or if -B is not specified, the driver tries two standard prefixes, /usr/lib/gcc and usr/local/lib/gcc. If neither of those results in a file name that is found, the unmodified program name is searched for using the directories specified in your PATH environment variable. The compiler checks to see if the path provided by -B refers to a directory, and if necessary it adds a directory separator character at the end of the path. -B prefixes that effectively specify directory names also apply to libraries in the linker, because the compiler translates these options into -L options for the linker. They also apply to include files in the preprocessor, because the compiler translates these options into -isystem options for the preprocessor. In this case, the compiler appends include to the prefix. The runtime support file libgcc.a can also be searched for using the -B prefix, if needed. If it is not found there, the two standard prefixes above are tried, and that is all. The file is left out of the link if it is not found by those means. Another way to specify a prefix much like the -B prefix is to use the environment variable GCC_EXEC_PREFIX. As a special kludge, if the path provided by -B is [dir/]stageN/, where N is a number in the range 0 to 9, then it is replaced by [dir/]include. This is to help with boot-strapping the compiler. -no-canonical-prefixes Do not expand any symbolic links, resolve references to .. or ., or make the path absolute when generating a relative prefix. –sysroot=dir Use dir as the logical root directory for headers and libraries. For example, if the compiler normally searches for headers in /usr/include and libraries in /usr/lib, it instead searches dir/usr/include and dir/usr/lib. If you use both this option and the -isysroot option, then the –sysroot option applies to libraries, but the -isysroot option applies to header files. The GNU linker (beginning with version 2.16) has the necessary support for this option. If your linker does not support this option, the header file aspect of –sysroot still works, but the library aspect does not. –no-sysroot-suffix For some targets, a suffix is added to the root directory specified with –sysroot, depending on the other options used, so that headers may for example be found in dir/suffix/usr/include instead of dir/usr/include. This option disables the addition of such a suffix. ### Options for Code Generation Conventions These machine-independent options control the interface conventions used in code generation. Most of them have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo is -fno-foo. In the table below, only one of the forms is listed—the one that is not the default. You can figure out the other form by either removing no- or adding it. -fstack-reuse=reuse-level This option controls stack space reuse for user declared local/auto variables and compiler generated temporaries. reuse_level can be all, named_vars, or none. all enables stack reuse for all local variables and temporaries, named_vars enables the reuse only for user defined local variables with names, and none disables stack reuse completely. The default value is all. The option is needed when the program extends the lifetime of a scoped local variable or a compiler generated temporary beyond the end point defined by the language. When a lifetime of a variable ends, and if the variable lives in memory, the optimizing compiler has the freedom to reuse its stack space with other temporaries or scoped local variables whose live range does not overlap with it. Legacy code extending local lifetime is likely to break with the stack reuse optimization. For example, int *p; { int local1; p = &local1; local1 = 10; …. } { int local2; local2 = 20; … } if (*p = 10) // out of scope use of local1 { } Another example: struct A { A(int k) : i(k), j(k) { } int i; int j; }; A *ap; void foo(const A& ar) { ap = &ar; } void bar() { foo(A(10)); // temp objects lifetime ends when foo returns { A a(20); .... } ap->i+ 10; / ap references out of scope temp whose space / is reused with a. What is the value of ap->i? } The lifetime of a compiler generated temporary is well defined by the C++ standard. When a lifetime of a temporary ends, and if the temporary lives in memory, the optimizing compiler has the freedom to reuse its stack space with other temporaries or scoped local variables whose live range does not overlap with it. However some of the legacy code relies on the behavior of older compilers in which temporaries’ stack space is not reused, the aggressive stack reuse can lead to runtime errors. This option is used to control the temporary stack reuse optimization. -ftrapv This option generates traps for signed overflow on addition, subtraction, multiplication operations. The options -ftrapv and -fwrapv override each other, so using -ftrapv -fwrapv on the command-line results in -fwrapv being effective. Note that only active options override, so using -ftrapv -fwrapv -fno-wrapv on the command-line results in -ftrapv being effective. -fwrapv This option instructs the compiler to assume that signed arithmetic overflow of addition, subtraction and multiplication wraps around using twos-complement representation. This flag enables some optimizations and disables others. The options -ftrapv and -fwrapv override each other, so using -ftrapv -fwrapv on the command-line results in -fwrapv being effective. Note that only active options override, so using -ftrapv -fwrapv -fno-wrapv on the command-line results in -ftrapv being effective. -fwrapv-pointer This option instructs the compiler to assume that pointer arithmetic overflow on addition and subtraction wraps around using twos-complement representation. This flag disables some optimizations which assume pointer overflow is invalid. -fstrict-overflow This option implies -fno-wrapv -fno-wrapv-pointer and when negated implies -fwrapv -fwrapv-pointer. -fexceptions Enable exception handling. Generates extra code needed to propagate exceptions. For some targets, this implies GCC generates frame unwind information for all functions, which can produce significant data size overhead, although it does not affect execution. If you do not specify this option, GCC enables it by default for languages like C++ that normally require exception handling, and disables it for languages like C that do not normally require it. However, you may need to enable this option when compiling C code that needs to interoperate properly with exception handlers written in C++. You may also wish to disable this option if you are compiling older C++ programs that don’t use exception handling. -fnon-call-exceptions Generate code that allows trapping instructions to throw exceptions. Note that this requires platform-specific runtime support that does not exist everywhere. Moreover, it only allows trapping instructions to throw exceptions, i.e. memory references or floating-point instructions. It does not allow exceptions to be thrown from arbitrary signal handlers such as SIGALRM. -fdelete-dead-exceptions Consider that instructions that may throw exceptions but don’t otherwise contribute to the execution of the program can be optimized away. This option is enabled by default for the Ada compiler, as permitted by the Ada language specification. Optimization passes that cause dead exceptions to be removed are enabled independently at different optimization levels. -funwind-tables Similar to -fexceptions, except that it just generates any needed static data, but does not affect the generated code in any other way. You normally do not need to enable this option; instead, a language processor that needs this handling enables it on your behalf. -fasynchronous-unwind-tables Generate unwind table in DWARF format, if supported by target machine. The table is exact at each instruction boundary, so it can be used for stack unwinding from asynchronous events (such as debugger or garbage collector). -fno-gnu-unique On systems with recent GNU assembler and C library, the C++ compiler uses the STB_GNU_UNIQUE binding to make sure that definitions of template static data members and static local variables in inline functions are unique even in the presence of RTLD_LOCAL; this is necessary to avoid problems with a library used by two different RTLD_LOCAL plugins depending on a definition in one of them and therefore disagreeing with the other one about the binding of the symbol. But this causes dlclose to be ignored for affected DSOs; if your program relies on reinitialization of a DSO via dlclose and dlopen, you can use -fno-gnu-unique. -fpcc-struct-return Return short struct and union values in memory like longer ones, rather than in registers. This convention is less efficient, but it has the advantage of allowing intercallability between GCC-compiled files and files compiled with other compilers, particularly the Portable C Compiler (pcc). The precise convention for returning structures in memory depends on the target configuration macros. Short structures and unions are those whose size and alignment match that of some integer type. Warning: code compiled with the -fpcc-struct-return switch is not binary compatible with code compiled with the -freg-struct-return switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface. -freg-struct-return Return struct and union values in registers when possible. This is more efficient for small structures than -fpcc-struct-return. If you specify neither -fpcc-struct-return nor -freg-struct-return, GCC defaults to whichever convention is standard for the target. If there is no standard convention, GCC defaults to -fpcc-struct-return, except on targets where GCC is the principal compiler. In those cases, we can choose the standard, and we chose the more efficient register return alternative. Warning: code compiled with the -freg-struct-return switch is not binary compatible with code compiled with the -fpcc-struct-return switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface. -fshort-enums Allocate to an enum type only as many bytes as it needs for the declared range of possible values. Specifically, the enum type is equivalent to the smallest integer type that has enough room. Warning: the -fshort-enums switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface. -fshort-wchar Override the underlying type for wchar_t to be short unsigned int instead of the default for the target. This option is useful for building programs to run under WINE. Warning: the -fshort-wchar switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface. -fcommon In C code, this option controls the placement of global variables defined without an initializer, known as tentative definitions in the C standard. Tentative definitions are distinct from declarations of a variable with the extern keyword, which do not allocate storage. The default is -fno-common, which specifies that the compiler places uninitialized global variables in the BSS section of the object file. This inhibits the merging of tentative definitions by the linker so you get a multiple-definition error if the same variable is accidentally defined in more than one compilation unit. The -fcommon places uninitialized global variables in a common block. This allows the linker to resolve all tentative definitions of the same variable in different compilation units to the same object, or to a non-tentative definition. This behavior is inconsistent with C++, and on many targets implies a speed and code size penalty on global variable references. It is mainly useful to enable legacy code to link without errors. -fno-ident Ignore the #ident directive. -finhibit-size-directive Don’t output a .size assembler directive, or anything else that would cause trouble if the function is split in the middle, and the two halves are placed at locations far apart in memory. This option is used when compiling crtstuff.c; you should not need to use it for anything else. -fverbose-asm Put extra commentary information in the generated assembly code to make it more readable. This option is generally only of use to those who actually need to read the generated assembly code (perhaps while debugging the compiler itself). -fno-verbose-asm, the default, causes the extra information to be omitted and is useful when comparing two assembler files. The added comments include: • information on the compiler version and command-line options, • the source code lines associated with the assembly instructions, in the form FILENAME:LINENUMBER:CONTENT OF LINE, • hints on which high-level expressions correspond to the various assembly instruction operands. For example, given this C source file: int test (int n) { int i; int total = 0; for (i = 0; i < n; i++) total = i * i; return total; } compiling to (x86_64) assembly via -S and emitting the result direct to stdout via -o - gcc -S test.c -fverbose-asm -Os -o - gives output similar to this: .file “test.c” # GNU C11 (GCC) version 7.0.0 20160809 (experimental) (x86_64-pc-linux-gnu) […snip…] # options passed: […snip…] .text .globl test .type test, @function test: .LFB0: .cfi_startproc # test.c:4: int total = 0; xorl %eax, %eax # <retval> # test.c:6: for (i = 0; i < n; i+) xorl %edx, %edx # i .L2: %ecx # i, tmp92 # test.c:6: for (i = 0; i < n; i++) incl %edx # i # test.c:7: total += i * i; addl %ecx, %eax # tmp92, <retval> jmp .L2 # .L5: # test.c:10: } ret .cfi_endproc .LFE0: .size test, .-test .ident “GCC: (GNU) 7.0.0 20160809 (experimental)” .section .note.GNU-stack,“”,@progbits The comments are intended for humans rather than machines and hence the precise format of the comments is subject to change. -frecord-gcc-switches This switch causes the command line used to invoke the compiler to be recorded into the object file that is being created. This switch is only implemented on some targets and the exact format of the recording is target and binary file format dependent, but it usually takes the form of a section containing ASCII text. This switch is related to the -fverbose-asm switch, but that switch only records information in the assembler output file as comments, so it never reaches the object file. See also -grecord-gcc-switches for another way of storing compiler options into the object file. -fpic Generate position-independent code (PIC) suitable for use in a shared library, if supported for the target machine. Such code accesses all constant addresses through a global offset table (GOT). The dynamic loader resolves the GOT entries when the program starts (the dynamic loader is not part of GCC; it is part of the operating system). If the GOT size for the linked executable exceeds a machine-specific maximum size, you get an error message from the linker indicating that -fpic does not work; in that case, recompile with -fPIC instead. (These maximums are 8k on the SPARC, 28k on AArch64 and 32k on the m68k and RS/6000. The x86 has no such limit.) Position-independent code requires special support, and therefore works only on certain machines. For the x86, GCC supports PIC for System V but not for the Sun 386i. Code generated for the IBM RS/6000 is always position-independent. When this flag is set, the macros _ _pic_ _ and _ _PIC_ _ are defined to 1. -fPIC If supported for the target machine, emit position-independent code, suitable for dynamic linking and avoiding any limit on the size of the global offset table. This option makes a difference on AArch64, m68k, PowerPC and SPARC. Position-independent code requires special support, and therefore works only on certain machines. When this flag is set, the macros _ _pic_ _ and _ _PIC_ _ are defined to 2. -fpie -fPIE These options are similar to -fpic and -fPIC, but the generated position-independent code can be only linked into executables. Usually these options are used to compile code that will be linked using the -pie GCC option. -fpie and -fPIE both define the macros _ _pie_ _ and _ _PIE_ _. The macros have the value 1 for -fpie and 2 for -fPIE. -fno-plt Do not use the PLT for external function calls in position-independent code. Instead, load the callee address at call sites from the GOT and branch to it. This leads to more efficient code by eliminating PLT stubs and exposing GOT loads to optimizations. On architectures such as 32-bit x86 where PLT stubs expect the GOT pointer in a specific register, this gives more register allocation freedom to the compiler. Lazy binding requires use of the PLT; with -fno-plt all external symbols are resolved at load time. Alternatively, the function attribute noplt can be used to avoid calls through the PLT for specific external functions. In position-dependent code, a few targets also convert calls to functions that are marked to not use the PLT to use the GOT instead. -fno-jump-tables Do not use jump tables for switch statements even where it would be more efficient than other code generation strategies. This option is of use in conjunction with -fpic or -fPIC for building code that forms part of a dynamic linker and cannot reference the address of a jump table. On some targets, jump tables do not require a GOT and this option is not needed. -fno-bit-tests Do not use bit tests for switch statements even where it would be more efficient than other code generation strategies. -ffixed-reg Treat the register named reg as a fixed register; generated code should never refer to it (except perhaps as a stack pointer, frame pointer or in some other fixed role). reg must be the name of a register. The register names accepted are machine-specific and are defined in the REGISTER_NAMES macro in the machine description macro file. This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a three-way choice. -fcall-used-reg Treat the register named reg as an allocable register that is clobbered by function calls. It may be allocated for temporaries or variables that do not live across a call. Functions compiled this way do not save and restore the register reg. It is an error to use this flag with the frame pointer or stack pointer. Use of this flag for other registers that have fixed pervasive roles in the machine’s execution model produces disastrous results. This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a three-way choice. -fcall-saved-reg Treat the register named reg as an allocable register saved by functions. It may be allocated even for temporaries or variables that live across a call. Functions compiled this way save and restore the register reg if they use it. It is an error to use this flag with the frame pointer or stack pointer. Use of this flag for other registers that have fixed pervasive roles in the machine’s execution model produces disastrous results. A different sort of disaster results from the use of this flag for a register in which function values may be returned. This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a three-way choice. -fpack-struct[=n] Without a value specified, pack all structure members together without holes. When a value is specified (which must be a small power of two), pack structure members according to this value, representing the maximum alignment (that is, objects with default alignment requirements larger than this are output potentially unaligned at the next fitting location. Warning: the -fpack-struct switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch. Additionally, it makes the code suboptimal. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface. -fleading-underscore This option and its counterpart, -fno-leading-underscore, forcibly change the way C symbols are represented in the object file. One use is to help link with legacy assembly code. Warning: the -fleading-underscore switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch. Use it to conform to a non-default application binary interface. Not all targets provide complete support for this switch. -ftls-model=model Alter the thread-local storage model to be used. The model argument should be one of global-dynamic, local-dynamic, initial-exec or local-exec. Note that the choice is subject to optimization: the compiler may use a more efficient model for symbols not visible outside of the translation unit, or if -fpic is not given on the command line. The default without -fpic is initial-exec; with -fpic the default is global-dynamic. -ftrampolines For targets that normally need trampolines for nested functions, always generate them instead of using descriptors. Otherwise, for targets that do not need them, like for example HP-PA or IA-64, do nothing. A trampoline is a small piece of code that is created at run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. Therefore, it requires the stack to be made executable in order for the program to work properly. -fno-trampolines is enabled by default on a language by language basis to let the compiler avoid generating them, if it computes that this is safe, and replace them with descriptors. Descriptors are made up of data only, but the generated code must be prepared to deal with them. As of this writing, -fno-trampolines is enabled by default only for Ada. Moreover, code compiled with -ftrampolines and code compiled with -fno-trampolines are not binary compatible if nested functions are present. This option must therefore be used on a program-wide basis and be manipulated with extreme care. -fvisibility=[default|internal|hidden|protected] Set the default ELF image symbol visibility to the specified option—all symbols are marked with this unless overridden within the code. Using this feature can very substantially improve linking and load times of shared object libraries, produce more optimized code, provide near-perfect API export and prevent symbol clashes. It is strongly recommended that you use this in any shared objects you distribute. Despite the nomenclature, default always means public; i.e., available to be linked against from outside the shared object. protected and internal are pretty useless in real-world usage so the only other commonly used option is hidden. The default if -fvisibility isn’t specified is default, i.e., make every symbol public. A good explanation of the benefits offered by ensuring ELF symbols have the correct visibility is given by How To Write Shared Libraries by Ulrich Drepper (which can be found at <*https://www.akkadia.org/drepper/*>)—however a superior solution made possible by this option to marking things hidden when the default is public is to make the default hidden and mark things public. This is the norm with DLLs on Windows and with -fvisibility=hidden and _ _attribute_ _ ((visibility("default"))) instead of _ _declspec(dllexport) you get almost identical semantics with identical syntax. This is a great boon to those working with cross-platform projects. For those adding visibility support to existing code, you may find #pragma GCC visibility of use. This works by you enclosing the declarations you wish to set visibility for with (for example) #pragma GCC visibility push(hidden) and #pragma GCC visibility pop. Bear in mind that symbol visibility should be viewed as part of the API interface contract and thus all new code should always specify visibility when it is not the default; i.e., declarations only for use within the local DSO should always be marked explicitly as hidden as so to avoid PLT indirection overheads—making this abundantly clear also aids readability and self-documentation of the code. Note that due to ISO C++ specification requirements, operator new and operator delete must always be of default visibility. Be aware that headers from outside your project, in particular system headers and headers from any other library you use, may not be expecting to be compiled with visibility other than the default. You may need to explicitly say #pragma GCC visibility push(default) before including any such headers. extern declarations are not affected by -fvisibility, so a lot of code can be recompiled with -fvisibility=hidden with no modifications. However, this means that calls to extern functions with no explicit visibility use the PLT, so it is more effective to use _ _attribute ((visibility)) and/or #pragma GCC visibility to tell the compiler which extern declarations should be treated as hidden. Note that -fvisibility does affect C++ vague linkage entities. This means that, for instance, an exception class that is be thrown between DSOs must be explicitly marked with default visibility so that the type_info nodes are unified between the DSOs. An overview of these techniques, their benefits and how to use them is at <*http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/Visibility*>. -fstrict-volatile-bitfields This option should be used if accesses to volatile bit-fields (or other structure fields, although the compiler usually honors those types anyway) should use a single access of the width of the field’s type, aligned to a natural alignment if possible. For example, targets with memory-mapped peripheral registers might require all such accesses to be 16 bits wide; with this flag you can declare all peripheral bit-fields as unsigned short (assuming short is 16 bits on these targets) to force GCC to use 16-bit accesses instead of, perhaps, a more efficient 32-bit access. If this option is disabled, the compiler uses the most efficient instruction. In the previous example, that might be a 32-bit load instruction, even though that accesses bytes that do not contain any portion of the bit-field, or memory-mapped registers unrelated to the one being updated. In some cases, such as when the packed attribute is applied to a structure field, it may not be possible to access the field with a single read or write that is correctly aligned for the target machine. In this case GCC falls back to generating multiple accesses rather than code that will fault or truncate the result at run time. Note: Due to restrictions of the C/C++11 memory model, write accesses are not allowed to touch non bit-field members. It is therefore recommended to define all bits of the field’s type as bit-field members. The default value of this option is determined by the application binary interface for the target processor. -fsync-libcalls This option controls whether any out-of-line instance of the _ _sync family of functions may be used to implement the C++11 _ _atomic family of functions. The default value of this option is enabled, thus the only useful form of the option is -fno-sync-libcalls. This option is used in the implementation of the libatomic runtime library. ### GCC Developer Options This section describes command-line options that are primarily of interest to GCC developers, including options to support compiler testing and investigation of compiler bugs and compile-time performance problems. This includes options that produce debug dumps at various points in the compilation; that print statistics such as memory use and execution time; and that print information about GCC’s configuration, such as where it searches for libraries. You should rarely need to use any of these options for ordinary compilation and linking tasks. Many developer options that cause GCC to dump output to a file take an optional =*/filename/ suffix. You can specify *stdout or - to dump to standard output, and stderr for standard error. If =*/filename/ is omitted, a default dump file name is constructed by concatenating the base dump file name, a pass number, phase letter, and pass name. The base dump file name is the name of output file produced by the compiler if explicitly specified and not an executable; otherwise it is the source file name. The pass number is determined by the order passes are registered with the compiler’s pass manager. This is generally the same as the order of execution, but passes registered by plugins, target-specific passes, or passes that are otherwise registered late are numbered higher than the pass named *final, even if they are executed earlier. The phase letter is one of i (inter-procedural analysis), l (language-specific), r (RTL), or t (tree). The files are created in the directory of the output file. -fcallgraph-info -fcallgraph-info=MARKERS Makes the compiler output callgraph information for the program, on a per-object-file basis. The information is generated in the common VCG format. It can be decorated with additional, per-node and/or per-edge information, if a list of comma-separated markers is additionally specified. When the su marker is specified, the callgraph is decorated with stack usage information; it is equivalent to -fstack-usage. When the da marker is specified, the callgraph is decorated with information about dynamically allocated objects. When compiling with -flto, no callgraph information is output along with the object file. At LTO link time, -fcallgraph-info may generate multiple callgraph information files next to intermediate LTO output files. -dletters -fdump-rtl-pass -fdump-rtl-pass=filename Says to make debugging dumps during compilation at times specified by letters. This is used for debugging the RTL-based passes of the compiler. Some -d*/letters/ switches have different meaning when *-E is used for preprocessing. Debug dumps can be enabled with a -fdump-rtl switch or some -d option letters. Here are the possible letters for use in pass and letters, and their meanings: -fdump-rtl-alignments Dump after branch alignments have been computed. -fdump-rtl-asmcons Dump after fixing rtl statements that have unsatisfied in/out constraints. -fdump-rtl-auto_inc_dec Dump after auto-inc-dec discovery. This pass is only run on architectures that have auto inc or auto dec instructions. -fdump-rtl-barriers Dump after cleaning up the barrier instructions. -fdump-rtl-bbpart Dump after partitioning hot and cold basic blocks. -fdump-rtl-bbro Dump after block reordering. -fdump-rtl-btl1 -fdump-rtl-btl2 -fdump-rtl-btl1 and -fdump-rtl-btl2 enable dumping after the two branch target load optimization passes. -fdump-rtl-bypass Dump after jump bypassing and control flow optimizations. -fdump-rtl-combine Dump after the RTL instruction combination pass. -fdump-rtl-compgotos Dump after duplicating the computed gotos. -fdump-rtl-ce1 -fdump-rtl-ce2 -fdump-rtl-ce3 -fdump-rtl-ce1, -fdump-rtl-ce2, and -fdump-rtl-ce3 enable dumping after the three if conversion passes. -fdump-rtl-cprop_hardreg Dump after hard register copy propagation. -fdump-rtl-csa Dump after combining stack adjustments. -fdump-rtl-cse1 -fdump-rtl-cse2 -fdump-rtl-cse1 and -fdump-rtl-cse2 enable dumping after the two common subexpression elimination passes. -fdump-rtl-dce Dump after the standalone dead code elimination passes. -fdump-rtl-dbr Dump after delayed branch scheduling. -fdump-rtl-dce1 -fdump-rtl-dce2 -fdump-rtl-dce1 and -fdump-rtl-dce2 enable dumping after the two dead store elimination passes. -fdump-rtl-eh Dump after finalization of EH handling code. -fdump-rtl-eh_ranges Dump after conversion of EH handling range regions. -fdump-rtl-expand Dump after RTL generation. -fdump-rtl-fwprop1 -fdump-rtl-fwprop2 -fdump-rtl-fwprop1 and -fdump-rtl-fwprop2 enable dumping after the two forward propagation passes. -fdump-rtl-gcse1 -fdump-rtl-gcse2 -fdump-rtl-gcse1 and -fdump-rtl-gcse2 enable dumping after global common subexpression elimination. -fdump-rtl-init-regs Dump after the initialization of the registers. -fdump-rtl-initvals Dump after the computation of the initial value sets. -fdump-rtl-into_cfglayout Dump after converting to cfglayout mode. -fdump-rtl-ira Dump after iterated register allocation. -fdump-rtl-jump Dump after the second jump optimization. -fdump-rtl-loop2 -fdump-rtl-loop2 enables dumping after the rtl loop optimization passes. -fdump-rtl-mach Dump after performing the machine dependent reorganization pass, if that pass exists. -fdump-rtl-mode_sw Dump after removing redundant mode switches. -fdump-rtl-rnreg Dump after register renumbering. -fdump-rtl-outof_cfglayout Dump after converting from cfglayout mode. -fdump-rtl-peephole2 Dump after the peephole pass. -fdump-rtl-postreload Dump after post-reload optimizations. -fdump-rtl-pro_and_epilogue Dump after generating the function prologues and epilogues. -fdump-rtl-sched1 -fdump-rtl-sched2 -fdump-rtl-sched1 and -fdump-rtl-sched2 enable dumping after the basic block scheduling passes. -fdump-rtl-ree Dump after sign/zero extension elimination. -fdump-rtl-seqabstr Dump after common sequence discovery. -fdump-rtl-shorten Dump after shortening branches. -fdump-rtl-sibling Dump after sibling call optimizations. -fdump-rtl-split1 -fdump-rtl-split2 -fdump-rtl-split3 -fdump-rtl-split4 -fdump-rtl-split5 These options enable dumping after five rounds of instruction splitting. -fdump-rtl-sms Dump after modulo scheduling. This pass is only run on some architectures. -fdump-rtl-stack Dump after conversion from GCC’s flat register file registers to the x87’s stack-like registers. This pass is only run on x86 variants. -fdump-rtl-subreg1 -fdump-rtl-subreg2 -fdump-rtl-subreg1 and -fdump-rtl-subreg2 enable dumping after the two subreg expansion passes. -fdump-rtl-unshare Dump after all rtl has been unshared. -fdump-rtl-vartrack Dump after variable tracking. -fdump-rtl-vregs Dump after converting virtual registers to hard registers. -fdump-rtl-web Dump after live range splitting. -fdump-rtl-regclass -fdump-rtl-subregs_of_mode_init -fdump-rtl-subregs_of_mode_finish -fdump-rtl-dfinit -fdump-rtl-dfinish These dumps are defined but always produce empty files. -da -fdump-rtl-all Produce all the dumps listed above. -dA Annotate the assembler output with miscellaneous debugging information. -dD Dump all macro definitions, at the end of preprocessing, in addition to normal output. -dH Produce a core dump whenever an error occurs. -dp Annotate the assembler output with a comment indicating which pattern and alternative is used. The length and cost of each instruction are also printed. -dP Dump the RTL in the assembler output as a comment before each instruction. Also turns on -dp annotation. -dx Just generate RTL for a function instead of compiling it. Usually used with -fdump-rtl-expand. nil -fdump-debug Dump debugging information generated during the debug generation phase. -fdump-earlydebug Dump debugging information generated during the early debug generation phase. -fdump-noaddr When doing debugging dumps, suppress address output. This makes it more feasible to use diff on debugging dumps for compiler invocations with different compiler binaries and/or different text / bss / data / heap / stack / dso start locations. -freport-bug Collect and dump debug information into a temporary file if an internal compiler error (ICE) occurs. -fdump-unnumbered When doing debugging dumps, suppress instruction numbers and address output. This makes it more feasible to use diff on debugging dumps for compiler invocations with different options, in particular with and without -g. -fdump-unnumbered-links When doing debugging dumps (see -d option above), suppress instruction numbers for the links to the previous and next instructions in a sequence. -fdump-ipa-switch -fdump-ipa-switch-options Control the dumping at various stages of inter-procedural analysis language tree to a file. The file name is generated by appending a switch specific suffix to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. The following dumps are possible: all Enables all inter-procedural analysis dumps. cgraph Dumps information about call-graph optimization, unused function removal, and inlining decisions. inline Dump after function inlining. Additionally, the options -optimized, -missed, -note, and -all can be provided, with the same meaning as for -fopt-info, defaulting to -optimized. For example, -fdump-ipa-inline-optimized-missed will emit information on callsites that were inlined, along with callsites that were not inlined. By default, the dump will contain messages about successful optimizations (equivalent to -optimized) together with low-level details about the analysis. -fdump-lang Dump language-specific information. The file name is made by appending .lang to the source file name. -fdump-lang-all -fdump-lang-switch -fdump-lang-switch-options -fdump-lang-switch-options=filename Control the dumping of language-specific information. The options and filename portions behave as described in the -fdump-tree option. The following switch values are accepted: all Enable all language-specific dumps. class Dump class hierarchy information. Virtual table information is emitted unless ’slim’ is specified. This option is applicable to C++ only. module Dump module information. Options lineno (locations), graph (reachability), blocks (clusters), uid (serialization), alias (mergeable), asmname (Elrond), eh (mapper) & vops (macros) may provide additional information. This option is applicable to C++ only. raw Dump the raw internal tree data. This option is applicable to C++ only. nil -fdump-passes Print on stderr the list of optimization passes that are turned on and off by the current command-line options. -fdump-statistics-option Enable and control dumping of pass statistics in a separate file. The file name is generated by appending a suffix ending in .statistics to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. If the -*/option/ form is used, *-stats causes counters to be summed over the whole compilation unit while -details dumps every event as the passes generate them. The default with no option is to sum counters for each function compiled. -fdump-tree-all -fdump-tree-switch -fdump-tree-switch-options -fdump-tree-switch-options=filename Control the dumping at various stages of processing the intermediate language tree to a file. If the -*/options/ form is used, options is a list of *- separated options which control the details of the dump. Not all options are applicable to all dumps; those that are not meaningful are ignored. The following options are available address Print the address of each node. Usually this is not meaningful as it changes according to the environment and source file. Its primary use is for tying up a dump file with a debug environment. asmname If DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME has been set for a given decl, use that in the dump instead of DECL_NAME. Its primary use is ease of use working backward from mangled names in the assembly file. slim When dumping front-end intermediate representations, inhibit dumping of members of a scope or body of a function merely because that scope has been reached. Only dump such items when they are directly reachable by some other path. When dumping pretty-printed trees, this option inhibits dumping the bodies of control structures. When dumping RTL, print the RTL in slim (condensed) form instead of the default LISP-like representation. raw Print a raw representation of the tree. By default, trees are pretty-printed into a C-like representation. details Enable more detailed dumps (not honored by every dump option). Also include information from the optimization passes. stats Enable dumping various statistics about the pass (not honored by every dump option). blocks Enable showing basic block boundaries (disabled in raw dumps). graph For each of the other indicated dump files (*-fdump-rtl-*/pass/), dump a representation of the control flow graph suitable for viewing with GraphViz to file.passid.pass.dot. Each function in the file is pretty-printed as a subgraph, so that GraphViz can render them all in a single plot. This option currently only works for RTL dumps, and the RTL is always dumped in slim form. vops Enable showing virtual operands for every statement. lineno Enable showing line numbers for statements. uid Enable showing the unique ID (DECL_UID) for each variable. verbose Enable showing the tree dump for each statement. eh Enable showing the EH region number holding each statement. scev Enable showing scalar evolution analysis details. optimized Enable showing optimization information (only available in certain passes). missed Enable showing missed optimization information (only available in certain passes). note Enable other detailed optimization information (only available in certain passes). all Turn on all options, except raw, slim, verbose and lineno. optall Turn on all optimization options, i.e., optimized, missed, and note. To determine what tree dumps are available or find the dump for a pass of interest follow the steps below. 1. Invoke GCC with -fdump-passes and in the stderr output look for a code that corresponds to the pass you are interested in. For example, the codes tree-evrp, tree-vrp1, and tree-vrp2 correspond to the three Value Range Propagation passes. The number at the end distinguishes distinct invocations of the same pass. 2. To enable the creation of the dump file, append the pass code to the -fdump- option prefix and invoke GCC with it. For example, to enable the dump from the Early Value Range Propagation pass, invoke GCC with the -fdump-tree-evrp option. Optionally, you may specify the name of the dump file. If you don’t specify one, GCC creates as described below. 3. Find the pass dump in a file whose name is composed of three components separated by a period: the name of the source file GCC was invoked to compile, a numeric suffix indicating the pass number followed by the letter t for tree passes (and the letter r for RTL passes), and finally the pass code. For example, the Early VRP pass dump might be in a file named myfile.c.038t.evrp in the current working directory. Note that the numeric codes are not stable and may change from one version of GCC to another. nil -fopt-info -fopt-info-options -fopt-info-options=filename Controls optimization dumps from various optimization passes. If the -*/options/ form is used, options is a list of *- separated option keywords to select the dump details and optimizations. The options can be divided into three groups: 1. options describing what kinds of messages should be emitted, 2. options describing the verbosity of the dump, and 3. options describing which optimizations should be included. The options from each group can be freely mixed as they are non-overlapping. However, in case of any conflicts, the later options override the earlier options on the command line. The following options control which kinds of messages should be emitted: optimized Print information when an optimization is successfully applied. It is up to a pass to decide which information is relevant. For example, the vectorizer passes print the source location of loops which are successfully vectorized. missed Print information about missed optimizations. Individual passes control which information to include in the output. note Print verbose information about optimizations, such as certain transformations, more detailed messages about decisions etc. all Print detailed optimization information. This includes optimized, missed, and note. The following option controls the dump verbosity: internals By default, only high-level messages are emitted. This option enables additional, more detailed, messages, which are likely to only be of interest to GCC developers. One or more of the following option keywords can be used to describe a group of optimizations: ipa Enable dumps from all interprocedural optimizations. loop Enable dumps from all loop optimizations. inline Enable dumps from all inlining optimizations. omp Enable dumps from all OMP (Offloading and Multi Processing) optimizations. vec Enable dumps from all vectorization optimizations. optall Enable dumps from all optimizations. This is a superset of the optimization groups listed above. If options is omitted, it defaults to optimized-optall, which means to dump messages about successful optimizations from all the passes, omitting messages that are treated as internals. If the filename is provided, then the dumps from all the applicable optimizations are concatenated into the filename. Otherwise the dump is output onto stderr. Though multiple -fopt-info options are accepted, only one of them can include a filename. If other filenames are provided then all but the first such option are ignored. Note that the output filename is overwritten in case of multiple translation units. If a combined output from multiple translation units is desired, stderr should be used instead. In the following example, the optimization info is output to stderr: gcc -O3 -fopt-info This example: gcc -O3 -fopt-info-missed=missed.all outputs missed optimization report from all the passes into missed.all, and this one: gcc -O2 -ftree-vectorize -fopt-info-vec-missed prints information about missed optimization opportunities from vectorization passes on stderr. Note that -fopt-info-vec-missed is equivalent to -fopt-info-missed-vec. The order of the optimization group names and message types listed after -fopt-info does not matter. As another example, gcc -O3 -fopt-info-inline-optimized-missed=inline.txt outputs information about missed optimizations as well as optimized locations from all the inlining passes into inline.txt. Finally, consider: gcc -fopt-info-vec-missed=vec.miss -fopt-info-loop-optimized=loop.opt Here the two output filenames vec.miss and loop.opt are in conflict since only one output file is allowed. In this case, only the first option takes effect and the subsequent options are ignored. Thus only vec.miss is produced which contains dumps from the vectorizer about missed opportunities. -fsave-optimization-record Write a SRCFILE.opt-record.json.gz file detailing what optimizations were performed, for those optimizations that support -fopt-info. This option is experimental and the format of the data within the compressed JSON file is subject to change. It is roughly equivalent to a machine-readable version of -fopt-info-all, as a collection of messages with source file, line number and column number, with the following additional data for each message: • the execution count of the code being optimized, along with metadata about whether this was from actual profile data, or just an estimate, allowing consumers to prioritize messages by code hotness, • the function name of the code being optimized, where applicable, • the inlining chain for the code being optimized, so that when a function is inlined into several different places (which might themselves be inlined), the reader can distinguish between the copies, • objects identifying those parts of the message that refer to expressions, statements or symbol-table nodes, which of these categories they are, and, when available, their source code location, • the GCC pass that emitted the message, and • the location in GCC’s own code from which the message was emitted Additionally, some messages are logically nested within other messages, reflecting implementation details of the optimization passes. -fsched-verbose=n On targets that use instruction scheduling, this option controls the amount of debugging output the scheduler prints to the dump files. For n greater than zero, -fsched-verbose outputs the same information as -fdump-rtl-sched1 and -fdump-rtl-sched2. For n greater than one, it also output basic block probabilities, detailed ready list information and unit/insn info. For n greater than two, it includes RTL at abort point, control-flow and regions info. And for n over four, -fsched-verbose also includes dependence info. -fenable-kind-pass -fdisable-kind-pass=range-list This is a set of options that are used to explicitly disable/enable optimization passes. These options are intended for use for debugging GCC. Compiler users should use regular options for enabling/disabling passes instead. -fdisable-ipa-pass Disable IPA pass pass. pass is the pass name. If the same pass is statically invoked in the compiler multiple times, the pass name should be appended with a sequential number starting from 1. -fdisable-rtl-pass -fdisable-rtl-pass=range-list Disable RTL pass pass. pass is the pass name. If the same pass is statically invoked in the compiler multiple times, the pass name should be appended with a sequential number starting from 1. range-list is a comma-separated list of function ranges or assembler names. Each range is a number pair separated by a colon. The range is inclusive in both ends. If the range is trivial, the number pair can be simplified as a single number. If the function’s call graph node’s uid falls within one of the specified ranges, the pass is disabled for that function. The uid is shown in the function header of a dump file, and the pass names can be dumped by using option -fdump-passes. -fdisable-tree-pass -fdisable-tree-pass=range-list Disable tree pass pass. See -fdisable-rtl for the description of option arguments. -fenable-ipa-pass Enable IPA pass pass. pass is the pass name. If the same pass is statically invoked in the compiler multiple times, the pass name should be appended with a sequential number starting from 1. -fenable-rtl-pass -fenable-rtl-pass=range-list Enable RTL pass pass. See -fdisable-rtl for option argument description and examples. -fenable-tree-pass -fenable-tree-pass=range-list Enable tree pass pass. See -fdisable-rtl for the description of option arguments. Here are some examples showing uses of these options. # disable ccp1 for all functions -fdisable-tree-ccp1 # disable complete unroll for function whose cgraph node uid is 1 -fenable-tree-cunroll=1 # disable gcse2 for functions at the following ranges [1,1], # [300,400], and [400,1000] # disable gcse2 for functions foo and foo2 -fdisable-rtl-gcse2=foo,foo2 # disable early inlining -fdisable-tree-einline # disable ipa inlining -fdisable-ipa-inline # enable tree full unroll -fenable-tree-unroll -fchecking -fchecking=n Enable internal consistency checking. The default depends on the compiler configuration. -fchecking=2 enables further internal consistency checking that might affect code generation. -frandom-seed=string This option provides a seed that GCC uses in place of random numbers in generating certain symbol names that have to be different in every compiled file. It is also used to place unique stamps in coverage data files and the object files that produce them. You can use the -frandom-seed option to produce reproducibly identical object files. The string can either be a number (decimal, octal or hex) or an arbitrary string (in which case it’s converted to a number by computing CRC32). The string should be different for every file you compile. -save-temps Store the usual temporary intermediate files permanently; name them as auxiliary output files, as specified described under -dumpbase and -dumpdir. When used in combination with the -x command-line option, -save-temps is sensible enough to avoid overwriting an input source file with the same extension as an intermediate file. The corresponding intermediate file may be obtained by renaming the source file before using -save-temps. -save-temps=cwd Equivalent to -save-temps -dumpdir ./. -save-temps=obj Equivalent to -save-temps -dumpdir outdir/, where outdir/ is the directory of the output file specified after the -o option, including any directory separators. If the -o option is not used, the -save-temps=obj switch behaves like -save-temps=cwd. -time[=file] Report the CPU time taken by each subprocess in the compilation sequence. For C source files, this is the compiler proper and assembler (plus the linker if linking is done). Without the specification of an output file, the output looks like this: # cc1 0.12 0.01 # as 0.00 0.01 The first number on each line is the user time, that is time spent executing the program itself. The second number is system time, time spent executing operating system routines on behalf of the program. Both numbers are in seconds. With the specification of an output file, the output is appended to the named file, and it looks like this: 0.12 0.01 cc1 <options> 0.00 0.01 as <options> The user time and the system time are moved before the program name, and the options passed to the program are displayed, so that one can later tell what file was being compiled, and with which options. -fdump-final-insns[=file] Dump the final internal representation (RTL) to file. If the optional argument is omitted (or if file is .), the name of the dump file is determined by appending .gkd to the dump base name, see -dumpbase. -fcompare-debug[=opts] If no error occurs during compilation, run the compiler a second time, adding opts and -fcompare-debug-second to the arguments passed to the second compilation. Dump the final internal representation in both compilations, and print an error if they differ. If the equal sign is omitted, the default -gtoggle is used. The environment variable GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG, if defined, non-empty and nonzero, implicitly enables -fcompare-debug. If GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG is defined to a string starting with a dash, then it is used for opts, otherwise the default -gtoggle is used. -fcompare-debug=, with the equal sign but without opts, is equivalent to -fno-compare-debug, which disables the dumping of the final representation and the second compilation, preventing even GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG from taking effect. To verify full coverage during -fcompare-debug testing, set GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG to say -fcompare-debug-not-overridden, which GCC rejects as an invalid option in any actual compilation (rather than preprocessing, assembly or linking). To get just a warning, setting GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG to -w%n-fcompare-debug not overridden will do. -fcompare-debug-second This option is implicitly passed to the compiler for the second compilation requested by -fcompare-debug, along with options to silence warnings, and omitting other options that would cause the compiler to produce output to files or to standard output as a side effect. Dump files and preserved temporary files are renamed so as to contain the .gk additional extension during the second compilation, to avoid overwriting those generated by the first. When this option is passed to the compiler driver, it causes the first compilation to be skipped, which makes it useful for little other than debugging the compiler proper. -gtoggle Turn off generation of debug info, if leaving out this option generates it, or turn it on at level 2 otherwise. The position of this argument in the command line does not matter; it takes effect after all other options are processed, and it does so only once, no matter how many times it is given. This is mainly intended to be used with -fcompare-debug. -fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle Toggle -fvar-tracking-assignments, in the same way that -gtoggle toggles -g. -Q Makes the compiler print out each function name as it is compiled, and print some statistics about each pass when it finishes. -ftime-report Makes the compiler print some statistics about the time consumed by each pass when it finishes. -ftime-report-details Record the time consumed by infrastructure parts separately for each pass. -fira-verbose=n Control the verbosity of the dump file for the integrated register allocator. The default value is 5. If the value n is greater or equal to 10, the dump output is sent to stderr using the same format as n minus 10. -flto-report Prints a report with internal details on the workings of the link-time optimizer. The contents of this report vary from version to version. It is meant to be useful to GCC developers when processing object files in LTO mode (via -flto). Disabled by default. -flto-report-wpa Like -flto-report, but only print for the WPA phase of link-time optimization. -fmem-report Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory allocation when it finishes. -fmem-report-wpa Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory allocation for the WPA phase only. -fpre-ipa-mem-report -fpost-ipa-mem-report Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory allocation before or after interprocedural optimization. -fprofile-report Makes the compiler print some statistics about consistency of the (estimated) profile and effect of individual passes. -fstack-usage Makes the compiler output stack usage information for the program, on a per-function basis. The filename for the dump is made by appending .su to the auxname. auxname is generated from the name of the output file, if explicitly specified and it is not an executable, otherwise it is the basename of the source file. An entry is made up of three fields: • The name of the function. • A number of bytes. • One or more qualifiers: static, dynamic, bounded. The qualifier static means that the function manipulates the stack statically: a fixed number of bytes are allocated for the frame on function entry and released on function exit; no stack adjustments are otherwise made in the function. The second field is this fixed number of bytes. The qualifier dynamic means that the function manipulates the stack dynamically: in addition to the static allocation described above, stack adjustments are made in the body of the function, for example to push/pop arguments around function calls. If the qualifier bounded is also present, the amount of these adjustments is bounded at compile time and the second field is an upper bound of the total amount of stack used by the function. If it is not present, the amount of these adjustments is not bounded at compile time and the second field only represents the bounded part. -fstats Emit statistics about front-end processing at the end of the compilation. This option is supported only by the C++ front end, and the information is generally only useful to the G++ development team. -fdbg-cnt-list Print the name and the counter upper bound for all debug counters. -fdbg-cnt=counter-value-list Set the internal debug counter lower and upper bound. counter-value-list is a comma-separated list of name:/lower_bound1/-upper_bound1 [:/lower_bound2/-upper_bound2…] tuples which sets the name of the counter and list of closed intervals. The lower_bound is optional and is zero initialized if not set. For example, with -fdbg-cnt=dce:2-4:10-11,tail_call:10, dbg_cnt(dce) returns true only for second, third, fourth, tenth and eleventh invocation. For dbg_cnt(tail_call) true is returned for first 10 invocations. -print-file-name=library Print the full absolute name of the library file library that would be used when linking—and don’t do anything else. With this option, GCC does not compile or link anything; it just prints the file name. -print-multi-directory Print the directory name corresponding to the multilib selected by any other switches present in the command line. This directory is supposed to exist in GCC_EXEC_PREFIX. -print-multi-lib Print the mapping from multilib directory names to compiler switches that enable them. The directory name is separated from the switches by ;, and each switch starts with an @ instead of the -, without spaces between multiple switches. This is supposed to ease shell processing. -print-multi-os-directory Print the path to OS libraries for the selected multilib, relative to some lib subdirectory. If OS libraries are present in the lib subdirectory and no multilibs are used, this is usually just ., if OS libraries are present in libsuffix sibling directories this prints e.g. ../lib64, ../lib or ../lib32, or if OS libraries are present in lib/subdir subdirectories it prints e.g. amd64, sparcv9 or ev6. -print-multiarch Print the path to OS libraries for the selected multiarch, relative to some lib subdirectory. -print-prog-name=program Like -print-file-name, but searches for a program such as cpp. -print-libgcc-file-name Same as -print-file-name=libgcc.a. This is useful when you use -nostdlib or -nodefaultlibs but you do want to link with libgcc.a. You can do: gcc -nostdlib <files>… gcc -print-libgcc-file-name -print-search-dirs Print the name of the configured installation directory and a list of program and library directories gcc searches—and don’t do anything else. This is useful when gcc prints the error message installation problem, cannot exec cpp0: No such file or directory. To resolve this you either need to put cpp0 and the other compiler components where gcc expects to find them, or you can set the environment variable GCC_EXEC_PREFIX to the directory where you installed them. Don’t forget the trailing /. -print-sysroot Print the target sysroot directory that is used during compilation. This is the target sysroot specified either at configure time or using the –sysroot option, possibly with an extra suffix that depends on compilation options. If no target sysroot is specified, the option prints nothing. -print-sysroot-headers-suffix Print the suffix added to the target sysroot when searching for headers, or give an error if the compiler is not configured with such a suffix—and don’t do anything else. -dumpmachine Print the compiler’s target machine (for example, i686-pc-linux-gnu)—and don’t do anything else. -dumpversion Print the compiler version (for example, 3.0, 6.3.0 or 7)—and don’t do anything else. This is the compiler version used in filesystem paths and specs. Depending on how the compiler has been configured it can be just a single number (major version), two numbers separated by a dot (major and minor version) or three numbers separated by dots (major, minor and patchlevel version). -dumpfullversion Print the full compiler version—and don’t do anything else. The output is always three numbers separated by dots, major, minor and patchlevel version. -dumpspecs Print the compiler’s built-in specs—and don’t do anything else. (This is used when GCC itself is being built.) ### Machine-Dependent Options Each target machine supported by GCC can have its own options—for example, to allow you to compile for a particular processor variant or ABI, or to control optimizations specific to that machine. By convention, the names of machine-specific options start with -m. Some configurations of the compiler also support additional target-specific options, usually for compatibility with other compilers on the same platform. AArch64 Options These options are defined for AArch64 implementations: -mabi=name Generate code for the specified data model. Permissible values are ilp32 for SysV-like data model where int, long int and pointers are 32 bits, and lp64 for SysV-like data model where int is 32 bits, but long int and pointers are 64 bits. The default depends on the specific target configuration. Note that the LP64 and ILP32 ABIs are not link-compatible; you must compile your entire program with the same ABI, and link with a compatible set of libraries. -mbig-endian Generate big-endian code. This is the default when GCC is configured for an aarch64_be--** target. -mgeneral-regs-only Generate code which uses only the general-purpose registers. This will prevent the compiler from using floating-point and Advanced SIMD registers but will not impose any restrictions on the assembler. -mlittle-endian Generate little-endian code. This is the default when GCC is configured for an aarch64--* but not an *aarch64_be--** target. -mcmodel=tiny Generate code for the tiny code model. The program and its statically defined symbols must be within 1MB of each other. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked. -mcmodel=small Generate code for the small code model. The program and its statically defined symbols must be within 4GB of each other. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked. This is the default code model. -mcmodel=large Generate code for the large code model. This makes no assumptions about addresses and sizes of sections. Programs can be statically linked only. The -mcmodel=large option is incompatible with -mabi=ilp32, -fpic and -fPIC. -mstrict-align -mno-strict-align Avoid or allow generating memory accesses that may not be aligned on a natural object boundary as described in the architecture specification. -momit-leaf-frame-pointer -mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer Omit or keep the frame pointer in leaf functions. The former behavior is the default. -mstack-protector-guard=guard -mstack-protector-guard-reg=reg -mstack-protector-guard-offset=offset Generate stack protection code using canary at guard. Supported locations are global for a global canary or sysreg for a canary in an appropriate system register. With the latter choice the options *-mstack-protector-guard-reg=*/reg/ and *-mstack-protector-guard-offset=*/offset/ furthermore specify which system register to use as base register for reading the canary, and from what offset from that base register. There is no default register or offset as this is entirely for use within the Linux kernel. -mtls-dialect=desc Use TLS descriptors as the thread-local storage mechanism for dynamic accesses of TLS variables. This is the default. -mtls-dialect=traditional Use traditional TLS as the thread-local storage mechanism for dynamic accesses of TLS variables. -mtls-size=size Specify bit size of immediate TLS offsets. Valid values are 12, 24, 32, 48. This option requires binutils 2.26 or newer. -mfix-cortex-a53-835769 -mno-fix-cortex-a53-835769 Enable or disable the workaround for the ARM Cortex-A53 erratum number 835769. This involves inserting a NOP instruction between memory instructions and 64-bit integer multiply-accumulate instructions. -mfix-cortex-a53-843419 -mno-fix-cortex-a53-843419 Enable or disable the workaround for the ARM Cortex-A53 erratum number 843419. This erratum workaround is made at link time and this will only pass the corresponding flag to the linker. -mlow-precision-recip-sqrt -mno-low-precision-recip-sqrt Enable or disable the reciprocal square root approximation. This option only has an effect if -ffast-math or -funsafe-math-optimizations is used as well. Enabling this reduces precision of reciprocal square root results to about 16 bits for single precision and to 32 bits for double precision. -mlow-precision-sqrt -mno-low-precision-sqrt Enable or disable the square root approximation. This option only has an effect if -ffast-math or -funsafe-math-optimizations is used as well. Enabling this reduces precision of square root results to about 16 bits for single precision and to 32 bits for double precision. If enabled, it implies -mlow-precision-recip-sqrt. -mlow-precision-div -mno-low-precision-div Enable or disable the division approximation. This option only has an effect if -ffast-math or -funsafe-math-optimizations is used as well. Enabling this reduces precision of division results to about 16 bits for single precision and to 32 bits for double precision. -mtrack-speculation -mno-track-speculation Enable or disable generation of additional code to track speculative execution through conditional branches. The tracking state can then be used by the compiler when expanding calls to _ _builtin_speculation_safe_copy to permit a more efficient code sequence to be generated. -moutline-atomics -mno-outline-atomics Enable or disable calls to out-of-line helpers to implement atomic operations. These helpers will, at runtime, determine if the LSE instructions from ARMv8.1-A can be used; if not, they will use the load/store-exclusive instructions that are present in the base ARMv8.0 ISA. This option is only applicable when compiling for the base ARMv8.0 instruction set. If using a later revision, e.g. -march=armv8.1-a or -march=armv8-a+lse, the ARMv8.1-Atomics instructions will be used directly. The same applies when using -mcpu= when the selected cpu supports the lse feature. This option is on by default. -march=name Specify the name of the target architecture and, optionally, one or more feature modifiers. This option has the form -march=*/arch/{*+[*no*]/feature/}*. The table below summarizes the permissible values for arch and the features that they enable by default: arch value : Architecture : Includes by default armv8-a : Armv8-A : +fp, +simd armv8.1-a : Armv8.1-A : armv8-a, +crc, +lse, +rdma armv8.2-a : Armv8.2-A : armv8.1-a armv8.3-a : Armv8.3-A : armv8.2-a, +pauth armv8.4-a : Armv8.4-A : armv8.3-a, +flagm, +fp16fml, +dotprod armv8.5-a : Armv8.5-A : armv8.4-a, +sb, +ssbs, +predres armv8.6-a : Armv8.6-A : armv8.5-a, +bf16, +i8mm armv8-r : Armv8-R : armv8-r The value native is available on native AArch64 GNU/Linux and causes the compiler to pick the architecture of the host system. This option has no effect if the compiler is unable to recognize the architecture of the host system, The permissible values for feature are listed in the sub-section on aarch64-feature-modifiers,,-march and -mcpu Feature Modifiers. Where conflicting feature modifiers are specified, the right-most feature is used. GCC uses name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. If -march is specified without either of -mtune or -mcpu also being specified, the code is tuned to perform well across a range of target processors implementing the target architecture. -mtune=name Specify the name of the target processor for which GCC should tune the performance of the code. Permissible values for this option are: generic, cortex-a35, cortex-a53, cortex-a55, cortex-a57, cortex-a72, cortex-a73, cortex-a75, cortex-a76, cortex-a76ae, cortex-a77, cortex-a65, cortex-a65ae, cortex-a34, cortex-a78, cortex-a78ae, cortex-a78c, ares, exynos-m1, emag, falkor, neoverse-e1, neoverse-n1, neoverse-n2, neoverse-v1, qdf24xx, saphira, phecda, xgene1, vulcan, octeontx, octeontx81, octeontx83, octeontx2, octeontx2t98, octeontx2t96 octeontx2t93, octeontx2f95, octeontx2f95n, octeontx2f95mm, a64fx, thunderx, thunderxt88, thunderxt88p1, thunderxt81, tsv110, thunderxt83, thunderx2t99, thunderx3t110, zeus, cortex-a57.cortex-a53, cortex-a72.cortex-a53, cortex-a73.cortex-a35, cortex-a73.cortex-a53, cortex-a75.cortex-a55, cortex-a76.cortex-a55, cortex-r82, cortex-x1, native. The values cortex-a57.cortex-a53, cortex-a72.cortex-a53, cortex-a73.cortex-a35, cortex-a73.cortex-a53, cortex-a75.cortex-a55, cortex-a76.cortex-a55 specify that GCC should tune for a big.LITTLE system. Additionally on native AArch64 GNU/Linux systems the value native tunes performance to the host system. This option has no effect if the compiler is unable to recognize the processor of the host system. Where none of -mtune=, -mcpu= or -march= are specified, the code is tuned to perform well across a range of target processors. This option cannot be suffixed by feature modifiers. -mcpu=name Specify the name of the target processor, optionally suffixed by one or more feature modifiers. This option has the form -mcpu=*/cpu/{*+[*no*]/feature/}*, where the permissible values for cpu are the same as those available for -mtune. The permissible values for feature are documented in the sub-section on aarch64-feature-modifiers,,-march and -mcpu Feature Modifiers. Where conflicting feature modifiers are specified, the right-most feature is used. GCC uses name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code (as if by -march) and to determine the target processor for which to tune for performance (as if by -mtune). Where this option is used in conjunction with -march or -mtune, those options take precedence over the appropriate part of this option. -moverride=string Override tuning decisions made by the back-end in response to a -mtune= switch. The syntax, semantics, and accepted values for string in this option are not guaranteed to be consistent across releases. This option is only intended to be useful when developing GCC. -mverbose-cost-dump Enable verbose cost model dumping in the debug dump files. This option is provided for use in debugging the compiler. -mpc-relative-literal-loads -mno-pc-relative-literal-loads Enable or disable PC-relative literal loads. With this option literal pools are accessed using a single instruction and emitted after each function. This limits the maximum size of functions to 1MB. This is enabled by default for -mcmodel=tiny. -msign-return-address=scope Select the function scope on which return address signing will be applied. Permissible values are none, which disables return address signing, non-leaf, which enables pointer signing for functions which are not leaf functions, and all, which enables pointer signing for all functions. The default value is none. This option has been deprecated by -mbranch-protection. -mbranch-protection=none|standard|pac-ret[+leaf+b-key]|bti Select the branch protection features to use. none is the default and turns off all types of branch protection. standard turns on all types of branch protection features. If a feature has additional tuning options, then standard sets it to its standard level. pac-ret[+*/leaf/*] turns on return address signing to its standard level: signing functions that save the return address to memory (non-leaf functions will practically always do this) using the a-key. The optional argument leaf can be used to extend the signing to include leaf functions. The optional argument b-key can be used to sign the functions with the B-key instead of the A-key. bti turns on branch target identification mechanism. -mharden-sls=opts Enable compiler hardening against straight line speculation (SLS). opts is a comma-separated list of the following options: retbr blr In addition, -mharden-sls=all enables all SLS hardening while -mharden-sls=none disables all SLS hardening. -msve-vector-bits=bits Specify the number of bits in an SVE vector register. This option only has an effect when SVE is enabled. GCC supports two forms of SVE code generation: vector-length agnostic output that works with any size of vector register and vector-length specific output that allows GCC to make assumptions about the vector length when it is useful for optimization reasons. The possible values of bits are: scalable, 128, 256, 512, 1024 and 2048. Specifying scalable selects vector-length agnostic output. At present -msve-vector-bits=128 also generates vector-length agnostic output for big-endian targets. All other values generate vector-length specific code. The behavior of these values may change in future releases and no value except scalable should be relied on for producing code that is portable across different hardware SVE vector lengths. The default is -msve-vector-bits=scalable, which produces vector-length agnostic code. -march and -mcpu Feature Modifiers Feature modifiers used with -march and -mcpu can be any of the following and their inverses *no*/feature/: crc Enable CRC extension. This is on by default for -march=armv8.1-a. crypto Enable Crypto extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. fp Enable floating-point instructions. This is on by default for all possible values for options -march and -mcpu. simd Enable Advanced SIMD instructions. This also enables floating-point instructions. This is on by default for all possible values for options -march and -mcpu. sve Enable Scalable Vector Extension instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. lse Enable Large System Extension instructions. This is on by default for -march=armv8.1-a. rdma Enable Round Double Multiply Accumulate instructions. This is on by default for -march=armv8.1-a. fp16 Enable FP16 extension. This also enables floating-point instructions. fp16fml Enable FP16 fmla extension. This also enables FP16 extensions and floating-point instructions. This option is enabled by default for -march=armv8.4-a. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. rcpc Enable the RcPc extension. This does not change code generation from GCC, but is passed on to the assembler, enabling inline asm statements to use instructions from the RcPc extension. dotprod Enable the Dot Product extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD instructions. aes Enable the Armv8-a aes and pmull crypto extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD instructions. sha2 Enable the Armv8-a sha2 crypto extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD instructions. sha3 Enable the sha512 and sha3 crypto extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD instructions. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. sm4 Enable the sm3 and sm4 crypto extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD instructions. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. profile Enable the Statistical Profiling extension. This option is only to enable the extension at the assembler level and does not affect code generation. rng Enable the Armv8.5-a Random Number instructions. This option is only to enable the extension at the assembler level and does not affect code generation. memtag Enable the Armv8.5-a Memory Tagging Extensions. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.5-A is not supported. sb Enable the Armv8-a Speculation Barrier instruction. This option is only to enable the extension at the assembler level and does not affect code generation. This option is enabled by default for -march=armv8.5-a. ssbs Enable the Armv8-a Speculative Store Bypass Safe instruction. This option is only to enable the extension at the assembler level and does not affect code generation. This option is enabled by default for -march=armv8.5-a. predres Enable the Armv8-a Execution and Data Prediction Restriction instructions. This option is only to enable the extension at the assembler level and does not affect code generation. This option is enabled by default for -march=armv8.5-a. sve2 Enable the Armv8-a Scalable Vector Extension 2. This also enables SVE instructions. sve2-bitperm Enable SVE2 bitperm instructions. This also enables SVE2 instructions. sve2-sm4 Enable SVE2 sm4 instructions. This also enables SVE2 instructions. sve2-aes Enable SVE2 aes instructions. This also enables SVE2 instructions. sve2-sha3 Enable SVE2 sha3 instructions. This also enables SVE2 instructions. tme Enable the Transactional Memory Extension. i8mm Enable 8-bit Integer Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. This option is enabled by default for -march=armv8.6-a. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. f32mm Enable 32-bit Floating point Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables SVE instructions. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. f64mm Enable 64-bit Floating point Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables SVE instructions. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. bf16 Enable brain half-precision floating-point instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. This option is enabled by default for -march=armv8.6-a. Use of this option with architectures prior to Armv8.2-A is not supported. flagm Enable the Flag Manipulation instructions Extension. pauth Enable the Pointer Authentication Extension. Feature crypto implies aes, sha2, and simd, which implies fp. Conversely, nofp implies nosimd, which implies nocrypto, noaes and nosha2. Adapteva Epiphany Options These -m options are defined for Adapteva Epiphany: -mhalf-reg-file Don’t allocate any register in the range r32…=r63=. That allows code to run on hardware variants that lack these registers. -mprefer-short-insn-regs Preferentially allocate registers that allow short instruction generation. This can result in increased instruction count, so this may either reduce or increase overall code size. -mbranch-cost=num Set the cost of branches to roughly num simple instructions. This cost is only a heuristic and is not guaranteed to produce consistent results across releases. -mcmove Enable the generation of conditional moves. -mnops=num Emit num NOPs before every other generated instruction. -mno-soft-cmpsf For single-precision floating-point comparisons, emit an fsub instruction and test the flags. This is faster than a software comparison, but can get incorrect results in the presence of NaNs, or when two different small numbers are compared such that their difference is calculated as zero. The default is -msoft-cmpsf, which uses slower, but IEEE-compliant, software comparisons. -mstack-offset=num Set the offset between the top of the stack and the stack pointer. E.g., a value of 8 means that the eight bytes in the range sp+0...sp+7 can be used by leaf functions without stack allocation. Values other than 8 or 16 are untested and unlikely to work. Note also that this option changes the ABI; compiling a program with a different stack offset than the libraries have been compiled with generally does not work. This option can be useful if you want to evaluate if a different stack offset would give you better code, but to actually use a different stack offset to build working programs, it is recommended to configure the toolchain with the appropriate *–with-stack-offset=*/num/ option. -mno-round-nearest Make the scheduler assume that the rounding mode has been set to truncating. The default is -mround-nearest. -mlong-calls If not otherwise specified by an attribute, assume all calls might be beyond the offset range of the b / bl instructions, and therefore load the function address into a register before performing a (otherwise direct) call. This is the default. -mshort-calls If not otherwise specified by an attribute, assume all direct calls are in the range of the b / bl instructions, so use these instructions for direct calls. The default is -mlong-calls. -msmall16 Assume addresses can be loaded as 16-bit unsigned values. This does not apply to function addresses for which -mlong-calls semantics are in effect. -mfp-mode=mode Set the prevailing mode of the floating-point unit. This determines the floating-point mode that is provided and expected at function call and return time. Making this mode match the mode you predominantly need at function start can make your programs smaller and faster by avoiding unnecessary mode switches. mode can be set to one the following values: caller Any mode at function entry is valid, and retained or restored when the function returns, and when it calls other functions. This mode is useful for compiling libraries or other compilation units you might want to incorporate into different programs with different prevailing FPU modes, and the convenience of being able to use a single object file outweighs the size and speed overhead for any extra mode switching that might be needed, compared with what would be needed with a more specific choice of prevailing FPU mode. truncate This is the mode used for floating-point calculations with truncating (i.e. round towards zero) rounding mode. That includes conversion from floating point to integer. round-nearest This is the mode used for floating-point calculations with round-to-nearest-or-even rounding mode. int This is the mode used to perform integer calculations in the FPU, e.g. integer multiply, or integer multiply-and-accumulate. The default is -mfp-mode=caller -mno-split-lohi -mno-postinc -mno-postmodify Code generation tweaks that disable, respectively, splitting of 32-bit loads, generation of post-increment addresses, and generation of post-modify addresses. The defaults are msplit-lohi, -mpost-inc, and -mpost-modify. -mnovect-double Change the preferred SIMD mode to SImode. The default is -mvect-double, which uses DImode as preferred SIMD mode. -max-vect-align=num The maximum alignment for SIMD vector mode types. num may be 4 or 8. The default is 8. Note that this is an ABI change, even though many library function interfaces are unaffected if they don’t use SIMD vector modes in places that affect size and/or alignment of relevant types. -msplit-vecmove-early Split vector moves into single word moves before reload. In theory this can give better register allocation, but so far the reverse seems to be generally the case. -m1reg-reg Specify a register to hold the constant -1, which makes loading small negative constants and certain bitmasks faster. Allowable values for reg are r43 and r63, which specify use of that register as a fixed register, and none, which means that no register is used for this purpose. The default is -m1reg-none. AMD GCN Options These options are defined specifically for the AMD GCN port. -march=gpu -mtune=gpu Set architecture type or tuning for gpu. Supported values for gpu are fiji Compile for GCN3 Fiji devices (gfx803). gfx900 Compile for GCN5 Vega 10 devices (gfx900). gfx906 Compile for GCN5 Vega 20 devices (gfx906). nil -mstack-size=bytes Specify how many bytes of stack space will be requested for each GPU thread (wave-front). Beware that there may be many threads and limited memory available. The size of the stack allocation may also have an impact on run-time performance. The default is 32KB when using OpenACC or OpenMP, and 1MB otherwise. ARC Options The following options control the architecture variant for which code is being compiled: -mbarrel-shifter Generate instructions supported by barrel shifter. This is the default unless -mcpu=ARC601 or -mcpu=ARCEM is in effect. -mjli-always Force to call a function using jli_s instruction. This option is valid only for ARCv2 architecture. -mcpu=cpu Set architecture type, register usage, and instruction scheduling parameters for cpu. There are also shortcut alias options available for backward compatibility and convenience. Supported values for cpu are arc600 Compile for ARC600. Aliases: -mA6, -mARC600. arc601 Compile for ARC601. Alias: -mARC601. arc700 Compile for ARC700. Aliases: -mA7, -mARC700. This is the default when configured with –with-cpu=arc700. arcem Compile for ARC EM. archs Compile for ARC HS. em Compile for ARC EM CPU with no hardware extensions. em4 Compile for ARC EM4 CPU. em4_dmips Compile for ARC EM4 DMIPS CPU. em4_fpus Compile for ARC EM4 DMIPS CPU with the single-precision floating-point extension. em4_fpuda Compile for ARC EM4 DMIPS CPU with single-precision floating-point and double assist instructions. hs Compile for ARC HS CPU with no hardware extensions except the atomic instructions. hs34 Compile for ARC HS34 CPU. hs38 Compile for ARC HS38 CPU. hs38_linux Compile for ARC HS38 CPU with all hardware extensions on. arc600_norm Compile for ARC 600 CPU with norm instructions enabled. arc600_mul32x16 Compile for ARC 600 CPU with norm and 32x16-bit multiply instructions enabled. arc600_mul64 Compile for ARC 600 CPU with norm and mul64-family instructions enabled. arc601_norm Compile for ARC 601 CPU with norm instructions enabled. arc601_mul32x16 Compile for ARC 601 CPU with norm and 32x16-bit multiply instructions enabled. arc601_mul64 Compile for ARC 601 CPU with norm and mul64-family instructions enabled. nps400 Compile for ARC 700 on NPS400 chip. em_mini Compile for ARC EM minimalist configuration featuring reduced register set. -mdpfp -mdpfp-compact Generate double-precision FPX instructions, tuned for the compact implementation. -mdpfp-fast Generate double-precision FPX instructions, tuned for the fast implementation. -mno-dpfp-lrsr Disable lr and sr instructions from using FPX extension aux registers. -mea Generate extended arithmetic instructions. Currently only divaw, adds, subs, and sat16 are supported. Only valid for -mcpu=ARC700. -mno-mpy Do not generate mpy-family instructions for ARC700. This option is deprecated. -mmul32x16 Generate 32x16-bit multiply and multiply-accumulate instructions. -mmul64 Generate mul64 and mulu64 instructions. Only valid for -mcpu=ARC600. -mnorm Generate norm instructions. This is the default if -mcpu=ARC700 is in effect. -mspfp -mspfp-compact Generate single-precision FPX instructions, tuned for the compact implementation. -mspfp-fast Generate single-precision FPX instructions, tuned for the fast implementation. -msimd Enable generation of ARC SIMD instructions via target-specific builtins. Only valid for -mcpu=ARC700. -msoft-float This option ignored; it is provided for compatibility purposes only. Software floating-point code is emitted by default, and this default can overridden by FPX options; -mspfp, -mspfp-compact, or -mspfp-fast for single precision, and -mdpfp, -mdpfp-compact, or -mdpfp-fast for double precision. -mswap Generate swap instructions. -matomic This enables use of the locked load/store conditional extension to implement atomic memory built-in functions. Not available for ARC 6xx or ARC EM cores. -mdiv-rem Enable div and rem instructions for ARCv2 cores. -mcode-density Enable code density instructions for ARC EM. This option is on by default for ARC HS. -mll64 Enable double load/store operations for ARC HS cores. -mtp-regno=regno Specify thread pointer register number. -mmpy-option=multo Compile ARCv2 code with a multiplier design option. You can specify the option using either a string or numeric value for multo. wlh1 is the default value. The recognized values are: No multiplier available. 16x16 multiplier, fully pipelined. The following instructions are enabled: mpyw and mpyuw. 32x32 multiplier, fully pipelined (1 stage). The following instructions are additionally enabled: mpy, mpyu, mpym, mpymu, and mpy_s. 32x32 multiplier, fully pipelined (2 stages). The following instructions are additionally enabled: mpy, mpyu, mpym, mpymu, and mpy_s. Two 16x16 multipliers, blocking, sequential. The following instructions are additionally enabled: mpy, mpyu, mpym, mpymu, and mpy_s. One 16x16 multiplier, blocking, sequential. The following instructions are additionally enabled: mpy, mpyu, mpym, mpymu, and mpy_s. One 32x4 multiplier, blocking, sequential. The following instructions are additionally enabled: mpy, mpyu, mpym, mpymu, and mpy_s. ARC HS SIMD support. ARC HS SIMD support. ARC HS SIMD support. This option is only available for ARCv2 cores. -mfpu=fpu Enables support for specific floating-point hardware extensions for ARCv2 cores. Supported values for fpu are: fpus Enables support for single-precision floating-point hardware extensions. fpud Enables support for double-precision floating-point hardware extensions. The single-precision floating-point extension is also enabled. Not available for ARC EM. fpuda Enables support for double-precision floating-point hardware extensions using double-precision assist instructions. The single-precision floating-point extension is also enabled. This option is only available for ARC EM. fpuda_div Enables support for double-precision floating-point hardware extensions using double-precision assist instructions. The single-precision floating-point, square-root, and divide extensions are also enabled. This option is only available for ARC EM. fpuda_fma Enables support for double-precision floating-point hardware extensions using double-precision assist instructions. The single-precision floating-point and fused multiply and add hardware extensions are also enabled. This option is only available for ARC EM. fpuda_all Enables support for double-precision floating-point hardware extensions using double-precision assist instructions. All single-precision floating-point hardware extensions are also enabled. This option is only available for ARC EM. fpus_div Enables support for single-precision floating-point, square-root and divide hardware extensions. fpud_div Enables support for double-precision floating-point, square-root and divide hardware extensions. This option includes option fpus_div. Not available for ARC EM. fpus_fma Enables support for single-precision floating-point and fused multiply and add hardware extensions. fpud_fma Enables support for double-precision floating-point and fused multiply and add hardware extensions. This option includes option fpus_fma. Not available for ARC EM. fpus_all Enables support for all single-precision floating-point hardware extensions. fpud_all Enables support for all single- and double-precision floating-point hardware extensions. Not available for ARC EM. -mirq-ctrl-saved=register-range, blink, lp_count Specifies general-purposes registers that the processor automatically saves/restores on interrupt entry and exit. register-range is specified as two registers separated by a dash. The register range always starts with r0, the upper limit is fp register. blink and lp_count are optional. This option is only valid for ARC EM and ARC HS cores. -mrgf-banked-regs=number Specifies the number of registers replicated in second register bank on entry to fast interrupt. Fast interrupts are interrupts with the highest priority level P0. These interrupts save only PC and STATUS32 registers to avoid memory transactions during interrupt entry and exit sequences. Use this option when you are using fast interrupts in an ARC V2 family processor. Permitted values are 4, 8, 16, and 32. -mlpc-width=width Specify the width of the lp_count register. Valid values for width are 8, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 bits. The default width is fixed to 32 bits. If the width is less than 32, the compiler does not attempt to transform loops in your program to use the zero-delay loop mechanism unless it is known that the lp_count register can hold the required loop-counter value. Depending on the width specified, the compiler and run-time library might continue to use the loop mechanism for various needs. This option defines macro _ _ARC_LPC_WIDTH_ _ with the value of width. -mrf16 This option instructs the compiler to generate code for a 16-entry register file. This option defines the _ _ARC_RF16_ _ preprocessor macro. -mbranch-index Enable use of bi or bih instructions to implement jump tables. The following options are passed through to the assembler, and also define preprocessor macro symbols. -mdsp-packa Passed down to the assembler to enable the DSP Pack A extensions. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xdsp_packa. This option is deprecated. -mdvbf Passed down to the assembler to enable the dual Viterbi butterfly extension. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xdvbf. This option is deprecated. -mlock Passed down to the assembler to enable the locked load/store conditional extension. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xlock. -mmac-d16 Passed down to the assembler. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xxmac_d16. This option is deprecated. -mmac-24 Passed down to the assembler. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xxmac_24. This option is deprecated. -mrtsc Passed down to the assembler to enable the 64-bit time-stamp counter extension instruction. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xrtsc. This option is deprecated. -mswape Passed down to the assembler to enable the swap byte ordering extension instruction. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xswape. -mtelephony Passed down to the assembler to enable dual- and single-operand instructions for telephony. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xtelephony. This option is deprecated. -mxy Passed down to the assembler to enable the XY memory extension. Also sets the preprocessor symbol _ _Xxy. The following options control how the assembly code is annotated: -misize Annotate assembler instructions with estimated addresses. -mannotate-align Explain what alignment considerations lead to the decision to make an instruction short or long. The following options are passed through to the linker: -marclinux Passed through to the linker, to specify use of the arclinux emulation. This option is enabled by default in tool chains built for arc-linux-uclibc and arceb-linux-uclibc targets when profiling is not requested. -marclinux_prof Passed through to the linker, to specify use of the arclinux_prof emulation. This option is enabled by default in tool chains built for arc-linux-uclibc and arceb-linux-uclibc targets when profiling is requested. The following options control the semantics of generated code: -mlong-calls Generate calls as register indirect calls, thus providing access to the full 32-bit address range. -mmedium-calls Don’t use less than 25-bit addressing range for calls, which is the offset available for an unconditional branch-and-link instruction. Conditional execution of function calls is suppressed, to allow use of the 25-bit range, rather than the 21-bit range with conditional branch-and-link. This is the default for tool chains built for arc-linux-uclibc and arceb-linux-uclibc targets. -G num Put definitions of externally-visible data in a small data section if that data is no bigger than num bytes. The default value of num is 4 for any ARC configuration, or 8 when we have double load/store operations. -mno-sdata Do not generate sdata references. This is the default for tool chains built for arc-linux-uclibc and arceb-linux-uclibc targets. -mvolatile-cache Use ordinarily cached memory accesses for volatile references. This is the default. -mno-volatile-cache Enable cache bypass for volatile references. The following options fine tune code generation: -malign-call Do alignment optimizations for call instructions. -mauto-modify-reg Enable the use of pre/post modify with register displacement. -mbbit-peephole Enable bbit peephole2. -mno-brcc This option disables a target-specific pass in arc_reorg to generate compare-and-branch (=br=/=cc=/) instructions. It has no effect on generation of these instructions driven by the combiner pass. -mcase-vector-pcrel Use PC-relative switch case tables to enable case table shortening. This is the default for -Os. -mcompact-casesi Enable compact casesi pattern. This is the default for -Os, and only available for ARCv1 cores. This option is deprecated. -mno-cond-exec Disable the ARCompact-specific pass to generate conditional execution instructions. Due to delay slot scheduling and interactions between operand numbers, literal sizes, instruction lengths, and the support for conditional execution, the target-independent pass to generate conditional execution is often lacking, so the ARC port has kept a special pass around that tries to find more conditional execution generation opportunities after register allocation, branch shortening, and delay slot scheduling have been done. This pass generally, but not always, improves performance and code size, at the cost of extra compilation time, which is why there is an option to switch it off. If you have a problem with call instructions exceeding their allowable offset range because they are conditionalized, you should consider using -mmedium-calls instead. -mearly-cbranchsi Enable pre-reload use of the cbranchsi pattern. -mexpand-adddi Expand adddi3 and subdi3 at RTL generation time into add.f, adc etc. This option is deprecated. -mindexed-loads Enable the use of indexed loads. This can be problematic because some optimizers then assume that indexed stores exist, which is not the case. -mlra Enable Local Register Allocation. This is still experimental for ARC, so by default the compiler uses standard reload (i.e. -mno-lra). -mlra-priority-none Don’t indicate any priority for target registers. -mlra-priority-compact Indicate target register priority for r0..r3 / r12..r15. -mlra-priority-noncompact Reduce target register priority for r0..r3 / r12..r15. -mmillicode When optimizing for size (using -Os), prologues and epilogues that have to save or restore a large number of registers are often shortened by using call to a special function in libgcc; this is referred to as a millicode call. As these calls can pose performance issues, and/or cause linking issues when linking in a nonstandard way, this option is provided to turn on or off millicode call generation. -mcode-density-frame This option enable the compiler to emit enter and leave instructions. These instructions are only valid for CPUs with code-density feature. -mmixed-code Tweak register allocation to help 16-bit instruction generation. This generally has the effect of decreasing the average instruction size while increasing the instruction count. -mq-class Ths option is deprecated. Enable q instruction alternatives. This is the default for -Os. -mRcq Enable Rcq constraint handling. Most short code generation depends on this. This is the default. -mRcw Enable Rcw constraint handling. Most ccfsm condexec mostly depends on this. This is the default. -msize-level=level Fine-tune size optimization with regards to instruction lengths and alignment. The recognized values for level are: 1. No size optimization. This level is deprecated and treated like 1. 2. Short instructions are used opportunistically. 3. In addition, alignment of loops and of code after barriers are dropped. 4. In addition, optional data alignment is dropped, and the option Os is enabled. This defaults to 3 when -Os is in effect. Otherwise, the behavior when this is not set is equivalent to level 1. -mtune=cpu Set instruction scheduling parameters for cpu, overriding any implied by -mcpu=. Supported values for cpu are ARC600 Tune for ARC600 CPU. ARC601 Tune for ARC601 CPU. ARC700 Tune for ARC700 CPU with standard multiplier block. ARC700-xmac Tune for ARC700 CPU with XMAC block. ARC725D Tune for ARC725D CPU. ARC750D Tune for ARC750D CPU. -mmultcost=num Cost to assume for a multiply instruction, with 4 being equal to a normal instruction. -munalign-prob-threshold=probability Set probability threshold for unaligning branches. When tuning for ARC700 and optimizing for speed, branches without filled delay slot are preferably emitted unaligned and long, unless profiling indicates that the probability for the branch to be taken is below probability. The default is (REG_BR_PROB_BASE/2), i.e. 5000. The following options are maintained for backward compatibility, but are now deprecated and will be removed in a future release: -margonaut Obsolete FPX. -mbig-endian -EB Compile code for big-endian targets. Use of these options is now deprecated. Big-endian code is supported by configuring GCC to build arceb-elf32 and arceb-linux-uclibc targets, for which big endian is the default. -mlittle-endian -EL Compile code for little-endian targets. Use of these options is now deprecated. Little-endian code is supported by configuring GCC to build arc-elf32 and arc-linux-uclibc targets, for which little endian is the default. -mbarrel_shifter Replaced by -mbarrel-shifter. -mdpfp_compact Replaced by -mdpfp-compact. -mdpfp_fast Replaced by -mdpfp-fast. -mdsp_packa Replaced by -mdsp-packa. -mEA Replaced by -mea. -mmac_24 Replaced by -mmac-24. -mmac_d16 Replaced by -mmac-d16. -mspfp_compact Replaced by -mspfp-compact. -mspfp_fast Replaced by -mspfp-fast. -mtune=cpu Values arc600, arc601, arc700 and arc700-xmac for cpu are replaced by ARC600, ARC601, ARC700 and ARC700-xmac respectively. -multcost=num Replaced by -mmultcost. ARM Options These -m options are defined for the ARM port: -mabi=name Generate code for the specified ABI. Permissible values are: apcs-gnu, atpcs, aapcs, aapcs-linux and iwmmxt. -mapcs-frame Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the ARM Procedure Call Standard for all functions, even if this is not strictly necessary for correct execution of the code. Specifying -fomit-frame-pointer with this option causes the stack frames not to be generated for leaf functions. The default is -mno-apcs-frame. This option is deprecated. -mapcs This is a synonym for -mapcs-frame and is deprecated. -mthumb-interwork Generate code that supports calling between the ARM and Thumb instruction sets. Without this option, on pre-v5 architectures, the two instruction sets cannot be reliably used inside one program. The default is -mno-thumb-interwork, since slightly larger code is generated when -mthumb-interwork is specified. In AAPCS configurations this option is meaningless. -mno-sched-prolog Prevent the reordering of instructions in the function prologue, or the merging of those instruction with the instructions in the function’s body. This means that all functions start with a recognizable set of instructions (or in fact one of a choice from a small set of different function prologues), and this information can be used to locate the start of functions inside an executable piece of code. The default is -msched-prolog. -mfloat-abi=name Specifies which floating-point ABI to use. Permissible values are: soft, softfp and hard. Specifying soft causes GCC to generate output containing library calls for floating-point operations. softfp allows the generation of code using hardware floating-point instructions, but still uses the soft-float calling conventions. hard allows generation of floating-point instructions and uses FPU-specific calling conventions. The default depends on the specific target configuration. Note that the hard-float and soft-float ABIs are not link-compatible; you must compile your entire program with the same ABI, and link with a compatible set of libraries. -mgeneral-regs-only Generate code which uses only the general-purpose registers. This will prevent the compiler from using floating-point and Advanced SIMD registers but will not impose any restrictions on the assembler. -mlittle-endian Generate code for a processor running in little-endian mode. This is the default for all standard configurations. -mbig-endian Generate code for a processor running in big-endian mode; the default is to compile code for a little-endian processor. -mbe8 -mbe32 When linking a big-endian image select between BE8 and BE32 formats. The option has no effect for little-endian images and is ignored. The default is dependent on the selected target architecture. For ARMv6 and later architectures the default is BE8, for older architectures the default is BE32. BE32 format has been deprecated by ARM. -march=name[+extension…] This specifies the name of the target ARM architecture. GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. This option can be used in conjunction with or instead of the -mcpu= option. Permissible names are: armv4t, armv5t, armv5te, armv6, armv6j, armv6k, armv6kz, armv6t2, armv6z, armv6zk, armv7, armv7-a, armv7ve, armv8-a, armv8.1-a, armv8.2-a, armv8.3-a, armv8.4-a, armv8.5-a, armv8.6-a, armv7-r, armv8-r, armv6-m, armv6s-m, armv7-m, armv7e-m, armv8-m.base, armv8-m.main, armv8.1-m.main, iwmmxt and iwmmxt2. Additionally, the following architectures, which lack support for the Thumb execution state, are recognized but support is deprecated: armv4. Many of the architectures support extensions. These can be added by appending +*/extension/ to the architecture name. Extension options are processed in order and capabilities accumulate. An extension will also enable any necessary base extensions upon which it depends. For example, the *+crypto extension will always enable the +simd extension. The exception to the additive construction is for extensions that are prefixed with +no…: these extensions disable the specified option and any other extensions that may depend on the presence of that extension. For example, -march=armv7-a+simd+nofp+vfpv4 is equivalent to writing -march=armv7-a+vfpv4 since the +simd option is entirely disabled by the +nofp option that follows it. Most extension names are generically named, but have an effect that is dependent upon the architecture to which it is applied. For example, the +simd option can be applied to both armv7-a and armv8-a architectures, but will enable the original ARMv7-A Advanced SIMD (Neon) extensions for armv7-a and the ARMv8-A variant for armv8-a. The table below lists the supported extensions for each architecture. Architectures not mentioned do not support any extensions. armv5te armv6 armv6j armv6k armv6kz armv6t2 armv6z armv6zk +fp The VFPv2 floating-point instructions. The extension +vfpv2 can be used as an alias for this extension. +nofp Disable the floating-point instructions. armv7 The common subset of the ARMv7-A, ARMv7-R and ARMv7-M architectures. +fp The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers. The extension +vfpv3-d16 can be used as an alias for this extension. Note that floating-point is not supported by the base ARMv7-M architecture, but is compatible with both the ARMv7-A and ARMv7-R architectures. +nofp Disable the floating-point instructions. armv7-a +mp The multiprocessing extension. +sec The security extension. +fp The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers. The extension +vfpv3-d16 can be used as an alias for this extension. +simd The Advanced SIMD (Neon) v1 and the VFPv3 floating-point instructions. The extensions +neon and +neon-vfpv3 can be used as aliases for this extension. +vfpv3 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 32 double-precision registers. +vfpv3-d16-fp16 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers and the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +vfpv3-fp16 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 32 double-precision registers and the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +vfpv4-d16 The VFPv4 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers. +vfpv4 The VFPv4 floating-point instructions, with 32 double-precision registers. +neon-fp16 The Advanced SIMD (Neon) v1 and the VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +neon-vfpv4 The Advanced SIMD (Neon) v2 and the VFPv4 floating-point instructions. +nosimd Disable the Advanced SIMD instructions (does not disable floating point). +nofp Disable the floating-point and Advanced SIMD instructions. armv7ve The extended version of the ARMv7-A architecture with support for virtualization. +fp The VFPv4 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers. The extension +vfpv4-d16 can be used as an alias for this extension. +simd The Advanced SIMD (Neon) v2 and the VFPv4 floating-point instructions. The extension +neon-vfpv4 can be used as an alias for this extension. +vfpv3-d16 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers. +vfpv3 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 32 double-precision registers. +vfpv3-d16-fp16 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers and the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +vfpv3-fp16 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with 32 double-precision registers and the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +vfpv4-d16 The VFPv4 floating-point instructions, with 16 double-precision registers. +vfpv4 The VFPv4 floating-point instructions, with 32 double-precision registers. +neon The Advanced SIMD (Neon) v1 and the VFPv3 floating-point instructions. The extension +neon-vfpv3 can be used as an alias for this extension. +neon-fp16 The Advanced SIMD (Neon) v1 and the VFPv3 floating-point instructions, with the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +nosimd Disable the Advanced SIMD instructions (does not disable floating point). +nofp Disable the floating-point and Advanced SIMD instructions. armv8-a +crc The Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) instructions. +simd The ARMv8-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic instructions. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. +sb Speculation Barrier Instruction. +predres Execution and Data Prediction Restriction Instructions. armv8.1-a +simd The ARMv8.1-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic instructions. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. +sb Speculation Barrier Instruction. +predres Execution and Data Prediction Restriction Instructions. armv8.2-a armv8.3-a +fp16 The half-precision floating-point data processing instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +fp16fml The half-precision floating-point fmla extension. This also enables the half-precision floating-point extension and Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +simd The ARMv8.1-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +dotprod Enable the Dot Product extension. This also enables Advanced SIMD instructions. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic extension. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. +sb Speculation Barrier Instruction. +predres Execution and Data Prediction Restriction Instructions. +i8mm 8-bit Integer Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +bf16 Brain half-precision floating-point instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. armv8.4-a +fp16 The half-precision floating-point data processing instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension and the half-precision floating-point fmla extension. +simd The ARMv8.3-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic extension. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. +sb Speculation Barrier Instruction. +predres Execution and Data Prediction Restriction Instructions. +i8mm 8-bit Integer Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +bf16 Brain half-precision floating-point instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. armv8.5-a +fp16 The half-precision floating-point data processing instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension and the half-precision floating-point fmla extension. +simd The ARMv8.3-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic extension. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. +i8mm 8-bit Integer Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +bf16 Brain half-precision floating-point instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. armv8.6-a +fp16 The half-precision floating-point data processing instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension and the half-precision floating-point fmla extension. +simd The ARMv8.3-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. This also enables the Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions as well as the Dot Product extension. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic extension. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. +i8mm 8-bit Integer Matrix Multiply instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +bf16 Brain half-precision floating-point instructions. This also enables Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. armv7-r +fp.sp The single-precision VFPv3 floating-point instructions. The extension +vfpv3xd can be used as an alias for this extension. +fp The VFPv3 floating-point instructions with 16 double-precision registers. The extension +vfpv3-d16 can be used as an alias for this extension. +vfpv3xd-d16-fp16 The single-precision VFPv3 floating-point instructions with 16 double-precision registers and the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +vfpv3-d16-fp16 The VFPv3 floating-point instructions with 16 double-precision registers and the half-precision floating-point conversion operations. +nofp Disable the floating-point extension. +idiv The ARM-state integer division instructions. +noidiv Disable the ARM-state integer division extension. armv7e-m +fp The single-precision VFPv4 floating-point instructions. +fpv5 The single-precision FPv5 floating-point instructions. +fp.dp The single- and double-precision FPv5 floating-point instructions. +nofp Disable the floating-point extensions. armv8.1-m.main +dsp The DSP instructions. +mve The M-Profile Vector Extension (MVE) integer instructions. +mve.fp The M-Profile Vector Extension (MVE) integer and single precision floating-point instructions. +fp The single-precision floating-point instructions. +fp.dp The single- and double-precision floating-point instructions. +nofp Disable the floating-point extension. +cdecp0, +cdecp1, … , +cdecp7 Enable the Custom Datapath Extension (CDE) on selected coprocessors according to the numbers given in the options in the range 0 to 7. armv8-m.main +dsp The DSP instructions. +nodsp Disable the DSP extension. +fp The single-precision floating-point instructions. +fp.dp The single- and double-precision floating-point instructions. +nofp Disable the floating-point extension. +cdecp0, +cdecp1, … , +cdecp7 Enable the Custom Datapath Extension (CDE) on selected coprocessors according to the numbers given in the options in the range 0 to 7. armv8-r +crc The Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) instructions. +fp.sp The single-precision FPv5 floating-point instructions. +simd The ARMv8-A Advanced SIMD and floating-point instructions. +crypto The cryptographic instructions. +nocrypto Disable the cryptographic instructions. +nofp Disable the floating-point, Advanced SIMD and cryptographic instructions. -march=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the architecture of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on GNU/Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect. -mtune=name This option specifies the name of the target ARM processor for which GCC should tune the performance of the code. For some ARM implementations better performance can be obtained by using this option. Permissible names are: arm7tdmi, arm7tdmi-s, arm710t, arm720t, arm740t, strongarm, strongarm110, strongarm1100, 0*strongarm1110*, arm8, arm810, arm9, arm9e, arm920, arm920t, arm922t, arm946e-s, arm966e-s, arm968e-s, arm926ej-s, arm940t, arm9tdmi, arm10tdmi, arm1020t, arm1026ej-s, arm10e, arm1020e, arm1022e, arm1136j-s, arm1136jf-s, mpcore, mpcorenovfp, arm1156t2-s, arm1156t2f-s, arm1176jz-s, arm1176jzf-s, generic-armv7-a, cortex-a5, cortex-a7, cortex-a8, cortex-a9, cortex-a12, cortex-a15, cortex-a17, cortex-a32, cortex-a35, cortex-a53, cortex-a55, cortex-a57, cortex-a72, cortex-a73, cortex-a75, cortex-a76, cortex-a76ae, cortex-a77, cortex-a78, cortex-a78ae, cortex-a78c, ares, cortex-r4, cortex-r4f, cortex-r5, cortex-r7, cortex-r8, cortex-r52, cortex-m0, cortex-m0plus, cortex-m1, cortex-m3, cortex-m4, cortex-m7, cortex-m23, cortex-m33, cortex-m35p, cortex-m55, cortex-x1, cortex-m1.small-multiply, cortex-m0.small-multiply, cortex-m0plus.small-multiply, exynos-m1, marvell-pj4, neoverse-n1, neoverse-n2, neoverse-v1, xscale, iwmmxt, iwmmxt2, ep9312, fa526, fa626, fa606te, fa626te, fmp626, fa726te, xgene1. Additionally, this option can specify that GCC should tune the performance of the code for a big.LITTLE system. Permissible names are: cortex-a15.cortex-a7, cortex-a17.cortex-a7, cortex-a57.cortex-a53, cortex-a72.cortex-a53, cortex-a72.cortex-a35, cortex-a73.cortex-a53, cortex-a75.cortex-a55, cortex-a76.cortex-a55. -mtune=generic-*/arch/ specifies that GCC should tune the performance for a blend of processors within architecture arch. The aim is to generate code that run well on the current most popular processors, balancing between optimizations that benefit some CPUs in the range, and avoiding performance pitfalls of other CPUs. The effects of this option may change in future GCC versions as CPU models come and go. *-mtune permits the same extension options as -mcpu, but the extension options do not affect the tuning of the generated code. -mtune=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the CPU of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on GNU/Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect. -mcpu=name[+extension…] This specifies the name of the target ARM processor. GCC uses this name to derive the name of the target ARM architecture (as if specified by -march) and the ARM processor type for which to tune for performance (as if specified by -mtune). Where this option is used in conjunction with -march or -mtune, those options take precedence over the appropriate part of this option. Many of the supported CPUs implement optional architectural extensions. Where this is so the architectural extensions are normally enabled by default. If implementations that lack the extension exist, then the extension syntax can be used to disable those extensions that have been omitted. For floating-point and Advanced SIMD (Neon) instructions, the settings of the options -mfloat-abi and -mfpu must also be considered: floating-point and Advanced SIMD instructions will only be used if -mfloat-abi is not set to soft; and any setting of -mfpu other than auto will override the available floating-point and SIMD extension instructions. For example, cortex-a9 can be found in three major configurations: integer only, with just a floating-point unit or with floating-point and Advanced SIMD. The default is to enable all the instructions, but the extensions +nosimd and +nofp can be used to disable just the SIMD or both the SIMD and floating-point instructions respectively. Permissible names for this option are the same as those for -mtune. The following extension options are common to the listed CPUs: +nodsp Disable the DSP instructions on cortex-m33, cortex-m35p. +nofp Disables the floating-point instructions on arm9e, arm946e-s, arm966e-s, arm968e-s, arm10e, arm1020e, arm1022e, arm926ej-s, arm1026ej-s, cortex-r5, cortex-r7, cortex-r8, cortex-m4, cortex-m7, cortex-m33 and cortex-m35p. Disables the floating-point and SIMD instructions on generic-armv7-a, cortex-a5, cortex-a7, cortex-a8, cortex-a9, cortex-a12, cortex-a15, cortex-a17, cortex-a15.cortex-a7, cortex-a17.cortex-a7, cortex-a32, cortex-a35, cortex-a53 and cortex-a55. +nofp.dp Disables the double-precision component of the floating-point instructions on cortex-r5, cortex-r7, cortex-r8, cortex-r52 and cortex-m7. +nosimd Disables the SIMD (but not floating-point) instructions on generic-armv7-a, cortex-a5, cortex-a7 and cortex-a9. +crypto Enables the cryptographic instructions on cortex-a32, cortex-a35, cortex-a53, cortex-a55, cortex-a57, cortex-a72, cortex-a73, cortex-a75, exynos-m1, xgene1, cortex-a57.cortex-a53, cortex-a72.cortex-a53, cortex-a73.cortex-a35, cortex-a73.cortex-a53 and cortex-a75.cortex-a55. Additionally the generic-armv7-a pseudo target defaults to VFPv3 with 16 double-precision registers. It supports the following extension options: mp, sec, vfpv3-d16, vfpv3, vfpv3-d16-fp16, vfpv3-fp16, vfpv4-d16, vfpv4, neon, neon-vfpv3, neon-fp16, neon-vfpv4. The meanings are the same as for the extensions to -march=armv7-a. -mcpu=generic-*/arch/ is also permissible, and is equivalent to *-march=*/arch/ *-mtune=generic-*/arch/. See *-mtune for more information. -mcpu=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the CPU of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on GNU/Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect. -mfpu=name This specifies what floating-point hardware (or hardware emulation) is available on the target. Permissible names are: auto, vfpv2, vfpv3, vfpv3-fp16, vfpv3-d16, vfpv3-d16-fp16, vfpv3xd, vfpv3xd-fp16, neon-vfpv3, neon-fp16, vfpv4, vfpv4-d16, fpv4-sp-d16, neon-vfpv4, fpv5-d16, fpv5-sp-d16, fp-armv8, neon-fp-armv8 and crypto-neon-fp-armv8. Note that neon is an alias for neon-vfpv3 and vfp is an alias for vfpv2. The setting auto is the default and is special. It causes the compiler to select the floating-point and Advanced SIMD instructions based on the settings of -mcpu and -march. If the selected floating-point hardware includes the NEON extension (e.g. -mfpu=neon), note that floating-point operations are not generated by GCC’s auto-vectorization pass unless -funsafe-math-optimizations is also specified. This is because NEON hardware does not fully implement the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic (in particular denormal values are treated as zero), so the use of NEON instructions may lead to a loss of precision. You can also set the fpu name at function level by using the target("fpu“)= function attributes or pragmas. -mfp16-format=name Specify the format of the _ _fp16 half-precision floating-point type. Permissible names are none, ieee, and alternative; the default is none, in which case the _ _fp16 type is not defined. -mstructure-size-boundary=n The sizes of all structures and unions are rounded up to a multiple of the number of bits set by this option. Permissible values are 8, 32 and 64. The default value varies for different toolchains. For the COFF targeted toolchain the default value is 8. A value of 64 is only allowed if the underlying ABI supports it. Specifying a larger number can produce faster, more efficient code, but can also increase the size of the program. Different values are potentially incompatible. Code compiled with one value cannot necessarily expect to work with code or libraries compiled with another value, if they exchange information using structures or unions. This option is deprecated. -mabort-on-noreturn Generate a call to the function abort at the end of a noreturn function. It is executed if the function tries to return. -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls Tells the compiler to perform function calls by first loading the address of the function into a register and then performing a subroutine call on this register. This switch is needed if the target function lies outside of the 64-megabyte addressing range of the offset-based version of subroutine call instruction. Even if this switch is enabled, not all function calls are turned into long calls. The heuristic is that static functions, functions that have the short_call attribute, functions that are inside the scope of a #pragma no_long_calls directive, and functions whose definitions have already been compiled within the current compilation unit are not turned into long calls. The exceptions to this rule are that weak function definitions, functions with the long_call attribute or the section attribute, and functions that are within the scope of a #pragma long_calls directive are always turned into long calls. This feature is not enabled by default. Specifying -mno-long-calls restores the default behavior, as does placing the function calls within the scope of a #pragma long_calls_off directive. Note these switches have no effect on how the compiler generates code to handle function calls via function pointers. -msingle-pic-base Treat the register used for PIC addressing as read-only, rather than loading it in the prologue for each function. The runtime system is responsible for initializing this register with an appropriate value before execution begins. -mpic-register=reg Specify the register to be used for PIC addressing. For standard PIC base case, the default is any suitable register determined by compiler. For single PIC base case, the default is R9 if target is EABI based or stack-checking is enabled, otherwise the default is R10. -mpic-data-is-text-relative Assume that the displacement between the text and data segments is fixed at static link time. This permits using PC-relative addressing operations to access data known to be in the data segment. For non-VxWorks RTP targets, this option is enabled by default. When disabled on such targets, it will enable -msingle-pic-base by default. -mpoke-function-name Write the name of each function into the text section, directly preceding the function prologue. The generated code is similar to this: t0 .ascii “arm_poke_function_name”, 0 .align t1 .word 0xff000000 + (t1 - t0) arm_poke_function_name mov ip, sp stmfd sp!, {fp, ip, lr, pc} sub fp, ip, #4 When performing a stack backtrace, code can inspect the value of pc stored at fp + 0. If the trace function then looks at location pc - 12 and the top 8 bits are set, then we know that there is a function name embedded immediately preceding this location and has length ((pc[-3]) & 0xff000000). -mthumb -marm Select between generating code that executes in ARM and Thumb states. The default for most configurations is to generate code that executes in ARM state, but the default can be changed by configuring GCC with the *–with-mode=*/state/ configure option. You can also override the ARM and Thumb mode for each function by using the target("thumb") and target("arm") function attributes or pragmas. -mflip-thumb Switch ARM/Thumb modes on alternating functions. This option is provided for regression testing of mixed Thumb/ARM code generation, and is not intended for ordinary use in compiling code. -mtpcs-frame Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the Thumb Procedure Call Standard for all non-leaf functions. (A leaf function is one that does not call any other functions.) The default is -mno-tpcs-frame. -mtpcs-leaf-frame Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the Thumb Procedure Call Standard for all leaf functions. (A leaf function is one that does not call any other functions.) The default is -mno-apcs-leaf-frame. -mcallee-super-interworking Gives all externally visible functions in the file being compiled an ARM instruction set header which switches to Thumb mode before executing the rest of the function. This allows these functions to be called from non-interworking code. This option is not valid in AAPCS configurations because interworking is enabled by default. -mcaller-super-interworking Allows calls via function pointers (including virtual functions) to execute correctly regardless of whether the target code has been compiled for interworking or not. There is a small overhead in the cost of executing a function pointer if this option is enabled. This option is not valid in AAPCS configurations because interworking is enabled by default. -mtp=name Specify the access model for the thread local storage pointer. The valid models are soft, which generates calls to _ _aeabi_read_tp, cp15, which fetches the thread pointer from cp15 directly (supported in the arm6k architecture), and auto, which uses the best available method for the selected processor. The default setting is auto. -mtls-dialect=dialect Specify the dialect to use for accessing thread local storage. Two /dialect/s are supported---gnu and gnu2. The gnu dialect selects the original GNU scheme for supporting local and global dynamic TLS models. The gnu2 dialect selects the GNU descriptor scheme, which provides better performance for shared libraries. The GNU descriptor scheme is compatible with the original scheme, but does require new assembler, linker and library support. Initial and local exec TLS models are unaffected by this option and always use the original scheme. -mword-relocations Only generate absolute relocations on word-sized values (i.e. R_ARM_ABS32). This is enabled by default on targets (uClinux, SymbianOS) where the runtime loader imposes this restriction, and when -fpic or -fPIC is specified. This option conflicts with -mslow-flash-data. -mfix-cortex-m3-ldrd Some Cortex-M3 cores can cause data corruption when ldrd instructions with overlapping destination and base registers are used. This option avoids generating these instructions. This option is enabled by default when -mcpu=cortex-m3 is specified. -munaligned-access -mno-unaligned-access Enables (or disables) reading and writing of 16- and 32- bit values from addresses that are not 16- or 32- bit aligned. By default unaligned access is disabled for all pre-ARMv6, all ARMv6-M and for ARMv8-M Baseline architectures, and enabled for all other architectures. If unaligned access is not enabled then words in packed data structures are accessed a byte at a time. The ARM attribute Tag_CPU_unaligned_access is set in the generated object file to either true or false, depending upon the setting of this option. If unaligned access is enabled then the preprocessor symbol _ _ARM_FEATURE_UNALIGNED is also defined. -mneon-for-64bits This option is deprecated and has no effect. -mslow-flash-data Assume loading data from flash is slower than fetching instruction. Therefore literal load is minimized for better performance. This option is only supported when compiling for ARMv7 M-profile and off by default. It conflicts with -mword-relocations. -masm-syntax-unified Assume inline assembler is using unified asm syntax. The default is currently off which implies divided syntax. This option has no impact on Thumb2. However, this may change in future releases of GCC. Divided syntax should be considered deprecated. -mrestrict-it Restricts generation of IT blocks to conform to the rules of ARMv8-A. IT blocks can only contain a single 16-bit instruction from a select set of instructions. This option is on by default for ARMv8-A Thumb mode. -mprint-tune-info Print CPU tuning information as comment in assembler file. This is an option used only for regression testing of the compiler and not intended for ordinary use in compiling code. This option is disabled by default. -mverbose-cost-dump Enable verbose cost model dumping in the debug dump files. This option is provided for use in debugging the compiler. -mpure-code Do not allow constant data to be placed in code sections. Additionally, when compiling for ELF object format give all text sections the ELF processor-specific section attribute SHF_ARM_PURECODE. This option is only available when generating non-pic code for M-profile targets. -mcmse Generate secure code as per the ARMv8-M Security Extensions: Requirements on Development Tools Engineering Specification, which can be found on <*https://developer.arm.com/documentation/ecm0359818/latest/*>. -mfdpic -mno-fdpic Select the FDPIC ABI, which uses 64-bit function descriptors to represent pointers to functions. When the compiler is configured for arm-*-uclinuxfdpiceabi targets, this option is on by default and implies -fPIE if none of the PIC/PIE-related options is provided. On other targets, it only enables the FDPIC-specific code generation features, and the user should explicitly provide the PIC/PIE-related options as needed. Note that static linking is not supported because it would still involve the dynamic linker when the program self-relocates. If such behavior is acceptable, use -static and -Wl,-dynamic-linker options. The opposite -mno-fdpic option is useful (and required) to build the Linux kernel using the same (arm-*-uclinuxfdpiceabi) toolchain as the one used to build the userland programs. AVR Options These options are defined for AVR implementations: -mmcu=mcu Specify Atmel AVR instruction set architectures (ISA) or MCU type. The default for this option is avr2. GCC supports the following AVR devices and ISAs: “avr2” Classic devices with up to 8 KiB of program memory. mcu = attiny22, attiny26, at90s2313, at90s2323, at90s2333, at90s2343, at90s4414, at90s4433, at90s4434, at90c8534, at90s8515, at90s8535. “avr25” Classic devices with up to 8 KiB of program memory and with the MOVW instruction. mcu = attiny13, attiny13a, attiny24, attiny24a, attiny25, attiny261, attiny261a, attiny2313, attiny2313a, attiny43u, attiny44, attiny44a, attiny45, attiny48, attiny441, attiny461, attiny461a, attiny4313, attiny84, attiny84a, attiny85, attiny87, attiny88, attiny828, attiny841, attiny861, attiny861a, ata5272, ata6616c, at86rf401. “avr3” Classic devices with 16 KiB up to 64 KiB of program memory. mcu = at76c711, at43usb355. “avr31” Classic devices with 128 KiB of program memory. mcu = atmega103, at43usb320. “avr35” Classic devices with 16 KiB up to 64 KiB of program memory and with the MOVW instruction. mcu = attiny167, attiny1634, atmega8u2, atmega16u2, atmega32u2, ata5505, ata6617c, ata664251, at90usb82, at90usb162. “avr4” Enhanced devices with up to 8 KiB of program memory. mcu = atmega48, atmega48a, atmega48p, atmega48pa, atmega48pb, atmega8, atmega8a, atmega8hva, atmega88, atmega88a, atmega88p, atmega88pa, atmega88pb, atmega8515, atmega8535, ata6285, ata6286, ata6289, ata6612c, at90pwm1, at90pwm2, at90pwm2b, at90pwm3, at90pwm3b, at90pwm81. “avr5” Enhanced devices with 16 KiB up to 64 KiB of program memory. mcu = atmega16, atmega16a, atmega16hva, atmega16hva2, atmega16hvb, atmega16hvbrevb, atmega16m1, atmega16u4, atmega161, atmega162, atmega163, atmega164a, atmega164p, atmega164pa, atmega165, atmega165a, atmega165p, atmega165pa, atmega168, atmega168a, atmega168p, atmega168pa, atmega168pb, atmega169, atmega169a, atmega169p, atmega169pa, atmega32, atmega32a, atmega32c1, atmega32hvb, atmega32hvbrevb, atmega32m1, atmega32u4, atmega32u6, atmega323, atmega324a, atmega324p, atmega324pa, atmega325, atmega325a, atmega325p, atmega325pa, atmega328, atmega328p, atmega328pb, atmega329, atmega329a, atmega329p, atmega329pa, atmega3250, atmega3250a, atmega3250p, atmega3250pa, atmega3290, atmega3290a, atmega3290p, atmega3290pa, atmega406, atmega64, atmega64a, atmega64c1, atmega64hve, atmega64hve2, atmega64m1, atmega64rfr2, atmega640, atmega644, atmega644a, atmega644p, atmega644pa, atmega644rfr2, atmega645, atmega645a, atmega645p, atmega649, atmega649a, atmega649p, atmega6450, atmega6450a, atmega6450p, atmega6490, atmega6490a, atmega6490p, ata5795, ata5790, ata5790n, ata5791, ata6613c, ata6614q, ata5782, ata5831, ata8210, ata8510, ata5702m322, at90pwm161, at90pwm216, at90pwm316, at90can32, at90can64, at90scr100, at90usb646, at90usb647, at94k, m3000. “avr51” Enhanced devices with 128 KiB of program memory. mcu = atmega128, atmega128a, atmega128rfa1, atmega128rfr2, atmega1280, atmega1281, atmega1284, atmega1284p, atmega1284rfr2, at90can128, at90usb1286, at90usb1287. “avr6” Enhanced devices with 3-byte PC, i.e. with more than 128 KiB of program memory. mcu = atmega256rfr2, atmega2560, atmega2561, atmega2564rfr2. “avrxmega2” XMEGA devices with more than 8 KiB and up to 64 KiB of program memory. mcu = atxmega8e5, atxmega16a4, atxmega16a4u, atxmega16c4, atxmega16d4, atxmega16e5, atxmega32a4, atxmega32a4u, atxmega32c3, atxmega32c4, atxmega32d3, atxmega32d4, atxmega32e5. “avrxmega3” XMEGA devices with up to 64 KiB of combined program memory and RAM, and with program memory visible in the RAM address space. mcu = attiny202, attiny204, attiny212, attiny214, attiny402, attiny404, attiny406, attiny412, attiny414, attiny416, attiny417, attiny804, attiny806, attiny807, attiny814, attiny816, attiny817, attiny1604, attiny1606, attiny1607, attiny1614, attiny1616, attiny1617, attiny3214, attiny3216, attiny3217, atmega808, atmega809, atmega1608, atmega1609, atmega3208, atmega3209, atmega4808, atmega4809. “avrxmega4” XMEGA devices with more than 64 KiB and up to 128 KiB of program memory. mcu = atxmega64a3, atxmega64a3u, atxmega64a4u, atxmega64b1, atxmega64b3, atxmega64c3, atxmega64d3, atxmega64d4. “avrxmega5” XMEGA devices with more than 64 KiB and up to 128 KiB of program memory and more than 64 KiB of RAM. mcu = atxmega64a1, atxmega64a1u. “avrxmega6” XMEGA devices with more than 128 KiB of program memory. mcu = atxmega128a3, atxmega128a3u, atxmega128b1, atxmega128b3, atxmega128c3, atxmega128d3, atxmega128d4, atxmega192a3, atxmega192a3u, atxmega192c3, atxmega192d3, atxmega256a3, atxmega256a3b, atxmega256a3bu, atxmega256a3u, atxmega256c3, atxmega256d3, atxmega384c3, atxmega384d3. “avrxmega7” XMEGA devices with more than 128 KiB of program memory and more than 64 KiB of RAM. mcu = atxmega128a1, atxmega128a1u, atxmega128a4u. “avrtiny” TINY Tiny core devices with 512 B up to 4 KiB of program memory. mcu = attiny4, attiny5, attiny9, attiny10, attiny20, attiny40. “avr1” This ISA is implemented by the minimal AVR core and supported for assembler only. mcu = attiny11, attiny12, attiny15, attiny28, at90s1200. -mabsdata Assume that all data in static storage can be accessed by LDS / STS instructions. This option has only an effect on reduced Tiny devices like ATtiny40. See also the absdata AVR Variable Attributes,variable attribute. -maccumulate-args Accumulate outgoing function arguments and acquire/release the needed stack space for outgoing function arguments once in function prologue/epilogue. Without this option, outgoing arguments are pushed before calling a function and popped afterwards. Popping the arguments after the function call can be expensive on AVR so that accumulating the stack space might lead to smaller executables because arguments need not be removed from the stack after such a function call. This option can lead to reduced code size for functions that perform several calls to functions that get their arguments on the stack like calls to printf-like functions. -mbranch-cost=cost Set the branch costs for conditional branch instructions to cost. Reasonable values for cost are small, non-negative integers. The default branch cost is 0. -mcall-prologues Functions prologues/epilogues are expanded as calls to appropriate subroutines. Code size is smaller. -mdouble=bits -mlong-double=bits Set the size (in bits) of the double or long double type, respectively. Possible values for bits are 32 and 64. Whether or not a specific value for bits is allowed depends on the --with-double= and --with-long-double= configure options (https://gcc.gnu.org/install/configure.html#avr), and the same applies for the default values of the options. -mgas-isr-prologues Interrupt service routines (ISRs) may use the _ _gcc_isr pseudo instruction supported by GNU Binutils. If this option is on, the feature can still be disabled for individual ISRs by means of the AVR Function Attributes,,=no_gccisr= function attribute. This feature is activated per default if optimization is on (but not with -Og, @pxref={Optimize Options}), and if GNU Binutils support PR21683 (=https://sourceware.org/PR21683). -mint8 Assume int to be 8-bit integer. This affects the sizes of all types: a char is 1 byte, an int is 1 byte, a long is 2 bytes, and long long is 4 bytes. Please note that this option does not conform to the C standards, but it results in smaller code size. -mmain-is-OS_task Do not save registers in main. The effect is the same like attaching attribute AVR Function Attributes,,=OS_task= to main. It is activated per default if optimization is on. -mn-flash=num Assume that the flash memory has a size of num times 64 KiB. -mno-interrupts Generated code is not compatible with hardware interrupts. Code size is smaller. -mrelax Try to replace CALL resp. JMP instruction by the shorter RCALL resp. RJMP instruction if applicable. Setting -mrelax just adds the –mlink-relax option to the assembler’s command line and the –relax option to the linker’s command line. Jump relaxing is performed by the linker because jump offsets are not known before code is located. Therefore, the assembler code generated by the compiler is the same, but the instructions in the executable may differ from instructions in the assembler code. Relaxing must be turned on if linker stubs are needed, see the section on EIND and linker stubs below. -mrmw Assume that the device supports the Read-Modify-Write instructions XCH, LAC, LAS and LAT. -mshort-calls Assume that RJMP and RCALL can target the whole program memory. This option is used internally for multilib selection. It is not an optimization option, and you don’t need to set it by hand. -msp8 Treat the stack pointer register as an 8-bit register, i.e. assume the high byte of the stack pointer is zero. In general, you don’t need to set this option by hand. This option is used internally by the compiler to select and build multilibs for architectures avr2 and avr25. These architectures mix devices with and without SPH. For any setting other than -mmcu=avr2 or -mmcu=avr25 the compiler driver adds or removes this option from the compiler proper’s command line, because the compiler then knows if the device or architecture has an 8-bit stack pointer and thus no SPH register or not. -mstrict-X Use address register X in a way proposed by the hardware. This means that X is only used in indirect, post-increment or pre-decrement addressing. Without this option, the X register may be used in the same way as Y or Z which then is emulated by additional instructions. For example, loading a value with X+const addressing with a small non-negative const < 64 to a register Rn is performed as adiw r26, const ; X += const ld <Rn>, X ; <Rn> = *X sbiw r26, const ; X -= const -mtiny-stack Only change the lower 8 bits of the stack pointer. -mfract-convert-truncate Allow to use truncation instead of rounding towards zero for fractional fixed-point types. -nodevicelib Don’t link against AVR-LibC’s device specific library lib<mcu>.a. -nodevicespecs Don’t add -specs=device-specs/specs-*/mcu/ to the compiler driver’s command line. The user takes responsibility for supplying the sub-processes like compiler proper, assembler and linker with appropriate command line options. This means that the user has to supply her private device specs file by means of *-specs=*/path-to-specs-file/. There is no more need for option *-mmcu=*/mcu/. This option can also serve as a replacement for the older way of specifying custom device-specs files that needed *-B some-path to point to a directory which contains a folder named device-specs which contains a specs file named =specs-=/=mcu=/, where mcu was specified by *-mmcu=*/mcu/. -Waddr-space-convert Warn about conversions between address spaces in the case where the resulting address space is not contained in the incoming address space. -Wmisspelled-isr Warn if the ISR is misspelled, i.e. without _ _vector prefix. Enabled by default. EIND and Devices with More Than 128 Ki Bytes of Flash Pointers in the implementation are 16 bits wide. The address of a function or label is represented as word address so that indirect jumps and calls can target any code address in the range of 64 Ki words. In order to facilitate indirect jump on devices with more than 128 Ki bytes of program memory space, there is a special function register called EIND that serves as most significant part of the target address when EICALL or EIJMP instructions are used. Indirect jumps and calls on these devices are handled as follows by the compiler and are subject to some limitations: • The compiler never sets EIND. • The compiler uses EIND implicitly in EICALL=/=EIJMP instructions or might read EIND directly in order to emulate an indirect call/jump by means of a RET instruction. • The compiler assumes that EIND never changes during the startup code or during the application. In particular, EIND is not saved/restored in function or interrupt service routine prologue/epilogue. • For indirect calls to functions and computed goto, the linker generates stubs. Stubs are jump pads sometimes also called trampolines. Thus, the indirect call/jump jumps to such a stub. The stub contains a direct jump to the desired address. • Linker relaxation must be turned on so that the linker generates the stubs correctly in all situations. See the compiler option -mrelax and the linker option –relax. There are corner cases where the linker is supposed to generate stubs but aborts without relaxation and without a helpful error message. • The default linker script is arranged for code with EIND = 0. If code is supposed to work for a setup with EIND ! 0=, a custom linker script has to be used in order to place the sections whose name start with .trampolines into the segment where EIND points to. • The startup code from libgcc never sets EIND. Notice that startup code is a blend of code from libgcc and AVR-LibC. For the impact of AVR-LibC on EIND, see the AVR-LibC user manual (http://nongnu.org/avr-libc/user-manual/). • It is legitimate for user-specific startup code to set up EIND early, for example by means of initialization code located in section .init3. Such code runs prior to general startup code that initializes RAM and calls constructors, but after the bit of startup code from AVR-LibC that sets EIND to the segment where the vector table is located. #include <avr/io.h> static void _ attribute((section(“.init3”),naked,used,no_instrument_function)) init3_set_eind (void) { _ _asm volatile (“ldi r24,pm_hh8(trampolines_start)\n\t“ ”out %i0,r24“ :: ”n“ (&EIND) : ”r24“,”memory“); } The = _trampolines_start= symbol is defined in the linker script. • Stubs are generated automatically by the linker if the following two conditions are met: • -<The address of a label is taken by means of the “gs” modifier> :: (short for generate stubs) like so: LDI r24, lo8(gs(<func>)) LDI r25, hi8(gs(<func>)) • -<The final location of that label is in a code segment> :: outside the segment where the stubs are located. • The compiler emits such gs modifiers for code labels in the following situations: -<Taking address of a function or code label.> -<Computed goto.> -<If prologue-save function is used, see -mcall-prologues> command-line option. • -<Switch/case dispatch tables. If you do not want such dispatch> :: tables you can specify the -fno-jump-tables command-line option. • -<C and C++ constructors/destructors called during startup/shutdown.> :: Jumping to non-symbolic addresses like so is not supported: int main (void) { * Call function at word address 0x2 * return ((int()(void)) 0x2)(); } Instead, a stub has to be set up, i.e. the function has to be called through a symbol (func_4 in the example): int main (void) { extern int func_4 (void); / Call function at byte address 0x4 / return func_4(); } and the application be linked with *-Wl,–defsym,func_4=0x4. Alternatively, func_4 can be defined in the linker script. Handling of the RAMPD, RAMPX, RAMPY and RAMPZ Special Function Registers Some AVR devices support memories larger than the 64 KiB range that can be accessed with 16-bit pointers. To access memory locations outside this 64 KiB range, the content of a RAMP register is used as high part of the address: The X, Y, Z address register is concatenated with the RAMPX, RAMPY, RAMPZ special function register, respectively, to get a wide address. Similarly, RAMPD is used together with direct addressing. • The startup code initializes the RAMP special function registers with zero. • If a AVR Named Address Spaces,named address space other than generic or _ _flash is used, then RAMPZ is set as needed before the operation. • If the device supports RAM larger than 64 KiB and the compiler needs to change RAMPZ to accomplish an operation, RAMPZ is reset to zero after the operation. • If the device comes with a specific RAMP register, the ISR prologue/epilogue saves/restores that SFR and initializes it with zero in case the ISR code might (implicitly) use it. • RAM larger than 64 KiB is not supported by GCC for AVR targets. If you use inline assembler to read from locations outside the 16-bit address range and change one of the RAMP registers, you must reset it to zero after the access. AVR Built-in Macros GCC defines several built-in macros so that the user code can test for the presence or absence of features. Almost any of the following built-in macros are deduced from device capabilities and thus triggered by the -mmcu= command-line option. For even more AVR-specific built-in macros see AVR Named Address Spaces and AVR Built-in Functions. “_ AVR_ARCH _” Build-in macro that resolves to a decimal number that identifies the architecture and depends on the -mmcu=*/mcu/ option. Possible values are: 2, 25, 3, 31, 35, 4, 5, 51, 6 for mcu/==avr2=, avr25, avr3, avr31, avr35, avr4, avr5, avr51, avr6, respectively and 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107 for /mcu/==avrtiny=, avrxmega2, avrxmega3, avrxmega4, avrxmega5, avrxmega6, avrxmega7, respectively. If /mcu specifies a device, this built-in macro is set accordingly. For example, with *-mmcu=atmega8 the macro is defined to 4. “_ AVR_Device _” Setting -mmcu=*/device/ defines this built-in macro which reflects the device’s name. For example, *-mmcu=atmega8 defines the built-in macro _ _AVR_ATmega8_ _, -mmcu=attiny261a defines _ _AVR_ATtiny261A_ _, etc. The built-in macros’ names follow the scheme _ _AVR_=/=Device=/=_ _ where Device is the device name as from the AVR user manual. The difference between Device in the built-in macro and device in -mmcu=*/device/ is that the latter is always lowercase. If device is not a device but only a core architecture like *avr51, this macro is not defined. “_ AVR_DEVICE_NAME _” Setting -mmcu=*/device/ defines this built-in macro to the device’s name. For example, with *-mmcu=atmega8 the macro is defined to atmega8. If device is not a device but only a core architecture like avr51, this macro is not defined. “_ AVR_XMEGA _” The device / architecture belongs to the XMEGA family of devices. “_ AVR_HAVE_ELPM _” The device has the ELPM instruction. “_ AVR_HAVE_ELPMX _” The device has the ELPM R=/=n=/,Z= and ELPM R/=n=/=,Z+= instructions. “_ AVR_HAVE_MOVW _” The device has the MOVW instruction to perform 16-bit register-register moves. “_ AVR_HAVE_LPMX _” The device has the LPM R=/=n=/,Z= and LPM R=/=n=/,Z+= instructions. “_ AVR_HAVE_MUL _” The device has a hardware multiplier. “_ AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL _” The device has the JMP and CALL instructions. This is the case for devices with more than 8 KiB of program memory. “_ AVR_HAVE_EIJMP_EICALL _” “_ AVR_3_BYTE_PC _” The device has the EIJMP and EICALL instructions. This is the case for devices with more than 128 KiB of program memory. This also means that the program counter (PC) is 3 bytes wide. “_ AVR_2_BYTE_PC _” The program counter (PC) is 2 bytes wide. This is the case for devices with up to 128 KiB of program memory. “_ AVR_HAVE_8BIT_SP _” “_ AVR_HAVE_16BIT_SP _” The stack pointer (SP) register is treated as 8-bit respectively 16-bit register by the compiler. The definition of these macros is affected by -mtiny-stack. “_ AVR_HAVE_SPH _” “_ AVR_SP8 _” The device has the SPH (high part of stack pointer) special function register or has an 8-bit stack pointer, respectively. The definition of these macros is affected by -mmcu= and in the cases of -mmcu=avr2 and -mmcu=avr25 also by -msp8. “_ AVR_HAVE_RAMPD _” “_ AVR_HAVE_RAMPX _” “_ AVR_HAVE_RAMPY _” “_ AVR_HAVE_RAMPZ _” The device has the RAMPD, RAMPX, RAMPY, RAMPZ special function register, respectively. “_ NO_INTERRUPTS _” This macro reflects the -mno-interrupts command-line option. “_ AVR_ERRATA_SKIP _” “_ AVR_ERRATA_SKIP_JMP_CALL _” Some AVR devices (AT90S8515, ATmega103) must not skip 32-bit instructions because of a hardware erratum. Skip instructions are SBRS, SBRC, SBIS, SBIC and CPSE. The second macro is only defined if _ _AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL_ _ is also set. “_ AVR_ISA_RMW _” The device has Read-Modify-Write instructions (XCH, LAC, LAS and LAT). “_ AVR_SFR_OFFSET _=offset” Instructions that can address I/O special function registers directly like IN, OUT, SBI, etc. may use a different address as if addressed by an instruction to access RAM like LD or STS. This offset depends on the device architecture and has to be subtracted from the RAM address in order to get the respective I/O address. “_ AVR_SHORT_CALLS _” The -mshort-calls command line option is set. “_ AVR_PM_BASE_ADDRESS _=addr” Some devices support reading from flash memory by means of LD* instructions. The flash memory is seen in the data address space at an offset of _ _AVR_PM_BASE_ADDRESS_ _. If this macro is not defined, this feature is not available. If defined, the address space is linear and there is no need to put .rodata into RAM. This is handled by the default linker description file, and is currently available for avrtiny and avrxmega3. Even more convenient, there is no need to use address spaces like _ _flash or features like attribute progmem and pgm_read_*. “_ WITH_AVRLIBC _” The compiler is configured to be used together with AVR-Libc. See the –with-avrlibc configure option. “_ HAVE_DOUBLE_MULTILIB _” Defined if -mdouble= acts as a multilib option. “_ HAVE_DOUBLE32 _” “_ HAVE_DOUBLE64 _” Defined if the compiler supports 32-bit double resp. 64-bit double. The actual layout is specified by option -mdouble=. “_ DEFAULT_DOUBLE _” The size in bits of double if -mdouble= is not set. To test the layout of double in a program, use the built-in macro _ _SIZEOF_DOUBLE_ _. “_ HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE32 _” “_ HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE64 _” “_ HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE_MULTILIB _” “_ DEFAULT_LONG_DOUBLE _” Same as above, but for long double instead of double. “_ WITH_DOUBLE_COMPARISON _” Reflects the --with-double-comparison={tristate|bool|libf7} configure option (https://gcc.gnu.org/install/configure.html#avr) and is defined to 2 or 3. “_ WITH_LIBF7_LIBGCC _” “_ WITH_LIBF7_MATH _” “_ WITH_LIBF7_MATH_SYMBOLS _” Reflects the --with-libf7={libgcc|math|math-symbols} configure option (https://gcc.gnu.org/install/configure.html#avr). Blackfin Options -mcpu=cpu[-sirevision] Specifies the name of the target Blackfin processor. Currently, cpu can be one of bf512, bf514, bf516, bf518, bf522, bf523, bf524, bf525, bf526, bf527, bf531, bf532, bf533, bf534, bf536, bf537, bf538, bf539, bf542, bf544, bf547, bf548, bf549, bf542m, bf544m, bf547m, bf548m, bf549m, bf561, bf592. The optional sirevision specifies the silicon revision of the target Blackfin processor. Any workarounds available for the targeted silicon revision are enabled. If sirevision is none, no workarounds are enabled. If sirevision is any, all workarounds for the targeted processor are enabled. The _ _SILICON_REVISION_ _ macro is defined to two hexadecimal digits representing the major and minor numbers in the silicon revision. If sirevision is none, the _ _SILICON_REVISION_ _ is not defined. If sirevision is any, the _ _SILICON_REVISION_ _ is defined to be 0xffff. If this optional sirevision is not used, GCC assumes the latest known silicon revision of the targeted Blackfin processor. GCC defines a preprocessor macro for the specified cpu. For the bfin-elf toolchain, this option causes the hardware BSP provided by libgloss to be linked in if -msim is not given. Without this option, bf532 is used as the processor by default. Note that support for bf561 is incomplete. For bf561, only the preprocessor macro is defined. -msim Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This causes the simulator BSP provided by libgloss to be linked in. This option has effect only for bfin-elf toolchain. Certain other options, such as -mid-shared-library and -mfdpic, imply -msim. -momit-leaf-frame-pointer Don’t keep the frame pointer in a register for leaf functions. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore frame pointers and makes an extra register available in leaf functions. -mspecld-anomaly When enabled, the compiler ensures that the generated code does not contain speculative loads after jump instructions. If this option is used, _ _WORKAROUND_SPECULATIVE_LOADS is defined. -mno-specld-anomaly Don’t generate extra code to prevent speculative loads from occurring. -mcsync-anomaly When enabled, the compiler ensures that the generated code does not contain CSYNC or SSYNC instructions too soon after conditional branches. If this option is used, _ _WORKAROUND_SPECULATIVE_SYNCS is defined. -mno-csync-anomaly Don’t generate extra code to prevent CSYNC or SSYNC instructions from occurring too soon after a conditional branch. -mlow64k When enabled, the compiler is free to take advantage of the knowledge that the entire program fits into the low 64k of memory. -mno-low64k Assume that the program is arbitrarily large. This is the default. -mstack-check-l1 Do stack checking using information placed into L1 scratchpad memory by the uClinux kernel. -mid-shared-library Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID method. This allows for execute in place and shared libraries in an environment without virtual memory management. This option implies -fPIC. With a bfin-elf target, this option implies -msim. -mno-id-shared-library Generate code that doesn’t assume ID-based shared libraries are being used. This is the default. -mleaf-id-shared-library Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID method, but assumes that this library or executable won’t link against any other ID shared libraries. That allows the compiler to use faster code for jumps and calls. -mno-leaf-id-shared-library Do not assume that the code being compiled won’t link against any ID shared libraries. Slower code is generated for jump and call insns. -mshared-library-id=n Specifies the identification number of the ID-based shared library being compiled. Specifying a value of 0 generates more compact code; specifying other values forces the allocation of that number to the current library but is no more space- or time-efficient than omitting this option. -msep-data Generate code that allows the data segment to be located in a different area of memory from the text segment. This allows for execute in place in an environment without virtual memory management by eliminating relocations against the text section. -mno-sep-data Generate code that assumes that the data segment follows the text segment. This is the default. -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls Tells the compiler to perform function calls by first loading the address of the function into a register and then performing a subroutine call on this register. This switch is needed if the target function lies outside of the 24-bit addressing range of the offset-based version of subroutine call instruction. This feature is not enabled by default. Specifying -mno-long-calls restores the default behavior. Note these switches have no effect on how the compiler generates code to handle function calls via function pointers. -mfast-fp Link with the fast floating-point library. This library relaxes some of the IEEE floating-point standard’s rules for checking inputs against Not-a-Number (NAN), in the interest of performance. -minline-plt Enable inlining of PLT entries in function calls to functions that are not known to bind locally. It has no effect without -mfdpic. -mmulticore Build a standalone application for multicore Blackfin processors. This option causes proper start files and link scripts supporting multicore to be used, and defines the macro _ _BFIN_MULTICORE. It can only be used with -mcpu=bf561[*-/sirevision/]. This option can be used with *-mcorea or -mcoreb, which selects the one-application-per-core programming model. Without -mcorea or -mcoreb, the single-application/dual-core programming model is used. In this model, the main function of Core B should be named as coreb_main. If this option is not used, the single-core application programming model is used. -mcorea Build a standalone application for Core A of BF561 when using the one-application-per-core programming model. Proper start files and link scripts are used to support Core A, and the macro _ _BFIN_COREA is defined. This option can only be used in conjunction with -mmulticore. -mcoreb Build a standalone application for Core B of BF561 when using the one-application-per-core programming model. Proper start files and link scripts are used to support Core B, and the macro _ _BFIN_COREB is defined. When this option is used, coreb_main should be used instead of main. This option can only be used in conjunction with -mmulticore. -msdram Build a standalone application for SDRAM. Proper start files and link scripts are used to put the application into SDRAM, and the macro _ _BFIN_SDRAM is defined. The loader should initialize SDRAM before loading the application. -micplb Assume that ICPLBs are enabled at run time. This has an effect on certain anomaly workarounds. For Linux targets, the default is to assume ICPLBs are enabled; for standalone applications the default is off. C6X Options -march=name This specifies the name of the target architecture. GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. Permissible names are: c62x, c64x, c64x+, c67x, c67x+, c674x. -mbig-endian Generate code for a big-endian target. -mlittle-endian Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default. -msim Choose startup files and linker script suitable for the simulator. -msdata=default Put small global and static data in the .neardata section, which is pointed to by register B14. Put small uninitialized global and static data in the .bss section, which is adjacent to the .neardata section. Put small read-only data into the .rodata section. The corresponding sections used for large pieces of data are .fardata, .far and .const. -msdata=all Put all data, not just small objects, into the sections reserved for small data, and use addressing relative to the B14 register to access them. -msdata=none Make no use of the sections reserved for small data, and use absolute addresses to access all data. Put all initialized global and static data in the .fardata section, and all uninitialized data in the .far section. Put all constant data into the .const section. CRIS Options These options are defined specifically for the CRIS ports. -march=architecture-type -mcpu=architecture-type Generate code for the specified architecture. The choices for architecture-type are v3, v8 and v10 for respectively ETRAX 4, ETRAX 100, and ETRAX 100 LX. Default is v0 except for cris-axis-linux-gnu, where the default is v10. -mtune=architecture-type Tune to architecture-type everything applicable about the generated code, except for the ABI and the set of available instructions. The choices for architecture-type are the same as for *-march=*/architecture-type/. -mmax-stack-frame=n Warn when the stack frame of a function exceeds n bytes. -metrax4 -metrax100 The options -metrax4 and -metrax100 are synonyms for -march=v3 and -march=v8 respectively. -mmul-bug-workaround -mno-mul-bug-workaround Work around a bug in the muls and mulu instructions for CPU models where it applies. This option is active by default. -mpdebug Enable CRIS-specific verbose debug-related information in the assembly code. This option also has the effect of turning off the #NO_APP formatted-code indicator to the assembler at the beginning of the assembly file. -mcc-init Do not use condition-code results from previous instruction; always emit compare and test instructions before use of condition codes. -mno-side-effects Do not emit instructions with side effects in addressing modes other than post-increment. -mstack-align -mno-stack-align -mdata-align -mno-data-align -mconst-align -mno-const-align These options (no- options) arrange (eliminate arrangements) for the stack frame, individual data and constants to be aligned for the maximum single data access size for the chosen CPU model. The default is to arrange for 32-bit alignment. ABI details such as structure layout are not affected by these options. -m32-bit -m16-bit -m8-bit Similar to the stack- data- and const-align options above, these options arrange for stack frame, writable data and constants to all be 32-bit, 16-bit or 8-bit aligned. The default is 32-bit alignment. -mno-prologue-epilogue -mprologue-epilogue With -mno-prologue-epilogue, the normal function prologue and epilogue which set up the stack frame are omitted and no return instructions or return sequences are generated in the code. Use this option only together with visual inspection of the compiled code: no warnings or errors are generated when call-saved registers must be saved, or storage for local variables needs to be allocated. -mno-gotplt -mgotplt With -fpic and -fPIC, don’t generate (do generate) instruction sequences that load addresses for functions from the PLT part of the GOT rather than (traditional on other architectures) calls to the PLT. The default is -mgotplt. -melf Legacy no-op option only recognized with the cris-axis-elf and cris-axis-linux-gnu targets. -mlinux Legacy no-op option only recognized with the cris-axis-linux-gnu target. -sim This option, recognized for the cris-axis-elf, arranges to link with input-output functions from a simulator library. Code, initialized data and zero-initialized data are allocated consecutively. -sim2 Like -sim, but pass linker options to locate initialized data at 0x40000000 and zero-initialized data at 0x80000000. CR16 Options These options are defined specifically for the CR16 ports. -mmac Enable the use of multiply-accumulate instructions. Disabled by default. -mcr16cplus -mcr16c Generate code for CR16C or CR16C+ architecture. CR16C+ architecture is default. -msim Links the library libsim.a which is in compatible with simulator. Applicable to ELF compiler only. -mint32 Choose integer type as 32-bit wide. -mbit-ops Generates sbit=/=cbit instructions for bit manipulations. -mdata-model=model Choose a data model. The choices for model are near, far or medium. medium is default. However, far is not valid with -mcr16c, as the CR16C architecture does not support the far data model. C-SKY Options GCC supports these options when compiling for C-SKY V2 processors. -march=arch Specify the C-SKY target architecture. Valid values for arch are: ck801, ck802, ck803, ck807, and ck810. The default is ck810. -mcpu=cpu Specify the C-SKY target processor. Valid values for cpu are: ck801, ck801t, ck802, ck802t, ck802j, ck803, ck803h, ck803t, ck803ht, ck803f, ck803fh, ck803e, ck803eh, ck803et, ck803eht, ck803ef, ck803efh, ck803ft, ck803eft, ck803efht, ck803r1, ck803hr1, ck803tr1, ck803htr1, ck803fr1, ck803fhr1, ck803er1, ck803ehr1, ck803etr1, ck803ehtr1, ck803efr1, ck803efhr1, ck803ftr1, ck803eftr1, ck803efhtr1, ck803s, ck803st, ck803se, ck803sf, ck803sef, ck803seft, ck807e, ck807ef, ck807, ck807f, ck810e, ck810et, ck810ef, ck810eft, ck810, ck810v, ck810f, ck810t, ck810fv, ck810tv, ck810ft, and ck810ftv. -mbig-endian -EB -mlittle-endian -EL Select big- or little-endian code. The default is little-endian. -mfloat-abi=name Specifies which floating-point ABI to use. Permissible values are: soft, softfp and hard. Specifying soft causes GCC to generate output containing library calls for floating-point operations. softfp allows the generation of code using hardware floating-point instructions, but still uses the soft-float calling conventions. hard allows generation of floating-point instructions and uses FPU-specific calling conventions. The default depends on the specific target configuration. Note that the hard-float and soft-float ABIs are not link-compatible; you must compile your entire program with the same ABI, and link with a compatible set of libraries. -mhard-float -msoft-float Select hardware or software floating-point implementations. The default is soft float. -mdouble-float -mno-double-float When -mhard-float is in effect, enable generation of double-precision float instructions. This is the default except when compiling for CK803. -mfdivdu -mno-fdivdu When -mhard-float is in effect, enable generation of frecipd, fsqrtd, and fdivd instructions. This is the default except when compiling for CK803. -mfpu=fpu Select the floating-point processor. This option can only be used with -mhard-float. Values for fpu are fpv2_sf (equivalent to -mno-double-float -mno-fdivdu), fpv2 (-mdouble-float -mno-divdu), and fpv2_divd (-mdouble-float -mdivdu). -melrw -mno-elrw Enable the extended lrw instruction. This option defaults to on for CK801 and off otherwise. -mistack -mno-istack Enable interrupt stack instructions; the default is off. The -mistack option is required to handle the interrupt and isr function attributes. -mmp Enable multiprocessor instructions; the default is off. -mcp Enable coprocessor instructions; the default is off. -mcache Enable coprocessor instructions; the default is off. -msecurity Enable C-SKY security instructions; the default is off. -mtrust Enable C-SKY trust instructions; the default is off. -mdsp -medsp -mvdsp Enable C-SKY DSP, Enhanced DSP, or Vector DSP instructions, respectively. All of these options default to off. -mdiv -mno-div Generate divide instructions. Default is off. -msmart -mno-smart Generate code for Smart Mode, using only registers numbered 0-7 to allow use of 16-bit instructions. This option is ignored for CK801 where this is the required behavior, and it defaults to on for CK802. For other targets, the default is off. -mhigh-registers -mno-high-registers Generate code using the high registers numbered 16-31. This option is not supported on CK801, CK802, or CK803, and is enabled by default for other processors. -manchor -mno-anchor Generate code using global anchor symbol addresses. -mpushpop -mno-pushpop Generate code using push and pop instructions. This option defaults to on. -mmultiple-stld -mstm -mno-multiple-stld -mno-stm Generate code using stm and ldm instructions. This option isn’t supported on CK801 but is enabled by default on other processors. -mconstpool -mno-constpool Create constant pools in the compiler instead of deferring it to the assembler. This option is the default and required for correct code generation on CK801 and CK802, and is optional on other processors. -mstack-size -mno-stack-size Emit .stack_size directives for each function in the assembly output. This option defaults to off. -mccrt -mno-ccrt Generate code for the C-SKY compiler runtime instead of libgcc. This option defaults to off. -mbranch-cost=n Set the branch costs to roughly n instructions. The default is 1. -msched-prolog -mno-sched-prolog Permit scheduling of function prologue and epilogue sequences. Using this option can result in code that is not compliant with the C-SKY V2 ABI prologue requirements and that cannot be debugged or backtraced. It is disabled by default. -msim Links the library libsemi.a which is in compatible with simulator. Applicable to ELF compiler only. Darwin Options These options are defined for all architectures running the Darwin operating system. FSF GCC on Darwin does not create fat object files; it creates an object file for the single architecture that GCC was built to target. Apple’s GCC on Darwin does create fat files if multiple -arch options are used; it does so by running the compiler or linker multiple times and joining the results together with lipo. The subtype of the file created (like ppc7400 or ppc970 or i686) is determined by the flags that specify the ISA that GCC is targeting, like -mcpu or -march. The -force_cpusubtype_ALL option can be used to override this. The Darwin tools vary in their behavior when presented with an ISA mismatch. The assembler, as, only permits instructions to be used that are valid for the subtype of the file it is generating, so you cannot put 64-bit instructions in a ppc750 object file. The linker for shared libraries, /usr/bin/libtool, fails and prints an error if asked to create a shared library with a less restrictive subtype than its input files (for instance, trying to put a ppc970 object file in a ppc7400 library). The linker for executables, ld, quietly gives the executable the most restrictive subtype of any of its input files. -Fdir Add the framework directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be searched for header files. These directories are interleaved with those specified by -I options and are scanned in a left-to-right order. A framework directory is a directory with frameworks in it. A framework is a directory with a Headers and/or PrivateHeaders directory contained directly in it that ends in .framework. The name of a framework is the name of this directory excluding the .framework. Headers associated with the framework are found in one of those two directories, with Headers being searched first. A subframework is a framework directory that is in a framework’s Frameworks directory. Includes of subframework headers can only appear in a header of a framework that contains the subframework, or in a sibling subframework header. Two subframeworks are siblings if they occur in the same framework. A subframework should not have the same name as a framework; a warning is issued if this is violated. Currently a subframework cannot have subframeworks; in the future, the mechanism may be extended to support this. The standard frameworks can be found in /System/Library/Frameworks and /Library/Frameworks. An example include looks like #include <Framework/header.h>, where Framework denotes the name of the framework and header.h is found in the PrivateHeaders or Headers directory. -iframeworkdir Like -F except the directory is a treated as a system directory. The main difference between this -iframework and -F is that with -iframework the compiler does not warn about constructs contained within header files found via dir. This option is valid only for the C family of languages. -gused Emit debugging information for symbols that are used. For stabs debugging format, this enables -feliminate-unused-debug-symbols. This is by default ON. -gfull Emit debugging information for all symbols and types. -mmacosx-version-min=version The earliest version of MacOS X that this executable will run on is version. Typical values of version include 10.1, 10.2, and 10.3.9. If the compiler was built to use the system’s headers by default, then the default for this option is the system version on which the compiler is running, otherwise the default is to make choices that are compatible with as many systems and code bases as possible. -mkernel Enable kernel development mode. The -mkernel option sets -static, -fno-common, -fno-use-cxa-atexit, -fno-exceptions, -fno-non-call-exceptions, -fapple-kext, -fno-weak and -fno-rtti where applicable. This mode also sets -mno-altivec, -msoft-float, -fno-builtin and -mlong-branch for PowerPC targets. -mone-byte-bool Override the defaults for bool so that sizeof(bool)==1. By default sizeof(bool) is 4 when compiling for Darwin/PowerPC and 1 when compiling for Darwin/x86, so this option has no effect on x86. Warning: The -mone-byte-bool switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch. Using this switch may require recompiling all other modules in a program, including system libraries. Use this switch to conform to a non-default data model. -mfix-and-continue -ffix-and-continue -findirect-data Generate code suitable for fast turnaround development, such as to allow GDB to dynamically load .o files into already-running programs. -findirect-data and -ffix-and-continue are provided for backwards compatibility. -all_load Loads all members of static archive libraries. See man ld (1) for more information. -arch_errors_fatal Cause the errors having to do with files that have the wrong architecture to be fatal. -bind_at_load Causes the output file to be marked such that the dynamic linker will bind all undefined references when the file is loaded or launched. -bundle Produce a Mach-o bundle format file. See man ld (1) for more information. -bundle_loader executable This option specifies the executable that will load the build output file being linked. See man ld (1) for more information. -dynamiclib When passed this option, GCC produces a dynamic library instead of an executable when linking, using the Darwin libtool command. -force_cpusubtype_ALL This causes GCC’s output file to have the ALL subtype, instead of one controlled by the -mcpu or -march option. -allowable_client client_name -client_name -compatibility_version -current_version -dead_strip -dependency-file -dylib_file -dylinker_install_name -dynamic -exported_symbols_list -filelist -flat_namespace -force_flat_namespace -headerpad_max_install_names -image_base -init -install_name -keep_private_externs -multi_module -multiply_defined -multiply_defined_unused -noall_load -no_dead_strip_inits_and_terms -nofixprebinding -nomultidefs -noprebind -noseglinkedit -pagezero_size -prebind -prebind_all_twolevel_modules -private_bundle -read_only_relocs -sectalign -sectobjectsymbols -whyload -seg1addr -sectcreate -sectobjectsymbols -sectorder -segaddr -segs_read_only_addr -segs_read_write_addr -seg_addr_table -seg_addr_table_filename -seglinkedit -segprot -segs_read_only_addr -segs_read_write_addr -single_module -static -sub_library -sub_umbrella -twolevel_namespace -umbrella -undefined -unexported_symbols_list -weak_reference_mismatches -whatsloaded These options are passed to the Darwin linker. The Darwin linker man page describes them in detail. DEC Alpha Options These -m options are defined for the DEC Alpha implementations: -mno-soft-float -msoft-float Use (do not use) the hardware floating-point instructions for floating-point operations. When -msoft-float is specified, functions in libgcc.a are used to perform floating-point operations. Unless they are replaced by routines that emulate the floating-point operations, or compiled in such a way as to call such emulations routines, these routines issue floating-point operations. If you are compiling for an Alpha without floating-point operations, you must ensure that the library is built so as not to call them. Note that Alpha implementations without floating-point operations are required to have floating-point registers. -mfp-reg -mno-fp-regs Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point register set. -mno-fp-regs implies -msoft-float. If the floating-point register set is not used, floating-point operands are passed in integer registers as if they were integers and floating-point results are passed in 0 instead of $f0. This is a non-standard calling sequence, so any function with a floating-point argument or return value called by code compiled with -mno-fp-regs must also be compiled with that option. A typical use of this option is building a kernel that does not use, and hence need not save and restore, any floating-point registers. -mieee The Alpha architecture implements floating-point hardware optimized for maximum performance. It is mostly compliant with the IEEE floating-point standard. However, for full compliance, software assistance is required. This option generates code fully IEEE-compliant code except that the inexact-flag is not maintained (see below). If this option is turned on, the preprocessor macro _IEEE_FP is defined during compilation. The resulting code is less efficient but is able to correctly support denormalized numbers and exceptional IEEE values such as not-a-number and plus/minus infinity. Other Alpha compilers call this option -ieee_with_no_inexact. -mieee-with-inexact This is like -mieee except the generated code also maintains the IEEE inexact-flag. Turning on this option causes the generated code to implement fully-compliant IEEE math. In addition to _IEEE_FP, _IEEE_FP_EXACT is defined as a preprocessor macro. On some Alpha implementations the resulting code may execute significantly slower than the code generated by default. Since there is very little code that depends on the inexact-flag, you should normally not specify this option. Other Alpha compilers call this option -ieee_with_inexact. -mfp-trap-mode=trap-mode This option controls what floating-point related traps are enabled. Other Alpha compilers call this option -fptm trap-mode. The trap mode can be set to one of four values: 1. This is the default (normal) setting. The only traps that are enabled are the ones that cannot be disabled in software (e.g., division by zero trap). 2. In addition to the traps enabled by n, underflow traps are enabled as well. 3. Like u, but the instructions are marked to be safe for software completion (see Alpha architecture manual for details). 4. Like su, but inexact traps are enabled as well. -mfp-rounding-mode=rounding-mode Selects the IEEE rounding mode. Other Alpha compilers call this option -fprm rounding-mode. The rounding-mode can be one of: 1. Normal IEEE rounding mode. Floating-point numbers are rounded towards the nearest machine number or towards the even machine number in case of a tie. 2. Round towards minus infinity. 3. Chopped rounding mode. Floating-point numbers are rounded towards zero. 4. Dynamic rounding mode. A field in the floating-point control register (fpcr, see Alpha architecture reference manual) controls the rounding mode in effect. The C library initializes this register for rounding towards plus infinity. Thus, unless your program modifies the fpcr, d corresponds to round towards plus infinity. -mtrap-precision=trap-precision In the Alpha architecture, floating-point traps are imprecise. This means without software assistance it is impossible to recover from a floating trap and program execution normally needs to be terminated. GCC can generate code that can assist operating system trap handlers in determining the exact location that caused a floating-point trap. Depending on the requirements of an application, different levels of precisions can be selected: 1. Program precision. This option is the default and means a trap handler can only identify which program caused a floating-point exception. 2. Function precision. The trap handler can determine the function that caused a floating-point exception. 3. Instruction precision. The trap handler can determine the exact instruction that caused a floating-point exception. Other Alpha compilers provide the equivalent options called -scope_safe and -resumption_safe. -mieee-conformant This option marks the generated code as IEEE conformant. You must not use this option unless you also specify -mtrap-precision=i and either -mfp-trap-mode=su or -mfp-trap-mode=sui. Its only effect is to emit the line .eflag 48 in the function prologue of the generated assembly file. -mbuild-constants Normally GCC examines a 32- or 64-bit integer constant to see if it can construct it from smaller constants in two or three instructions. If it cannot, it outputs the constant as a literal and generates code to load it from the data segment at run time. Use this option to require GCC to construct all integer constants using code, even if it takes more instructions (the maximum is six). You typically use this option to build a shared library dynamic loader. Itself a shared library, it must relocate itself in memory before it can find the variables and constants in its own data segment. -mbwx -mno-bwx -mcix -mno-cix -mfix -mno-fix -mmax -mno-max Indicate whether GCC should generate code to use the optional BWX, CIX, FIX and MAX instruction sets. The default is to use the instruction sets supported by the CPU type specified via -mcpu= option or that of the CPU on which GCC was built if none is specified. -mfloat-vax -mfloat-ieee Generate code that uses (does not use) VAX F and G floating-point arithmetic instead of IEEE single and double precision. -mexplicit-relocs -mno-explicit-relocs Older Alpha assemblers provided no way to generate symbol relocations except via assembler macros. Use of these macros does not allow optimal instruction scheduling. GNU binutils as of version 2.12 supports a new syntax that allows the compiler to explicitly mark which relocations should apply to which instructions. This option is mostly useful for debugging, as GCC detects the capabilities of the assembler when it is built and sets the default accordingly. -msmall-data -mlarge-data When -mexplicit-relocs is in effect, static data is accessed via gp-relative relocations. When -msmall-data is used, objects 8 bytes long or smaller are placed in a small data area (the .sdata and .sbss sections) and are accessed via 16-bit relocations off of the $gp register. This limits the size of the small data area to 64KB, but allows the variables to be directly accessed via a single instruction. The default is -mlarge-data. With this option the data area is limited to just below 2GB. Programs that require more than 2GB of data must use malloc or mmap to allocate the data in the heap instead of in the program’s data segment. When generating code for shared libraries, -fpic implies -msmall-data and -fPIC implies -mlarge-data.

-msmall-text
-mlarge-text

When -msmall-text is used, the compiler assumes that the code of the entire program (or shared library) fits in 4MB, and is thus reachable with a branch instruction. When -msmall-data is used, the compiler can assume that all local symbols share the same gp value, and thus reduce the number of instructions required for a function call from 4 to 1. The default is -mlarge-text. -mcpu=cpu_type Set the instruction set and instruction scheduling parameters for machine type cpu_type. You can specify either the EV style name or the corresponding chip number. GCC supports scheduling parameters for the EV4, EV5 and EV6 family of processors and chooses the default values for the instruction set from the processor you specify. If you do not specify a processor type, GCC defaults to the processor on which the compiler was built. Supported values for cpu_type are ev4 ev45 (no term) Schedules as an EV4 and has no instruction set extensions. ev5 (no term) Schedules as an EV5 and has no instruction set extensions. ev56 21164a Schedules as an EV5 and supports the BWX extension. pca56 21164pc 21164PC Schedules as an EV5 and supports the BWX and MAX extensions. ev6 (no term) Schedules as an EV6 and supports the BWX, FIX, and MAX extensions. ev67 21264a Schedules as an EV6 and supports the BWX, CIX, FIX, and MAX extensions. Native toolchains also support the value native, which selects the best architecture option for the host processor. -mcpu=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor. -mtune=cpu_type Set only the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type cpu_type. The instruction set is not changed. Native toolchains also support the value native, which selects the best architecture option for the host processor. -mtune=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor. -mmemory-latency=time Sets the latency the scheduler should assume for typical memory references as seen by the application. This number is highly dependent on the memory access patterns used by the application and the size of the external cache on the machine. Valid options for time are number A decimal number representing clock cycles. L1 L2 L3 main The compiler contains estimates of the number of clock cycles for typical EV4 & EV5 hardware for the Level 1, 2 & 3 caches (also called Dcache, Scache, and Bcache), as well as to main memory. Note that L3 is only valid for EV5. eBPF Options -mframe-limit=bytes This specifies the hard limit for frame sizes, in bytes. Currently, the value that can be specified should be less than or equal to 32767. Defaults to whatever limit is imposed by the version of the Linux kernel targeted. -mkernel=version This specifies the minimum version of the kernel that will run the compiled program. GCC uses this version to determine which instructions to use, what kernel helpers to allow, etc. Currently, version can be one of 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, latest and native. -mbig-endian Generate code for a big-endian target. -mlittle-endian Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default. -mxbpf Generate code for an expanded version of BPF, which relaxes some of the restrictions imposed by the BPF architecture: • -<Save and restore callee-saved registers at function entry and> :: exit, respectively. FR30 Options These options are defined specifically for the FR30 port. -msmall-model Use the small address space model. This can produce smaller code, but it does assume that all symbolic values and addresses fit into a 20-bit range. -mno-lsim Assume that runtime support has been provided and so there is no need to include the simulator library (libsim.a) on the linker command line. FT32 Options These options are defined specifically for the FT32 port. -msim Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This causes an alternate runtime startup and library to be linked. You must not use this option when generating programs that will run on real hardware; you must provide your own runtime library for whatever I/O functions are needed. -mlra Enable Local Register Allocation. This is still experimental for FT32, so by default the compiler uses standard reload. -mnodiv Do not use div and mod instructions. -mft32b Enable use of the extended instructions of the FT32B processor. -mcompress Compress all code using the Ft32B code compression scheme. -mnopm Do not generate code that reads program memory. FRV Options -mgpr-32 Only use the first 32 general-purpose registers. -mgpr-64 Use all 64 general-purpose registers. -mfpr-32 Use only the first 32 floating-point registers. -mfpr-64 Use all 64 floating-point registers. -mhard-float Use hardware instructions for floating-point operations. -msoft-float Use library routines for floating-point operations. -malloc-cc Dynamically allocate condition code registers. -mfixed-cc Do not try to dynamically allocate condition code registers, only use icc0 and fcc0. -mdword Change ABI to use double word insns. -mno-dword Do not use double word instructions. -mdouble Use floating-point double instructions. -mno-double Do not use floating-point double instructions. -mmedia Use media instructions. -mno-media Do not use media instructions. -mmuladd Use multiply and add/subtract instructions. -mno-muladd Do not use multiply and add/subtract instructions. -mfdpic Select the FDPIC ABI, which uses function descriptors to represent pointers to functions. Without any PIC/PIE-related options, it implies -fPIE. With -fpic or -fpie, it assumes GOT entries and small data are within a 12-bit range from the GOT base address; with -fPIC or -fPIE, GOT offsets are computed with 32 bits. With a bfin-elf target, this option implies -msim. -minline-plt Enable inlining of PLT entries in function calls to functions that are not known to bind locally. It has no effect without -mfdpic. It’s enabled by default if optimizing for speed and compiling for shared libraries (i.e., -fPIC or -fpic), or when an optimization option such as -O3 or above is present in the command line. -mTLS Assume a large TLS segment when generating thread-local code. -mtls Do not assume a large TLS segment when generating thread-local code. -mgprel-ro Enable the use of GPREL relocations in the FDPIC ABI for data that is known to be in read-only sections. It’s enabled by default, except for -fpic or -fpie: even though it may help make the global offset table smaller, it trades 1 instruction for 4. With -fPIC or -fPIE, it trades 3 instructions for 4, one of which may be shared by multiple symbols, and it avoids the need for a GOT entry for the referenced symbol, so it’s more likely to be a win. If it is not, -mno-gprel-ro can be used to disable it. -multilib-library-pic Link with the (library, not FD) pic libraries. It’s implied by -mlibrary-pic, as well as by -fPIC and -fpic without -mfdpic. You should never have to use it explicitly. -mlinked-fp Follow the EABI requirement of always creating a frame pointer whenever a stack frame is allocated. This option is enabled by default and can be disabled with -mno-linked-fp. -mlong-calls Use indirect addressing to call functions outside the current compilation unit. This allows the functions to be placed anywhere within the 32-bit address space. -malign-labels Try to align labels to an 8-byte boundary by inserting NOPs into the previous packet. This option only has an effect when VLIW packing is enabled. It doesn’t create new packets; it merely adds NOPs to existing ones. -mlibrary-pic Generate position-independent EABI code. -macc-4 Use only the first four media accumulator registers. -macc-8 Use all eight media accumulator registers. -mpack Pack VLIW instructions. -mno-pack Do not pack VLIW instructions. -mno-eflags Do not mark ABI switches in e_flags. -mcond-move Enable the use of conditional-move instructions (default). This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mno-cond-move Disable the use of conditional-move instructions. This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mscc Enable the use of conditional set instructions (default). This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mno-scc Disable the use of conditional set instructions. This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mcond-exec Enable the use of conditional execution (default). This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mno-cond-exec Disable the use of conditional execution. This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mvliw-branch Run a pass to pack branches into VLIW instructions (default). This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mno-vliw-branch Do not run a pass to pack branches into VLIW instructions. This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mmulti-cond-exec Enable optimization of && and || in conditional execution (default). This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mno-multi-cond-exec Disable optimization of && and || in conditional execution. This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mnested-cond-exec Enable nested conditional execution optimizations (default). This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -mno-nested-cond-exec Disable nested conditional execution optimizations. This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version. -moptimize-membar This switch removes redundant membar instructions from the compiler-generated code. It is enabled by default. -mno-optimize-membar This switch disables the automatic removal of redundant membar instructions from the generated code. -mtomcat-stats Cause gas to print out tomcat statistics. -mcpu=cpu Select the processor type for which to generate code. Possible values are frv, fr550, tomcat, fr500, fr450, fr405, fr400, fr300 and simple. GNU/Linux Options These -m options are defined for GNU/Linux targets: -mglibc Use the GNU C library. This is the default except on *--linux-uclibc*, *--linux-musl* and *--linux-android* targets. -muclibc Use uClibc C library. This is the default on *--linux-uclibc* targets. -mmusl Use the musl C library. This is the default on *--linux-musl* targets. -mbionic Use Bionic C library. This is the default on *--linux-android* targets. -mandroid Compile code compatible with Android platform. This is the default on *--linux-android* targets. When compiling, this option enables -mbionic, -fPIC, -fno-exceptions and -fno-rtti by default. When linking, this option makes the GCC driver pass Android-specific options to the linker. Finally, this option causes the preprocessor macro _ _ANDROID_ _ to be defined. -tno-android-cc Disable compilation effects of -mandroid, i.e., do not enable -mbionic, -fPIC, -fno-exceptions and -fno-rtti by default. -tno-android-ld Disable linking effects of -mandroid, i.e., pass standard Linux linking options to the linker. H8/300 Options These -m options are defined for the H8/300 implementations: -mrelax Shorten some address references at link time, when possible; uses the linker option -relax. -mh Generate code for the H8/300H. -ms Generate code for the H8S. -mn Generate code for the H8S and H8/300H in the normal mode. This switch must be used either with -mh or -ms. -ms2600 Generate code for the H8S/2600. This switch must be used with -ms. -mexr Extended registers are stored on stack before execution of function with monitor attribute. Default option is -mexr. This option is valid only for H8S targets. -mno-exr Extended registers are not stored on stack before execution of function with monitor attribute. Default option is -mno-exr. This option is valid only for H8S targets. -mint32 Make int data 32 bits by default. -malign-300 On the H8/300H and H8S, use the same alignment rules as for the H8/300. The default for the H8/300H and H8S is to align longs and floats on 4-byte boundaries. -malign-300 causes them to be aligned on 2-byte boundaries. This option has no effect on the H8/300. HPPA Options These -m options are defined for the HPPA family of computers: -march=architecture-type Generate code for the specified architecture. The choices for architecture-type are 1.0 for PA 1.0, 1.1 for PA 1.1, and 2.0 for PA 2.0 processors. Refer to /usr/lib/sched.models on an HP-UX system to determine the proper architecture option for your machine. Code compiled for lower numbered architectures runs on higher numbered architectures, but not the other way around. -mpa-risc-1-0 -mpa-risc-1-1 -mpa-risc-2-0 Synonyms for -march=1.0, -march=1.1, and -march=2.0 respectively. -mcaller-copies The caller copies function arguments passed by hidden reference. This option should be used with care as it is not compatible with the default 32-bit runtime. However, only aggregates larger than eight bytes are passed by hidden reference and the option provides better compatibility with OpenMP. -mjump-in-delay This option is ignored and provided for compatibility purposes only. -mdisable-fpregs Prevent floating-point registers from being used in any manner. This is necessary for compiling kernels that perform lazy context switching of floating-point registers. If you use this option and attempt to perform floating-point operations, the compiler aborts. -mdisable-indexing Prevent the compiler from using indexing address modes. This avoids some rather obscure problems when compiling MIG generated code under MACH. -mno-space-regs Generate code that assumes the target has no space registers. This allows GCC to generate faster indirect calls and use unscaled index address modes. Such code is suitable for level 0 PA systems and kernels. -mfast-indirect-calls Generate code that assumes calls never cross space boundaries. This allows GCC to emit code that performs faster indirect calls. This option does not work in the presence of shared libraries or nested functions. -mfixed-range=register-range Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers. A fixed register is one that the register allocator cannot use. This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register ranges can be specified separated by a comma. -mlong-load-store Generate 3-instruction load and store sequences as sometimes required by the HP-UX 10 linker. This is equivalent to the +k option to the HP compilers. -mportable-runtime Use the portable calling conventions proposed by HP for ELF systems. -mgas Enable the use of assembler directives only GAS understands. -mschedule=cpu-type Schedule code according to the constraints for the machine type cpu-type. The choices for cpu-type are 700 7100, 7100LC, 7200, 7300 and 8000. Refer to /usr/lib/sched.models on an HP-UX system to determine the proper scheduling option for your machine. The default scheduling is 8000. -mlinker-opt Enable the optimization pass in the HP-UX linker. Note this makes symbolic debugging impossible. It also triggers a bug in the HP-UX 8 and HP-UX 9 linkers in which they give bogus error messages when linking some programs. -msoft-float Generate output containing library calls for floating point. Warning: the requisite libraries are not available for all HPPA targets. Normally the facilities of the machine’s usual C compiler are used, but this cannot be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your own arrangements to provide suitable library functions for cross-compilation. -msoft-float changes the calling convention in the output file; therefore, it is only useful if you compile all of a program with this option. In particular, you need to compile libgcc.a, the library that comes with GCC, with -msoft-float in order for this to work. -msio Generate the predefine, _SIO, for server IO. The default is -mwsio. This generates the predefines, _ _hp9000s700, _ _hp9000s700_ _ and _WSIO, for workstation IO. These options are available under HP-UX and HI-UX. -mgnu-ld Use options specific to GNU ld. This passes -shared to ld when building a shared library. It is the default when GCC is configured, explicitly or implicitly, with the GNU linker. This option does not affect which ld is called; it only changes what parameters are passed to that ld. The ld that is called is determined by the –with-ld configure option, GCC’s program search path, and finally by the user’s PATH. The linker used by GCC can be printed using which gcc -print-prog-name=ld. This option is only available on the 64-bit HP-UX GCC, i.e. configured with hppa*64--hpux*. -mhp-ld Use options specific to HP ld. This passes -b to ld when building a shared library and passes +Accept TypeMismatch to ld on all links. It is the default when GCC is configured, explicitly or implicitly, with the HP linker. This option does not affect which ld is called; it only changes what parameters are passed to that ld. The ld that is called is determined by the –with-ld configure option, GCC’s program search path, and finally by the user’s PATH. The linker used by GCC can be printed using which gcc -print-prog-name=ld. This option is only available on the 64-bit HP-UX GCC, i.e. configured with hppa*64--hpux*. -mlong-calls Generate code that uses long call sequences. This ensures that a call is always able to reach linker generated stubs. The default is to generate long calls only when the distance from the call site to the beginning of the function or translation unit, as the case may be, exceeds a predefined limit set by the branch type being used. The limits for normal calls are 7,600,000 and 240,000 bytes, respectively for the PA 2.0 and PA 1.X architectures. Sibcalls are always limited at 240,000 bytes. Distances are measured from the beginning of functions when using the -ffunction-sections option, or when using the -mgas and -mno-portable-runtime options together under HP-UX with the SOM linker. It is normally not desirable to use this option as it degrades performance. However, it may be useful in large applications, particularly when partial linking is used to build the application. The types of long calls used depends on the capabilities of the assembler and linker, and the type of code being generated. The impact on systems that support long absolute calls, and long pic symbol-difference or pc-relative calls should be relatively small. However, an indirect call is used on 32-bit ELF systems in pic code and it is quite long. -munix=unix-std Generate compiler predefines and select a startfile for the specified UNIX standard. The choices for unix-std are 93, 95 and 98. 93 is supported on all HP-UX versions. 95 is available on HP-UX 10.10 and later. 98 is available on HP-UX 11.11 and later. The default values are 93 for HP-UX 10.00, 95 for HP-UX 10.10 though to 11.00, and 98 for HP-UX 11.11 and later. -munix=93 provides the same predefines as GCC 3.3 and 3.4. -munix=95 provides additional predefines for XOPEN_UNIX and _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED, and the startfile unix95.o. -munix=98 provides additional predefines for _XOPEN_UNIX, _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED, _INCLUDE_ _STDC_A1_SOURCE and _INCLUDE_XOPEN_SOURCE_500, and the startfile unix98.o. It is important to note that this option changes the interfaces for various library routines. It also affects the operational behavior of the C library. Thus, extreme care is needed in using this option. Library code that is intended to operate with more than one UNIX standard must test, set and restore the variable _ _xpg4_extended_mask as appropriate. Most GNU software doesn’t provide this capability. -nolibdld Suppress the generation of link options to search libdld.sl when the -static option is specified on HP-UX 10 and later. -static The HP-UX implementation of setlocale in libc has a dependency on libdld.sl. There isn’t an archive version of libdld.sl. Thus, when the -static option is specified, special link options are needed to resolve this dependency. On HP-UX 10 and later, the GCC driver adds the necessary options to link with libdld.sl when the -static option is specified. This causes the resulting binary to be dynamic. On the 64-bit port, the linkers generate dynamic binaries by default in any case. The -nolibdld option can be used to prevent the GCC driver from adding these link options. -threads Add support for multithreading with the dce thread library under HP-UX. This option sets flags for both the preprocessor and linker. IA-64 Options These are the -m options defined for the Intel IA-64 architecture. -mbig-endian Generate code for a big-endian target. This is the default for HP-UX. -mlittle-endian Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default for AIX5 and GNU/Linux. -mgnu-as -mno-gnu-as Generate (or don’t) code for the GNU assembler. This is the default. -mgnu-ld -mno-gnu-ld Generate (or don’t) code for the GNU linker. This is the default. -mno-pic Generate code that does not use a global pointer register. The result is not position independent code, and violates the IA-64 ABI. -mvolatile-asm-stop -mno-volatile-asm-stop Generate (or don’t) a stop bit immediately before and after volatile asm statements. -mregister-names -mno-register-names Generate (or don’t) in, loc, and out register names for the stacked registers. This may make assembler output more readable. -mno-sdata -msdata Disable (or enable) optimizations that use the small data section. This may be useful for working around optimizer bugs. -mconstant-gp Generate code that uses a single constant global pointer value. This is useful when compiling kernel code. -mauto-pic Generate code that is self-relocatable. This implies -mconstant-gp. This is useful when compiling firmware code. -minline-float-divide-min-latency Generate code for inline divides of floating-point values using the minimum latency algorithm. -minline-float-divide-max-throughput Generate code for inline divides of floating-point values using the maximum throughput algorithm. -mno-inline-float-divide Do not generate inline code for divides of floating-point values. -minline-int-divide-min-latency Generate code for inline divides of integer values using the minimum latency algorithm. -minline-int-divide-max-throughput Generate code for inline divides of integer values using the maximum throughput algorithm. -mno-inline-int-divide Do not generate inline code for divides of integer values. -minline-sqrt-min-latency Generate code for inline square roots using the minimum latency algorithm. -minline-sqrt-max-throughput Generate code for inline square roots using the maximum throughput algorithm. -mno-inline-sqrt Do not generate inline code for sqrt. -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd Do (don’t) generate code that uses the fused multiply/add or multiply/subtract instructions. The default is to use these instructions. -mno-dwarf2-asm -mdwarf2-asm Don’t (or do) generate assembler code for the DWARF line number debugging info. This may be useful when not using the GNU assembler. -mearly-stop-bits -mno-early-stop-bits Allow stop bits to be placed earlier than immediately preceding the instruction that triggered the stop bit. This can improve instruction scheduling, but does not always do so. -mfixed-range=register-range Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers. A fixed register is one that the register allocator cannot use. This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register ranges can be specified separated by a comma. -mtls-size=tls-size Specify bit size of immediate TLS offsets. Valid values are 14, 22, and 64. -mtune=cpu-type Tune the instruction scheduling for a particular CPU, Valid values are itanium, itanium1, merced, itanium2, and mckinley. -milp32 -mlp64 Generate code for a 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The 32-bit environment sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits. The 64-bit environment sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits. These are HP-UX specific flags. -mno-sched-br-data-spec -msched-br-data-spec (Dis/En)able data speculative scheduling before reload. This results in generation of ld.a instructions and the corresponding check instructions (ld.c / chk.a). The default setting is disabled. -msched-ar-data-spec -mno-sched-ar-data-spec (En/Dis)able data speculative scheduling after reload. This results in generation of ld.a instructions and the corresponding check instructions (ld.c / chk.a). The default setting is enabled. -mno-sched-control-spec -msched-control-spec (Dis/En)able control speculative scheduling. This feature is available only during region scheduling (i.e. before reload). This results in generation of the ld.s instructions and the corresponding check instructions chk.s. The default setting is disabled. -msched-br-in-data-spec -mno-sched-br-in-data-spec (En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are dependent on the data speculative loads before reload. This is effective only with -msched-br-data-spec enabled. The default setting is enabled. -msched-ar-in-data-spec -mno-sched-ar-in-data-spec (En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are dependent on the data speculative loads after reload. This is effective only with -msched-ar-data-spec enabled. The default setting is enabled. -msched-in-control-spec -mno-sched-in-control-spec (En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are dependent on the control speculative loads. This is effective only with -msched-control-spec enabled. The default setting is enabled. -mno-sched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns -msched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns If enabled, data-speculative instructions are chosen for schedule only if there are no other choices at the moment. This makes the use of the data speculation much more conservative. The default setting is disabled. -mno-sched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns -msched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns If enabled, control-speculative instructions are chosen for schedule only if there are no other choices at the moment. This makes the use of the control speculation much more conservative. The default setting is disabled. -mno-sched-count-spec-in-critical-path -msched-count-spec-in-critical-path If enabled, speculative dependencies are considered during computation of the instructions priorities. This makes the use of the speculation a bit more conservative. The default setting is disabled. -msched-spec-ldc Use a simple data speculation check. This option is on by default. -msched-control-spec-ldc Use a simple check for control speculation. This option is on by default. -msched-stop-bits-after-every-cycle Place a stop bit after every cycle when scheduling. This option is on by default. -msched-fp-mem-deps-zero-cost Assume that floating-point stores and loads are not likely to cause a conflict when placed into the same instruction group. This option is disabled by default. -msel-sched-dont-check-control-spec Generate checks for control speculation in selective scheduling. This flag is disabled by default. -msched-max-memory-insns=max-insns Limit on the number of memory insns per instruction group, giving lower priority to subsequent memory insns attempting to schedule in the same instruction group. Frequently useful to prevent cache bank conflicts. The default value is 1. -msched-max-memory-insns-hard-limit Makes the limit specified by msched-max-memory-insns a hard limit, disallowing more than that number in an instruction group. Otherwise, the limit is soft, meaning that non-memory operations are preferred when the limit is reached, but memory operations may still be scheduled. LM32 Options These -m options are defined for the LatticeMico32 architecture: -mbarrel-shift-enabled Enable barrel-shift instructions. -mdivide-enabled Enable divide and modulus instructions. -mmultiply-enabled Enable multiply instructions. -msign-extend-enabled Enable sign extend instructions. -muser-enabled Enable user-defined instructions. M32C Options -mcpu=name Select the CPU for which code is generated. name may be one of r8c for the R8C/Tiny series, m16c for the M16C (up to /60) series, m32cm for the M16C/80 series, or m32c for the M32C/80 series. -msim Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This causes an alternate runtime library to be linked in which supports, for example, file I/O. You must not use this option when generating programs that will run on real hardware; you must provide your own runtime library for whatever I/O functions are needed. -memregs=number Specifies the number of memory-based pseudo-registers GCC uses during code generation. These pseudo-registers are used like real registers, so there is a tradeoff between GCC’s ability to fit the code into available registers, and the performance penalty of using memory instead of registers. Note that all modules in a program must be compiled with the same value for this option. Because of that, you must not use this option with GCC’s default runtime libraries. M32R/D Options These -m options are defined for Renesas M32R/D architectures: -m32r2 Generate code for the M32R/2. -m32rx Generate code for the M32R/X. -m32r Generate code for the M32R. This is the default. -mmodel=small Assume all objects live in the lower 16MB of memory (so that their addresses can be loaded with the ld24 instruction), and assume all subroutines are reachable with the bl instruction. This is the default. The addressability of a particular object can be set with the model attribute. -mmodel=medium Assume objects may be anywhere in the 32-bit address space (the compiler generates seth/add3 instructions to load their addresses), and assume all subroutines are reachable with the bl instruction. -mmodel=large Assume objects may be anywhere in the 32-bit address space (the compiler generates seth/add3 instructions to load their addresses), and assume subroutines may not be reachable with the bl instruction (the compiler generates the much slower seth/add3/jl instruction sequence). -msdata=none Disable use of the small data area. Variables are put into one of .data, .bss, or .rodata (unless the section attribute has been specified). This is the default. The small data area consists of sections .sdata and .sbss. Objects may be explicitly put in the small data area with the section attribute using one of these sections. -msdata=sdata Put small global and static data in the small data area, but do not generate special code to reference them. -msdata=use Put small global and static data in the small data area, and generate special instructions to reference them. -G num Put global and static objects less than or equal to num bytes into the small data or BSS sections instead of the normal data or BSS sections. The default value of num is 8. The -msdata option must be set to one of sdata or use for this option to have any effect. All modules should be compiled with the same -G num value. Compiling with different values of num may or may not work; if it doesn’t the linker gives an error message—incorrect code is not generated. -mdebug Makes the M32R-specific code in the compiler display some statistics that might help in debugging programs. -malign-loops Align all loops to a 32-byte boundary. -mno-align-loops Do not enforce a 32-byte alignment for loops. This is the default. -missue-rate=number Issue number instructions per cycle. number can only be 1 or 2. -mbranch-cost=number number can only be 1 or 2. If it is 1 then branches are preferred over conditional code, if it is 2, then the opposite applies. -mflush-trap=number Specifies the trap number to use to flush the cache. The default is 12. Valid numbers are between 0 and 15 inclusive. -mno-flush-trap Specifies that the cache cannot be flushed by using a trap. -mflush-func=name Specifies the name of the operating system function to call to flush the cache. The default is _flush_cache, but a function call is only used if a trap is not available. -mno-flush-func Indicates that there is no OS function for flushing the cache. M680x0 Options These are the -m options defined for M680x0 and ColdFire processors. The default settings depend on which architecture was selected when the compiler was configured; the defaults for the most common choices are given below. -march=arch Generate code for a specific M680x0 or ColdFire instruction set architecture. Permissible values of arch for M680x0 architectures are: 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and cpu32. ColdFire architectures are selected according to Freescale’s ISA classification and the permissible values are: isaa, isaaplus, isab and isac. GCC defines a macro _ _mcf=/=arch=/=_ _ whenever it is generating code for a ColdFire target. The arch in this macro is one of the -march arguments given above. When used together, -march and -mtune select code that runs on a family of similar processors but that is optimized for a particular microarchitecture. -mcpu=cpu Generate code for a specific M680x0 or ColdFire processor. The M680x0 /cpu/s are: 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060, 68302, 68332 and cpu32. The ColdFire /cpu/s are given by the table below, which also classifies the CPUs into families: Family : -mcpu arguments 51 : 51 51ac 51ag 51cn 51em 51je 51jf 51jg 51jm 51mm 51qe 51qm 5206 : 5202 5204 5206 5206e : 5206e 5208 : 5207 5208 5211a : 5210a 5211a 5213 : 5211 5212 5213 5216 : 5214 5216 52235 : 52230 52231 52232 52233 52234 52235 5225 : 5224 5225 52259 : 52252 52254 52255 52256 52258 52259 5235 : 5232 5233 5234 5235 523x 5249 : 5249 5250 : 5250 5271 : 5270 5271 5272 : 5272 5275 : 5274 5275 5282 : 5280 5281 5282 528x 53017 : 53011 53012 53013 53014 53015 53016 53017 5307 : 5307 5329 : 5327 5328 5329 532x 5373 : 5372 5373 537x 5407 : 5407 (no term) 5475 : 5470 5471 5472 5473 5474 5475 547x 5480 5481 5482 5483 5484 5485 :: -mcpu=*/cpu/ overrides *-march=*/arch/ if arch is compatible with cpu. Other combinations of *-mcpu and -march are rejected. GCC defines the macro =_ mcf_cpu_=/=cpu=/ when ColdFire target cpu is selected. It also defines = _mcf_family_=/=family=/, where the value of family is given by the table above. -mtune=tune Tune the code for a particular microarchitecture within the constraints set by -march and -mcpu. The M680x0 microarchitectures are: 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and cpu32. The ColdFire microarchitectures are: cfv1, cfv2, cfv3, cfv4 and cfv4e. You can also use -mtune=68020-40 for code that needs to run relatively well on 68020, 68030 and 68040 targets. -mtune=68020-60 is similar but includes 68060 targets as well. These two options select the same tuning decisions as -m68020-40 and -m68020-60 respectively. GCC defines the macros _ _mc=/=arch=/ and =_ _mc=/=arch=/=_ _ when tuning for 680x0 architecture arch. It also defines mc=/=arch=/ unless either *-ansi* or a non-GNU *-std* option is used. If GCC is tuning for a range of architectures, as selected by *-mtune=68020-40* or *-mtune=68020-60*, it defines the macros for every architecture in the range. GCC also defines the macro =_ _m=/=uarch=/=_ _ when tuning for ColdFire microarchitecture uarch, where uarch is one of the arguments given above. -m68000 -mc68000 Generate output for a 68000. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68000-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68000. Use this option for microcontrollers with a 68000 or EC000 core, including the 68008, 68302, 68306, 68307, 68322, 68328 and 68356. -m68010 Generate output for a 68010. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68010-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68010. -m68020 -mc68020 Generate output for a 68020. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68020-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68020. -m68030 Generate output for a 68030. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68030-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68030. -m68040 Generate output for a 68040. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68040-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68040. This option inhibits the use of 68881/68882 instructions that have to be emulated by software on the 68040. Use this option if your 68040 does not have code to emulate those instructions. -m68060 Generate output for a 68060. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68060-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68060. This option inhibits the use of 68020 and 68881/68882 instructions that have to be emulated by software on the 68060. Use this option if your 68060 does not have code to emulate those instructions. -mcpu32 Generate output for a CPU32. This is the default when the compiler is configured for CPU32-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=cpu32. Use this option for microcontrollers with a CPU32 or CPU32+ core, including the 68330, 68331, 68332, 68333, 68334, 68336, 68340, 68341, 68349 and 68360. -m5200 Generate output for a 520X ColdFire CPU. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 520X-based systems. It is equivalent to -mcpu=5206, and is now deprecated in favor of that option. Use this option for microcontroller with a 5200 core, including the MCF5202, MCF5203, MCF5204 and MCF5206. -m5206e Generate output for a 5206e ColdFire CPU. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5206e. -m528x Generate output for a member of the ColdFire 528X family. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=528x. -m5307 Generate output for a ColdFire 5307 CPU. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5307. -m5407 Generate output for a ColdFire 5407 CPU. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5407. -mcfv4e Generate output for a ColdFire V4e family CPU (e.g. 547x/548x). This includes use of hardware floating-point instructions. The option is equivalent to -mcpu=547x, and is now deprecated in favor of that option. -m68020-40 Generate output for a 68040, without using any of the new instructions. This results in code that can run relatively efficiently on either a 68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040. The generated code does use the 68881 instructions that are emulated on the 68040. The option is equivalent to -march=68020 -mtune=68020-40. -m68020-60 Generate output for a 68060, without using any of the new instructions. This results in code that can run relatively efficiently on either a 68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040. The generated code does use the 68881 instructions that are emulated on the 68060. The option is equivalent to -march=68020 -mtune=68020-60. -mhard-float -m68881 Generate floating-point instructions. This is the default for 68020 and above, and for ColdFire devices that have an FPU. It defines the macro _ _HAVE_68881_ _ on M680x0 targets and _ _mcffpu_ _ on ColdFire targets. -msoft-float Do not generate floating-point instructions; use library calls instead. This is the default for 68000, 68010, and 68832 targets. It is also the default for ColdFire devices that have no FPU. -mdiv -mno-div Generate (do not generate) ColdFire hardware divide and remainder instructions. If -march is used without -mcpu, the default is on for ColdFire architectures and off for M680x0 architectures. Otherwise, the default is taken from the target CPU (either the default CPU, or the one specified by -mcpu). For example, the default is off for -mcpu=5206 and on for -mcpu=5206e. GCC defines the macro _ _mcfhwdiv_ _ when this option is enabled. -mshort Consider type int to be 16 bits wide, like short int. Additionally, parameters passed on the stack are also aligned to a 16-bit boundary even on targets whose API mandates promotion to 32-bit. -mno-short Do not consider type int to be 16 bits wide. This is the default. -mnobitfield -mno-bitfield Do not use the bit-field instructions. The -m68000, -mcpu32 and -m5200 options imply -mnobitfield. -mbitfield Do use the bit-field instructions. The -m68020 option implies -mbitfield. This is the default if you use a configuration designed for a 68020. -mrtd Use a different function-calling convention, in which functions that take a fixed number of arguments return with the rtd instruction, which pops their arguments while returning. This saves one instruction in the caller since there is no need to pop the arguments there. This calling convention is incompatible with the one normally used on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call libraries compiled with the Unix compiler. Also, you must provide function prototypes for all functions that take variable numbers of arguments (including printf); otherwise incorrect code is generated for calls to those functions. In addition, seriously incorrect code results if you call a function with too many arguments. (Normally, extra arguments are harmlessly ignored.) The rtd instruction is supported by the 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and CPU32 processors, but not by the 68000 or 5200. The default is -mno-rtd. -malign-int -mno-align-int Control whether GCC aligns int, long, long long, float, double, and long double variables on a 32-bit boundary (-malign-int) or a 16-bit boundary (-mno-align-int). Aligning variables on 32-bit boundaries produces code that runs somewhat faster on processors with 32-bit busses at the expense of more memory. Warning: if you use the -malign-int switch, GCC aligns structures containing the above types differently than most published application binary interface specifications for the m68k. Use the pc-relative addressing mode of the 68000 directly, instead of using a global offset table. At present, this option implies -fpic, allowing at most a 16-bit offset for pc-relative addressing. -fPIC is not presently supported with -mpcrel, though this could be supported for 68020 and higher processors. -mno-strict-align -mstrict-align Do not (do) assume that unaligned memory references are handled by the system. -msep-data Generate code that allows the data segment to be located in a different area of memory from the text segment. This allows for execute-in-place in an environment without virtual memory management. This option implies -fPIC. -mno-sep-data Generate code that assumes that the data segment follows the text segment. This is the default. -mid-shared-library Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID method. This allows for execute-in-place and shared libraries in an environment without virtual memory management. This option implies -fPIC. -mno-id-shared-library Generate code that doesn’t assume ID-based shared libraries are being used. This is the default. -mshared-library-id=n Specifies the identification number of the ID-based shared library being compiled. Specifying a value of 0 generates more compact code; specifying other values forces the allocation of that number to the current library, but is no more space- or time-efficient than omitting this option. -mxgot -mno-xgot When generating position-independent code for ColdFire, generate code that works if the GOT has more than 8192 entries. This code is larger and slower than code generated without this option. On M680x0 processors, this option is not needed; -fPIC suffices. GCC normally uses a single instruction to load values from the GOT. While this is relatively efficient, it only works if the GOT is smaller than about 64k. Anything larger causes the linker to report an error such as: relocation truncated to fit: R_68K_GOT16O foobar If this happens, you should recompile your code with -mxgot. It should then work with very large GOTs. However, code generated with -mxgot is less efficient, since it takes 4 instructions to fetch the value of a global symbol. Note that some linkers, including newer versions of the GNU linker, can create multiple GOTs and sort GOT entries. If you have such a linker, you should only need to use -mxgot when compiling a single object file that accesses more than 8192 GOT entries. Very few do. These options have no effect unless GCC is generating position-independent code. -mlong-jump-table-offsets Use 32-bit offsets in switch tables. The default is to use 16-bit offsets. MCore Options These are the -m options defined for the Motorola M*Core processors. -mhardlit -mno-hardlit Inline constants into the code stream if it can be done in two instructions or less. -mdiv -mno-div Use the divide instruction. (Enabled by default). -mrelax-immediate -mno-relax-immediate Allow arbitrary-sized immediates in bit operations. -mwide-bitfields -mno-wide-bitfields Always treat bit-fields as int-sized. -m4byte-functions -mno-4byte-functions Force all functions to be aligned to a 4-byte boundary. -mcallgraph-data -mno-callgraph-data Emit callgraph information. -mslow-bytes -mno-slow-bytes Prefer word access when reading byte quantities. -mlittle-endian -mbig-endian Generate code for a little-endian target. -m210 -m340 Generate code for the 210 processor. -mno-lsim Assume that runtime support has been provided and so omit the simulator library (libsim.a) from the linker command line. -mstack-increment=size Set the maximum amount for a single stack increment operation. Large values can increase the speed of programs that contain functions that need a large amount of stack space, but they can also trigger a segmentation fault if the stack is extended too much. The default value is 0x1000. MeP Options -mabsdiff Enables the abs instruction, which is the absolute difference between two registers. -mall-opts Enables all the optional instructions—average, multiply, divide, bit operations, leading zero, absolute difference, min/max, clip, and saturation. -maverage Enables the ave instruction, which computes the average of two registers. -mbased=n Variables of size n bytes or smaller are placed in the .based section by default. Based variables use the tp register as a base register, and there is a 128-byte limit to the .based section.
-mbitops
Enables the bit operation instructions—bit test (btstm), set (bsetm), clear (bclrm), invert (bnotm), and test-and-set (tas).
-mc=name
Selects which section constant data is placed in. name may be tiny, near, or far.
-mclip
Enables the clip instruction. Note that -mclip is not useful unless you also provide -mminmax.
-mconfig=name
Selects one of the built-in core configurations. Each MeP chip has one or more modules in it; each module has a core CPU and a variety of coprocessors, optional instructions, and peripherals. The MeP-Integrator tool, not part of GCC, provides these configurations through this option; using this option is the same as using all the corresponding command-line options. The default configuration is default.
-mcop
Enables the coprocessor instructions. By default, this is a 32-bit coprocessor. Note that the coprocessor is normally enabled via the -mconfig= option.
-mcop32
Enables the 32-bit coprocessor’s instructions.
-mcop64
Enables the 64-bit coprocessor’s instructions.
-mivc2
Enables IVC2 scheduling. IVC2 is a 64-bit VLIW coprocessor.
-mdc
Causes constant variables to be placed in the .near section.
-mdiv
Enables the div and divu instructions.
-meb
Generate big-endian code.
-mel
Generate little-endian code.
-mio-volatile
Tells the compiler that any variable marked with the io attribute is to be considered volatile.
-ml
Causes variables to be assigned to the .far section by default.
Enables the leadz (leading zero) instruction.
-mm
Causes variables to be assigned to the .near section by default.
-mminmax
Enables the min and max instructions.
-mmult
Enables the multiplication and multiply-accumulate instructions.
-mno-opts
Disables all the optional instructions enabled by -mall-opts.
-mrepeat
Enables the repeat and erepeat instructions, used for low-overhead looping.
-ms
Causes all variables to default to the .tiny section. Note that there is a 65536-byte limit to this section. Accesses to these variables use the %gp base register.
-msatur
Enables the saturation instructions. Note that the compiler does not currently generate these itself, but this option is included for compatibility with other tools, like as.
-msdram
-msim
-msimnovec
Link the simulator runtime libraries, excluding built-in support for reset and exception vectors and tables.
-mtf
Causes all functions to default to the .far section. Without this option, functions default to the .near section.
-mtiny=n
Variables that are n bytes or smaller are allocated to the .tiny section. These variables use the $gp base register. The default for this option is 4, but note that there’s a 65536-byte limit to the .tiny section. MicroBlaze Options -msoft-float Use software emulation for floating point (default). -mhard-float Use hardware floating-point instructions. -mmemcpy Do not optimize block moves, use memcpy. -mno-clearbss This option is deprecated. Use -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss instead. -mcpu=cpu-type Use features of, and schedule code for, the given CPU. Supported values are in the format v*/X/.*/YY/*.*/Z/, where X is a major version, YY is the minor version, and Z is compatibility code. Example values are v3.00.a, v4.00.b, v5.00.a, v5.00.b, v6.00.a. -mxl-soft-mul Use software multiply emulation (default). -mxl-soft-div Use software emulation for divides (default). -mxl-barrel-shift Use the hardware barrel shifter. -mxl-pattern-compare Use pattern compare instructions. -msmall-divides Use table lookup optimization for small signed integer divisions. -mxl-stack-check This option is deprecated. Use -fstack-check instead. -mxl-gp-opt Use GP-relative .sdata=/.sbss= sections. -mxl-multiply-high Use multiply high instructions for high part of 32x32 multiply. -mxl-float-convert Use hardware floating-point conversion instructions. -mxl-float-sqrt Use hardware floating-point square root instruction. -mbig-endian Generate code for a big-endian target. -mlittle-endian Generate code for a little-endian target. -mxl-reorder Use reorder instructions (swap and byte reversed load/store). -mxl-mode-app-model Select application model app-model. Valid models are executable normal executable (default), uses startup code crt0.o. -mpic-data-is-text-relative Assume that the displacement between the text and data segments is fixed at static link time. This allows data to be referenced by offset from start of text address instead of GOT since PC-relative addressing is not supported. xmdstub for use with Xilinx Microprocessor Debugger (XMD) based software intrusive debug agent called xmdstub. This uses startup file crt1.o and sets the start address of the program to 0x800. bootstrap for applications that are loaded using a bootloader. This model uses startup file crt2.o which does not contain a processor reset vector handler. This is suitable for transferring control on a processor reset to the bootloader rather than the application. novectors for applications that do not require any of the MicroBlaze vectors. This option may be useful for applications running within a monitoring application. This model uses crt3.o as a startup file. Option *-xl-mode-*/app-model/ is a deprecated alias for *-mxl-mode-*/app-model/. MIPS Options -EB Generate big-endian code. -EL Generate little-endian code. This is the default for mips*el--** configurations. -march=arch Generate code that runs on arch, which can be the name of a generic MIPS ISA, or the name of a particular processor. The ISA names are: mips1, mips2, mips3, mips4, mips32, mips32r2, mips32r3, mips32r5, mips32r6, mips64, mips64r2, mips64r3, mips64r5 and mips64r6. The processor names are: 4kc, 4km, 4kp, 4ksc, 4kec, 4kem, 4kep, 4ksd, 5kc, 5kf, 20kc, 24kc, 24kf2_1, 24kf1_1, 24kec, 24kef2_1, 24kef1_1, 34kc, 34kf2_1, 34kf1_1, 34kn, 74kc, 74kf2_1, 74kf1_1, 74kf3_2, 1004kc, 1004kf2_1, 1004kf1_1, i6400, i6500, interaptiv, loongson2e, loongson2f, loongson3a, gs464, gs464e, gs264e, m4k, m14k, m14kc, m14ke, m14kec, m5100, m5101, octeon, octeon+, octeon2, octeon3, orion, p5600, p6600, r2000, r3000, r3900, r4000, r4400, r4600, r4650, r4700, r5900, r6000, r8000, rm7000, rm9000, r10000, r12000, r14000, r16000, sb1, sr71000, vr4100, vr4111, vr4120, vr4130, vr4300, vr5000, vr5400, vr5500, xlr and xlp. The special value from-abi selects the most compatible architecture for the selected ABI (that is, mips1 for 32-bit ABIs and mips3 for 64-bit ABIs). The native Linux/GNU toolchain also supports the value native, which selects the best architecture option for the host processor. -march=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor. In processor names, a final 000 can be abbreviated as k (for example, -march=r2k). Prefixes are optional, and vr may be written r. Names of the form n/*f2_1* refer to processors with FPUs clocked at half the rate of the core, names of the form /n/*f1_1* refer to processors with FPUs clocked at the same rate as the core, and names of the form /n/*f3_2* refer to processors with FPUs clocked a ratio of 3:2 with respect to the core. For compatibility reasons, /n/*f* is accepted as a synonym for /n/*f2_1* while /n/*x* and /b/*fx* are accepted as synonyms for /n/*f1_1*. GCC defines two macros based on the value of this option. The first is _MIPS_ARCH, which gives the name of target architecture, as a string. The second has the form _MIPS_ARCH_=/=foo, where foo is the capitalized value of _MIPS_ARCH. For example, -march=r2000 sets _MIPS_ARCH to "r2000" and defines the macro _MIPS_ARCH_R2000. Note that the _MIPS_ARCH macro uses the processor names given above. In other words, it has the full prefix and does not abbreviate 000 as k. In the case of from-abi, the macro names the resolved architecture (either "mips1" or "mips3"). It names the default architecture when no -march option is given. -mtune=arch Optimize for arch. Among other things, this option controls the way instructions are scheduled, and the perceived cost of arithmetic operations. The list of arch values is the same as for -march. When this option is not used, GCC optimizes for the processor specified by -march. By using -march and -mtune together, it is possible to generate code that runs on a family of processors, but optimize the code for one particular member of that family. -mtune defines the macros _MIPS_TUNE and =_MIPS_TUNE_=/=foo=/, which work in the same way as the -march ones described above. -mips1 Equivalent to -march=mips1. -mips2 Equivalent to -march=mips2. -mips3 Equivalent to -march=mips3. -mips4 Equivalent to -march=mips4. -mips32 Equivalent to -march=mips32. -mips32r3 Equivalent to -march=mips32r3. -mips32r5 Equivalent to -march=mips32r5. -mips32r6 Equivalent to -march=mips32r6. -mips64 Equivalent to -march=mips64. -mips64r2 Equivalent to -march=mips64r2. -mips64r3 Equivalent to -march=mips64r3. -mips64r5 Equivalent to -march=mips64r5. -mips64r6 Equivalent to -march=mips64r6. -mips16 -mno-mips16 Generate (do not generate) MIPS16 code. If GCC is targeting a MIPS32 or MIPS64 architecture, it makes use of the MIPS16e ASE. MIPS16 code generation can also be controlled on a per-function basis by means of mips16 and nomips16 attributes. -mflip-mips16 Generate MIPS16 code on alternating functions. This option is provided for regression testing of mixed MIPS16/non-MIPS16 code generation, and is not intended for ordinary use in compiling user code. -minterlink-compressed -mno-interlink-compressed Require (do not require) that code using the standard (uncompressed) MIPS ISA be link-compatible with MIPS16 and microMIPS code, and vice versa. For example, code using the standard ISA encoding cannot jump directly to MIPS16 or microMIPS code; it must either use a call or an indirect jump. -minterlink-compressed therefore disables direct jumps unless GCC knows that the target of the jump is not compressed. -minterlink-mips16 -mno-interlink-mips16 Aliases of -minterlink-compressed and -mno-interlink-compressed. These options predate the microMIPS ASE and are retained for backwards compatibility. -mabi=32 -mabi=o64 -mabi=n32 -mabi=64 -mabi=eabi Generate code for the given ABI. Note that the EABI has a 32-bit and a 64-bit variant. GCC normally generates 64-bit code when you select a 64-bit architecture, but you can use -mgp32 to get 32-bit code instead. For information about the O64 ABI, see <*http://gcc.gnu.org/projects/mipso64-abi.html*>. GCC supports a variant of the o32 ABI in which floating-point registers are 64 rather than 32 bits wide. You can select this combination with -mabi=32 -mfp64. This ABI relies on the mthc1 and mfhc1 instructions and is therefore only supported for MIPS32R2, MIPS32R3 and MIPS32R5 processors. The register assignments for arguments and return values remain the same, but each scalar value is passed in a single 64-bit register rather than a pair of 32-bit registers. For example, scalar floating-point values are returned in $f0 only, not a $f0=*/*=$f1 pair. The set of call-saved registers also remains the same in that the even-numbered double-precision registers are saved. Two additional variants of the o32 ABI are supported to enable a transition from 32-bit to 64-bit registers. These are FPXX (-mfpxx) and FP64A (-mfp64 -mno-odd-spreg). The FPXX extension mandates that all code must execute correctly when run using 32-bit or 64-bit registers. The code can be interlinked with either FP32 or FP64, but not both. The FP64A extension is similar to the FP64 extension but forbids the use of odd-numbered single-precision registers. This can be used in conjunction with the FRE mode of FPUs in MIPS32R5 processors and allows both FP32 and FP64A code to interlink and run in the same process without changing FPU modes.

-mabicalls
-mno-abicalls

Generate (do not generate) code that is suitable for SVR4-style dynamic objects. -mabicalls is the default for SVR4-based systems.

-mshared
-mno-shared

Generate (do not generate) code that is fully position-independent, and that can therefore be linked into shared libraries. This option only affects -mabicalls. All -mabicalls code has traditionally been position-independent, regardless of options like -fPIC and -fpic. However, as an extension, the GNU toolchain allows executables to use absolute accesses for locally-binding symbols. It can also use shorter GP initialization sequences and generate direct calls to locally-defined functions. This mode is selected by -mno-shared. -mno-shared depends on binutils 2.16 or higher and generates objects that can only be linked by the GNU linker. However, the option does not affect the ABI of the final executable; it only affects the ABI of relocatable objects. Using -mno-shared generally makes executables both smaller and quicker. -mshared is the default.

-mplt
-mno-plt

Assume (do not assume) that the static and dynamic linkers support PLTs and copy relocations. This option only affects -mno-shared -mabicalls. For the n64 ABI, this option has no effect without -msym32. You can make -mplt the default by configuring GCC with –with-mips-plt. The default is -mno-plt otherwise.

-mxgot
-mno-xgot

Lift (do not lift) the usual restrictions on the size of the global offset table. GCC normally uses a single instruction to load values from the GOT. While this is relatively efficient, it only works if the GOT is smaller than about 64k. Anything larger causes the linker to report an error such as: relocation truncated to fit: R_MIPS_GOT16 foobar If this happens, you should recompile your code with -mxgot. This works with very large GOTs, although the code is also less efficient, since it takes three instructions to fetch the value of a global symbol. Note that some linkers can create multiple GOTs. If you have such a linker, you should only need to use -mxgot when a single object file accesses more than 64k’s worth of GOT entries. Very few do. These options have no effect unless GCC is generating position independent code.

-mgp32
Assume that general-purpose registers are 32 bits wide.
-mgp64
Assume that general-purpose registers are 64 bits wide.
-mfp32
Assume that floating-point registers are 32 bits wide.
-mfp64
Assume that floating-point registers are 64 bits wide.
-mfpxx
Do not assume the width of floating-point registers.
-mhard-float
Use floating-point coprocessor instructions.
-msoft-float
Do not use floating-point coprocessor instructions. Implement floating-point calculations using library calls instead.
-mno-float
Equivalent to -msoft-float, but additionally asserts that the program being compiled does not perform any floating-point operations. This option is presently supported only by some bare-metal MIPS configurations, where it may select a special set of libraries that lack all floating-point support (including, for example, the floating-point printf formats). If code compiled with -mno-float accidentally contains floating-point operations, it is likely to suffer a link-time or run-time failure.
-msingle-float
Assume that the floating-point coprocessor only supports single-precision operations.
-mdouble-float
Assume that the floating-point coprocessor supports double-precision operations. This is the default.
-modd-spreg
-mno-odd-spreg

Enable the use of odd-numbered single-precision floating-point registers for the o32 ABI. This is the default for processors that are known to support these registers. When using the o32 FPXX ABI, -mno-odd-spreg is set by default.

-mabs=2008
-mabs=legacy

These options control the treatment of the special not-a-number (NaN) IEEE 754 floating-point data with the =abs.=/=fmt=/ and =neg.=/=fmt=/ machine instructions. By default or when -mabs=legacy is used the legacy treatment is selected. In this case these instructions are considered arithmetic and avoided where correct operation is required and the input operand might be a NaN. A longer sequence of instructions that manipulate the sign bit of floating-point datum manually is used instead unless the -ffinite-math-only option has also been specified. The -mabs=2008 option selects the IEEE 754-2008 treatment. In this case these instructions are considered non-arithmetic and therefore operating correctly in all cases, including in particular where the input operand is a NaN. These instructions are therefore always used for the respective operations.

-mnan=2008
-mnan=legacy

These options control the encoding of the special not-a-number (NaN) IEEE 754 floating-point data. The -mnan=legacy option selects the legacy encoding. In this case quiet NaNs (qNaNs) are denoted by the first bit of their trailing significand field being 0, whereas signaling NaNs (sNaNs) are denoted by the first bit of their trailing significand field being 1. The -mnan=2008 option selects the IEEE 754-2008 encoding. In this case qNaNs are denoted by the first bit of their trailing significand field being 1, whereas sNaNs are denoted by the first bit of their trailing significand field being 0. The default is -mnan=legacy unless GCC has been configured with –with-nan=2008.

-mllsc
-mno-llsc

Use (do not use) ll, sc, and sync instructions to implement atomic memory built-in functions. When neither option is specified, GCC uses the instructions if the target architecture supports them. -mllsc is useful if the runtime environment can emulate the instructions and -mno-llsc can be useful when compiling for nonstandard ISAs. You can make either option the default by configuring GCC with –with-llsc and –without-llsc respectively. –with-llsc is the default for some configurations; see the installation documentation for details.

-mdsp
-mno-dsp

Use (do not use) revision 1 of the MIPS DSP ASE. This option defines the preprocessor macro _ _mips_dsp. It also defines _ _mips_dsp_rev to 1.

-mdspr2
-mno-dspr2

Use (do not use) revision 2 of the MIPS DSP ASE. This option defines the preprocessor macros _ _mips_dsp and _ _mips_dspr2. It also defines _ _mips_dsp_rev to 2.

-msmartmips
-mno-smartmips

Use (do not use) the MIPS SmartMIPS ASE.

-mpaired-single
-mno-paired-single

Use (do not use) paired-single floating-point instructions. This option requires hardware floating-point support to be enabled.

-mdmx
-mno-mdmx

Use (do not use) MIPS Digital Media Extension instructions. This option can only be used when generating 64-bit code and requires hardware floating-point support to be enabled.

-mips3d
-mno-mips3d

Use (do not use) the MIPS-3D ASE. The option -mips3d implies -mpaired-single.

-mmicromips
-mno-micromips

Generate (do not generate) microMIPS code. MicroMIPS code generation can also be controlled on a per-function basis by means of micromips and nomicromips attributes.

-mmt
-mno-mt

Use (do not use) MT Multithreading instructions.

-mmcu
-mno-mcu

Use (do not use) the MIPS MCU ASE instructions.

-meva
-mno-eva

Use (do not use) the MIPS Enhanced Virtual Addressing instructions.

-mvirt
-mno-virt

Use (do not use) the MIPS Virtualization (VZ) instructions.

-mxpa
-mno-xpa

Use (do not use) the MIPS eXtended Physical Address (XPA) instructions.

-mcrc
-mno-crc

Use (do not use) the MIPS Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) instructions.

-mginv
-mno-ginv

Use (do not use) the MIPS Global INValidate (GINV) instructions.

-mloongson-mmi
-mno-loongson-mmi

Use (do not use) the MIPS Loongson MultiMedia extensions Instructions (MMI).

-mloongson-ext
-mno-loongson-ext

Use (do not use) the MIPS Loongson EXTensions (EXT) instructions.

-mloongson-ext2
-mno-loongson-ext2

Use (do not use) the MIPS Loongson EXTensions r2 (EXT2) instructions.

-mlong64
Force long types to be 64 bits wide. See -mlong32 for an explanation of the default and the way that the pointer size is determined.
-mlong32
Force long, int, and pointer types to be 32 bits wide. The default size of =int=s, =long=s and pointers depends on the ABI. All the supported ABIs use 32-bit =int=s. The n64 ABI uses 64-bit =long=s, as does the 64-bit EABI; the others use 32-bit =long=s. Pointers are the same size as =long=s, or the same size as integer registers, whichever is smaller.
-msym32
-mno-sym32

Assume (do not assume) that all symbols have 32-bit values, regardless of the selected ABI. This option is useful in combination with -mabi=64 and -mno-abicalls because it allows GCC to generate shorter and faster references to symbolic addresses.

-G num
Put definitions of externally-visible data in a small data section if that data is no bigger than num bytes. GCC can then generate more efficient accesses to the data; see -mgpopt for details. The default -G option depends on the configuration.
-mlocal-sdata
-mno-local-sdata

Extend (do not extend) the -G behavior to local data too, such as to static variables in C. -mlocal-sdata is the default for all configurations. If the linker complains that an application is using too much small data, you might want to try rebuilding the less performance-critical parts with -mno-local-sdata. You might also want to build large libraries with -mno-local-sdata, so that the libraries leave more room for the main program.

-mextern-sdata
-mno-extern-sdata

Assume (do not assume) that externally-defined data is in a small data section if the size of that data is within the -G limit. -mextern-sdata is the default for all configurations. If you compile a module Mod with -mextern-sdata -G num -mgpopt, and Mod references a variable Var that is no bigger than num bytes, you must make sure that Var is placed in a small data section. If Var is defined by another module, you must either compile that module with a high-enough -G setting or attach a section attribute to Var’s definition. If Var is common, you must link the application with a high-enough -G setting. The easiest way of satisfying these restrictions is to compile and link every module with the same -G option. However, you may wish to build a library that supports several different small data limits. You can do this by compiling the library with the highest supported -G setting and additionally using -mno-extern-sdata to stop the library from making assumptions about externally-defined data.

-mgpopt
-mno-gpopt

Use (do not use) GP-relative accesses for symbols that are known to be in a small data section; see -G, -mlocal-sdata and -mextern-sdata. -mgpopt is the default for all configurations. -mno-gpopt is useful for cases where the $gp register might not hold the value of _gp. For example, if the code is part of a library that might be used in a boot monitor, programs that call boot monitor routines pass an unknown value in $gp. (In such situations, the boot monitor itself is usually compiled with -G0.) -mno-gpopt implies -mno-local-sdata and -mno-extern-sdata.

-membedded-data
-mno-embedded-data

Allocate variables to the read-only data section first if possible, then next in the small data section if possible, otherwise in data. This gives slightly slower code than the default, but reduces the amount of RAM required when executing, and thus may be preferred for some embedded systems.

-muninit-const-in-rodata
-mno-uninit-const-in-rodata

Put uninitialized const variables in the read-only data section. This option is only meaningful in conjunction with -membedded-data.

Specify whether GCC may generate code that reads from executable sections. There are three possible settings:
Instructions may freely access executable sections. This is the default setting.
MIPS16 PC-relative load instructions can access executable sections, but other instructions must not do so. This option is useful on 4KSc and 4KSd processors when the code TLBs have the Read Inhibit bit set. It is also useful on processors that can be configured to have a dual instruction/data SRAM interface and that, like the M4K, automatically redirect PC-relative loads to the instruction RAM.
Instructions must not access executable sections. This option can be useful on targets that are configured to have a dual instruction/data SRAM interface but that (unlike the M4K) do not automatically redirect PC-relative loads to the instruction RAM.

Enable (disable) use of the %hi() and %lo() assembler relocation operators. This option has been superseded by -mexplicit-relocs but is retained for backwards compatibility.

-mexplicit-relocs
-mno-explicit-relocs

Use (do not use) assembler relocation operators when dealing with symbolic addresses. The alternative, selected by -mno-explicit-relocs, is to use assembler macros instead. -mexplicit-relocs is the default if GCC was configured to use an assembler that supports relocation operators.

-mcheck-zero-division
-mno-check-zero-division

Trap (do not trap) on integer division by zero. The default is -mcheck-zero-division.

-mdivide-traps
-mdivide-breaks

MIPS systems check for division by zero by generating either a conditional trap or a break instruction. Using traps results in smaller code, but is only supported on MIPS II and later. Also, some versions of the Linux kernel have a bug that prevents trap from generating the proper signal (SIGFPE). Use -mdivide-traps to allow conditional traps on architectures that support them and -mdivide-breaks to force the use of breaks. The default is usually -mdivide-traps, but this can be overridden at configure time using –with-divide=breaks. Divide-by-zero checks can be completely disabled using -mno-check-zero-division.

Enable (disable) an optimization that pairs consecutive load or store instructions to enable load/store bonding. This option is enabled by default but only takes effect when the selected architecture is known to support bonding.

-mmemcpy
-mno-memcpy

Force (do not force) the use of memcpy for non-trivial block moves. The default is -mno-memcpy, which allows GCC to inline most constant-sized copies.

-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls

Disable (do not disable) use of the jal instruction. Calling functions using jal is more efficient but requires the caller and callee to be in the same 256 megabyte segment. This option has no effect on abicalls code. The default is -mno-long-calls.

Enable (disable) use of the mad, madu and mul instructions, as provided by the R4650 ISA.

Enable (disable) use of the madd and msub integer instructions. The default is -mimadd on architectures that support madd and msub except for the 74k architecture where it was found to generate slower code.

Enable (disable) use of the floating-point multiply-accumulate instructions, when they are available. The default is -mfused-madd. On the R8000 CPU when multiply-accumulate instructions are used, the intermediate product is calculated to infinite precision and is not subject to the FCSR Flush to Zero bit. This may be undesirable in some circumstances. On other processors the result is numerically identical to the equivalent computation using separate multiply, add, subtract and negate instructions.

-nocpp
Tell the MIPS assembler to not run its preprocessor over user assembler files (with a .s suffix) when assembling them.
-mfix-24k
-mno-fix-24k

Work around the 24K E48 (lost data on stores during refill) errata. The workarounds are implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC.

-mfix-r4000
-mno-fix-r4000

Work around certain R4000 CPU errata:

• A double-word or a variable shift may give an incorrect result if executed immediately after starting an integer division.
• A double-word or a variable shift may give an incorrect result if executed while an integer multiplication is in progress.
• An integer division may give an incorrect result if started in a delay slot of a taken branch or a jump.
nil
-mfix-r4400
-mno-fix-r4400

Work around certain R4400 CPU errata:

• A double-word or a variable shift may give an incorrect result if executed immediately after starting an integer division.
nil
-mfix-r10000
-mno-fix-r10000

Work around certain R10000 errata:

• ll=/=sc sequences may not behave atomically on revisions prior to 3.0. They may deadlock on revisions 2.6 and earlier.

This option can only be used if the target architecture supports branch-likely instructions. -mfix-r10000 is the default when -march=r10000 is used; -mno-fix-r10000 is the default otherwise.

-mfix-r5900
-mno-fix-r5900

Do not attempt to schedule the preceding instruction into the delay slot of a branch instruction placed at the end of a short loop of six instructions or fewer and always schedule a nop instruction there instead. The short loop bug under certain conditions causes loops to execute only once or twice, due to a hardware bug in the R5900 chip. The workaround is implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC.

-mfix-rm7000
-mno-fix-rm7000

Work around the RM7000 dmult=/=dmultu errata. The workarounds are implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC.

-mfix-vr4120
-mno-fix-vr4120

Work around certain VR4120 errata:

• dmultu does not always produce the correct result.
• div and ddiv do not always produce the correct result if one of the operands is negative.

The workarounds for the division errata rely on special functions in libgcc.a. At present, these functions are only provided by the mips64vr*-elf configurations. Other VR4120 errata require a NOP to be inserted between certain pairs of instructions. These errata are handled by the assembler, not by GCC itself.

-mfix-vr4130
Work around the VR4130 mflo=/=mfhi errata. The workarounds are implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC, although GCC avoids using mflo and mfhi if the VR4130 macc, macchi, dmacc and dmacchi instructions are available instead.
-mfix-sb1
-mno-fix-sb1

Work around certain SB-1 CPU core errata. (This flag currently works around the SB-1 revision 2 F1 and F2 floating-point errata.)

-mr10k-cache-barrier=setting

Specify whether GCC should insert cache barriers to avoid the side effects of speculation on R10K processors. In common with many processors, the R10K tries to predict the outcome of a conditional branch and speculatively executes instructions from the taken branch. It later aborts these instructions if the predicted outcome is wrong. However, on the R10K, even aborted instructions can have side effects. This problem only affects kernel stores and, depending on the system, kernel loads. As an example, a speculatively-executed store may load the target memory into cache and mark the cache line as dirty, even if the store itself is later aborted. If a DMA operation writes to the same area of memory before the dirty line is flushed, the cached data overwrites the DMA-ed data. See the R10K processor manual for a full description, including other potential problems. One workaround is to insert cache barrier instructions before every memory access that might be speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if aborted. *-mr10k-cache-barrier=*/setting/ controls GCC’s implementation of this workaround. It assumes that aborted accesses to any byte in the following regions does not have side effects:

1. the memory occupied by the current function’s stack frame;
2. the memory occupied by an incoming stack argument;

It is the kernel’s responsibility to ensure that speculative accesses to these regions are indeed safe. If the input program contains a function declaration such as: void foo (void); then the implementation of foo must allow j foo and jal foo to be executed speculatively. GCC honors this restriction for functions it compiles itself. It expects non-GCC functions (such as hand-written assembly code) to do the same. The option has three forms:

Insert a cache barrier before a load or store that might be speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if aborted.
-mr10k-cache-barrier=store
Insert a cache barrier before a store that might be speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if aborted.
-mr10k-cache-barrier=none
Disable the insertion of cache barriers. This is the default setting.
-mflush-func=func
-mno-flush-func

Specifies the function to call to flush the I and D caches, or to not call any such function. If called, the function must take the same arguments as the common _flush_func, that is, the address of the memory range for which the cache is being flushed, the size of the memory range, and the number 3 (to flush both caches). The default depends on the target GCC was configured for, but commonly is either _flush_func or _ _cpu_flush.

mbranch-cost=num
Set the cost of branches to roughly num simple instructions. This cost is only a heuristic and is not guaranteed to produce consistent results across releases. A zero cost redundantly selects the default, which is based on the -mtune setting.
-mbranch-likely
-mno-branch-likely

Enable or disable use of Branch Likely instructions, regardless of the default for the selected architecture. By default, Branch Likely instructions may be generated if they are supported by the selected architecture. An exception is for the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures and processors that implement those architectures; for those, Branch Likely instructions are not be generated by default because the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures specifically deprecate their use.

-mcompact-branches=never
-mcompact-branches=optimal
-mcompact-branches=always

These options control which form of branches will be generated. The default is -mcompact-branches=optimal. The -mcompact-branches=never option ensures that compact branch instructions will never be generated. The -mcompact-branches=always option ensures that a compact branch instruction will be generated if available. If a compact branch instruction is not available, a delay slot form of the branch will be used instead. This option is supported from MIPS Release 6 onwards. The -mcompact-branches=optimal option will cause a delay slot branch to be used if one is available in the current ISA and the delay slot is successfully filled. If the delay slot is not filled, a compact branch will be chosen if one is available.

-mfp-exceptions
-mno-fp-exceptions

Specifies whether FP exceptions are enabled. This affects how FP instructions are scheduled for some processors. The default is that FP exceptions are enabled. For instance, on the SB-1, if FP exceptions are disabled, and we are emitting 64-bit code, then we can use both FP pipes. Otherwise, we can only use one FP pipe.

-mvr4130-align
-mno-vr4130-align

The VR4130 pipeline is two-way superscalar, but can only issue two instructions together if the first one is 8-byte aligned. When this option is enabled, GCC aligns pairs of instructions that it thinks should execute in parallel. This option only has an effect when optimizing for the VR4130. It normally makes code faster, but at the expense of making it bigger. It is enabled by default at optimization level -O3.

-msynci
-mno-synci

Enable (disable) generation of synci instructions on architectures that support it. The synci instructions (if enabled) are generated when _ _builtin_ _ _clear_cache is compiled. This option defaults to -mno-synci, but the default can be overridden by configuring GCC with –with-synci. When compiling code for single processor systems, it is generally safe to use synci. However, on many multi-core (SMP) systems, it does not invalidate the instruction caches on all cores and may lead to undefined behavior.

-mrelax-pic-calls
-mno-relax-pic-calls

Try to turn PIC calls that are normally dispatched via register $25 into direct calls. This is only possible if the linker can resolve the destination at link time and if the destination is within range for a direct call. -mrelax-pic-calls is the default if GCC was configured to use an assembler and a linker that support the .reloc assembly directive and -mexplicit-relocs is in effect. With -mno-explicit-relocs, this optimization can be performed by the assembler and the linker alone without help from the compiler. -mmcount-ra-address -mno-mcount-ra-address Emit (do not emit) code that allows _mcount to modify the calling function’s return address. When enabled, this option extends the usual _mcount interface with a new ra-address parameter, which has type intptr_t * and is passed in register $12. _mcount can then modify the return address by doing both of the following:

• Returning the new address in register $31. • Storing the new address in =*=/=ra-address=/, if ra-address is nonnull. The default is -mno-mcount-ra-address. -mframe-header-opt -mno-frame-header-opt Enable (disable) frame header optimization in the o32 ABI. When using the o32 ABI, calling functions will allocate 16 bytes on the stack for the called function to write out register arguments. When enabled, this optimization will suppress the allocation of the frame header if it can be determined that it is unused. This optimization is off by default at all optimization levels. -mlxc1-sxc1 -mno-lxc1-sxc1 When applicable, enable (disable) the generation of lwxc1, swxc1, ldxc1, sdxc1 instructions. Enabled by default. -mmadd4 -mno-madd4 When applicable, enable (disable) the generation of 4-operand madd.s, madd.d and related instructions. Enabled by default. MMIX Options These options are defined for the MMIX: -mlibfuncs -mno-libfuncs Specify that intrinsic library functions are being compiled, passing all values in registers, no matter the size. -mepsilon -mno-epsilon Generate floating-point comparison instructions that compare with respect to the rE epsilon register. -mabi=mmixware -mabi=gnu Generate code that passes function parameters and return values that (in the called function) are seen as registers $0 and up, as opposed to the GNU ABI which uses global registers \$231 and up.

-mzero-extend
-mno-zero-extend

When reading data from memory in sizes shorter than 64 bits, use (do not use) zero-extending load instructions by default, rather than sign-extending ones.

-mknuthdiv
-mno-knuthdiv

Make the result of a division yielding a remainder have the same sign as the divisor. With the default, -mno-knuthdiv, the sign of the remainder follows the sign of the dividend. Both methods are arithmetically valid, the latter being almost exclusively used.

-mtoplevel-symbols
-mno-toplevel-symbols

Prepend (do not prepend) a : to all global symbols, so the assembly code can be used with the PREFIX assembly directive.

-melf
Generate an executable in the ELF format, rather than the default mmo format used by the mmix simulator.
-mbranch-predict
-mno-branch-predict

Use (do not use) the probable-branch instructions, when static branch prediction indicates a probable branch.

Generate (do not generate) code that uses base addresses. Using a base address automatically generates a request (handled by the assembler and the linker) for a constant to be set up in a global register. The register is used for one or more base address requests within the range 0 to 255 from the value held in the register. The generally leads to short and fast code, but the number of different data items that can be addressed is limited. This means that a program that uses lots of static data may require -mno-base-addresses.

-msingle-exit
-mno-single-exit

Force (do not force) generated code to have a single exit point in each function.

MN10300 Options

These -m options are defined for Matsushita MN10300 architectures:

-mmult-bug
Generate code to avoid bugs in the multiply instructions for the MN10300 processors. This is the default.
-mno-mult-bug
Do not generate code to avoid bugs in the multiply instructions for the MN10300 processors.
-mam33
Generate code using features specific to the AM33 processor.
-mno-am33
Do not generate code using features specific to the AM33 processor. This is the default.
-mam33-2
Generate code using features specific to the AM33/2.0 processor.
-mam34
Generate code using features specific to the AM34 processor.
-mtune=cpu-type
Use the timing characteristics of the indicated CPU type when scheduling instructions. This does not change the targeted processor type. The CPU type must be one of mn10300, am33, am33-2 or am34.
-mreturn-pointer-on-d0
When generating a function that returns a pointer, return the pointer in both a0 and d0. Otherwise, the pointer is returned only in a0, and attempts to call such functions without a prototype result in errors. Note that this option is on by default; use -mno-return-pointer-on-d0 to disable it.
-mno-crt0
Do not link in the C run-time initialization object file.
-mrelax
Indicate to the linker that it should perform a relaxation optimization pass to shorten branches, calls and absolute memory addresses. This option only has an effect when used on the command line for the final link step. This option makes symbolic debugging impossible.
-mliw
Allow the compiler to generate Long Instruction Word instructions if the target is the AM33 or later. This is the default. This option defines the preprocessor macro _ _LIW_ _.
-mno-liw
Do not allow the compiler to generate Long Instruction Word instructions. This option defines the preprocessor macro _ _NO_LIW_ _.
-msetlb
Allow the compiler to generate the SETLB and Lcc instructions if the target is the AM33 or later. This is the default. This option defines the preprocessor macro _ _SETLB_ _.
-mno-setlb
Do not allow the compiler to generate SETLB or Lcc instructions. This option defines the preprocessor macro _ _NO_SETLB_ _.

Moxie Options

-meb
Generate big-endian code. This is the default for moxie--** configurations.
-mel
Generate little-endian code.
-mmul.x
Generate mul.x and umul.x instructions. This is the default for moxiebox--** configurations.
-mno-crt0
Do not link in the C run-time initialization object file.

MSP430 Options

These options are defined for the MSP430:

-masm-hex
Force assembly output to always use hex constants. Normally such constants are signed decimals, but this option is available for testsuite and/or aesthetic purposes.
-mmcu=

Select the MCU to target. This is used to create a C preprocessor symbol based upon the MCU name, converted to upper case and pre- and post-fixed with _ _. This in turn is used by the msp430.h header file to select an MCU-specific supplementary header file. The option also sets the ISA to use. If the MCU name is one that is known to only support the 430 ISA then that is selected, otherwise the 430X ISA is selected. A generic MCU name of msp430 can also be used to select the 430 ISA. Similarly the generic msp430x MCU name selects the 430X ISA. In addition an MCU-specific linker script is added to the linker command line. The script’s name is the name of the MCU with .ld appended. Thus specifying -mmcu=xxx on the gcc command line defines the C preprocessor symbol _ _XXX_ _ and cause the linker to search for a script called xxx.ld. The ISA and hardware multiply supported for the different MCUs is hard-coded into GCC. However, an external devices.csv file can be used to extend device support beyond those that have been hard-coded. GCC searches for the devices.csv file using the following methods in the given precedence order, where the first method takes precendence over the second which takes precedence over the third.

Include path specified with “-I” and “-L”
devices.csv will be searched for in each of the directories specified by include paths and linker library search paths.
(no term)
Path specified by the environment variable MSP430_GCC_INCLUDE_DIR :: Define the value of the global environment variable MSP430_GCC_INCLUDE_DIR to the full path to the directory containing devices.csv, and GCC will search this directory for devices.csv. If devices.csv is found, this directory will also be registered as an include path, and linker library path. Header files and linker scripts in this directory can therefore be used without manually specifying -I and -L on the command line.
The msp430-elf{,bare}/include/devices directory
Finally, GCC will examine msp430-elf{,bare}/include/devices from the toolchain root directory. This directory does not exist in a default installation, but if the user has created it and copied devices.csv there, then the MCU data will be read. As above, this directory will also be registered as an include path, and linker library path.

If none of the above search methods find devices.csv, then the hard-coded MCU data is used.

-mwarn-mcu
-mno-warn-mcu

This option enables or disables warnings about conflicts between the MCU name specified by the -mmcu option and the ISA set by the -mcpu option and/or the hardware multiply support set by the -mhwmult option. It also toggles warnings about unrecognized MCU names. This option is on by default.

-mcpu=
Specifies the ISA to use. Accepted values are msp430, msp430x and msp430xv2. This option is deprecated. The -mmcu= option should be used to select the ISA.
-msim
Link to the simulator runtime libraries and linker script. Overrides any scripts that would be selected by the -mmcu= option.
-mlarge
Use large-model addressing (20-bit pointers, 20-bit size_t).
-msmall
Use small-model addressing (16-bit pointers, 16-bit size_t).
-mrelax
This option is passed to the assembler and linker, and allows the linker to perform certain optimizations that cannot be done until the final link.
mhwmult=
Describes the type of hardware multiply supported by the target. Accepted values are none for no hardware multiply, 16bit for the original 16-bit-only multiply supported by early MCUs. 32bit for the 16/32-bit multiply supported by later MCUs and f5series for the 16/32-bit multiply supported by F5-series MCUs. A value of auto can also be given. This tells GCC to deduce the hardware multiply support based upon the MCU name provided by the -mmcu option. If no -mmcu option is specified or if the MCU name is not recognized then no hardware multiply support is assumed. auto is the default setting. Hardware multiplies are normally performed by calling a library routine. This saves space in the generated code. When compiling at -O3 or higher however the hardware multiplier is invoked inline. This makes for bigger, but faster code. The hardware multiply routines disable interrupts whilst running and restore the previous interrupt state when they finish. This makes them safe to use inside interrupt handlers as well as in normal code.
-minrt
Enable the use of a minimum runtime environment - no static initializers or constructors. This is intended for memory-constrained devices. The compiler includes special symbols in some objects that tell the linker and runtime which code fragments are required.
-mtiny-printf
Enable reduced code size printf and puts library functions. The tiny implementations of these functions are not reentrant, so must be used with caution in multi-threaded applications. Support for streams has been removed and the string to be printed will always be sent to stdout via the write syscall. The string is not buffered before it is sent to write. This option requires Newlib Nano IO, so GCC must be configured with –enable-newlib-nano-formatted-io.
-mmax-inline-shift=
This option takes an integer between 0 and 64 inclusive, and sets the maximum number of inline shift instructions which should be emitted to perform a shift operation by a constant amount. When this value needs to be exceeded, an mspabi helper function is used instead. The default value is 4. This only affects cases where a shift by multiple positions cannot be completed with a single instruction (e.g. all shifts >1 on the 430 ISA). Shifts of a 32-bit value are at least twice as costly, so the value passed for this option is divided by 2 and the resulting value used instead.
-mcode-region=
-mdata-region=

These options tell the compiler where to place functions and data that do not have one of the lower, upper, either or section attributes. Possible values are lower, upper, either or any. The first three behave like the corresponding attribute. The fourth possible value - any - is the default. It leaves placement entirely up to the linker script and how it assigns the standard sections (.text, .data, etc) to the memory regions.

-msilicon-errata=
This option passes on a request to assembler to enable the fixes for the named silicon errata.
-msilicon-errata-warn=
This option passes on a request to the assembler to enable warning messages when a silicon errata might need to be applied.
-mwarn-devices-csv
-mno-warn-devices-csv

Warn if devices.csv is not found or there are problem parsing it (default: on).

NDS32 Options

These options are defined for NDS32 implementations:

-mbig-endian
Generate code in big-endian mode.
-mlittle-endian
Generate code in little-endian mode.
-mreduced-regs
Use reduced-set registers for register allocation.
-mfull-regs
Use full-set registers for register allocation.
-mcmov
Generate conditional move instructions.
-mno-cmov
Do not generate conditional move instructions.
-mext-perf
Generate performance extension instructions.
-mno-ext-perf
Do not generate performance extension instructions.
-mext-perf2
Generate performance extension 2 instructions.
-mno-ext-perf2
Do not generate performance extension 2 instructions.
-mext-string
Generate string extension instructions.
-mno-ext-string
Do not generate string extension instructions.
-mv3push
Generate v3 push25/pop25 instructions.
-mno-v3push
Do not generate v3 push25/pop25 instructions.
-m16-bit
Generate 16-bit instructions.
-mno-16-bit
Do not generate 16-bit instructions.
-misr-vector-size=num
Specify the size of each interrupt vector, which must be 4 or 16.
-mcache-block-size=num
Specify the size of each cache block, which must be a power of 2 between 4 and 512.
-march=arch
Specify the name of the target architecture.
-mcmodel=code-model
Set the code model to one of
small
All the data and read-only data segments must be within 512KB addressing space. The text segment must be within 16MB addressing space.
medium
The data segment must be within 512KB while the read-only data segment can be within 4GB addressing space. The text segment should be still within 16MB addressing space.
large
All the text and data segments can be within 4GB addressing space.
-mctor-dtor
Enable constructor/destructor feature.
-mrelax

Nios II Options

These are the options defined for the Altera Nios II processor.

-G num
Put global and static objects less than or equal to num bytes into the small data or BSS sections instead of the normal data or BSS sections. The default value of num is 8.
-mgpopt=option
-mgpopt
-mno-gpopt

Generate (do not generate) GP-relative accesses. The following option names are recognized:

none
Do not generate GP-relative accesses.
local
Generate GP-relative accesses for small data objects that are not external, weak, or uninitialized common symbols. Also use GP-relative addressing for objects that have been explicitly placed in a small data section via a section attribute.
global
As for local, but also generate GP-relative accesses for small data objects that are external, weak, or common. If you use this option, you must ensure that all parts of your program (including libraries) are compiled with the same -G setting.
data
Generate GP-relative accesses for all data objects in the program. If you use this option, the entire data and BSS segments of your program must fit in 64K of memory and you must use an appropriate linker script to allocate them within the addressable range of the global pointer.
all
Generate GP-relative addresses for function pointers as well as data pointers. If you use this option, the entire text, data, and BSS segments of your program must fit in 64K of memory and you must use an appropriate linker script to allocate them within the addressable range of the global pointer.

-mgpopt is equivalent to -mgpopt=local, and -mno-gpopt is equivalent to -mgpopt=none. The default is -mgpopt except when -fpic or -fPIC is specified to generate position-independent code. Note that the Nios II ABI does not permit GP-relative accesses from shared libraries. You may need to specify -mno-gpopt explicitly when building programs that include large amounts of small data, including large GOT data sections. In this case, the 16-bit offset for GP-relative addressing may not be large enough to allow access to the entire small data section.

-mgprel-sec=regexp
This option specifies additional section names that can be accessed via GP-relative addressing. It is most useful in conjunction with section attributes on variable declarations and a custom linker script. The regexp is a POSIX Extended Regular Expression. This option does not affect the behavior of the -G option, and the specified sections are in addition to the standard .sdata and .sbss small-data sections that are recognized by -mgpopt.
-mr0rel-sec=regexp
This option specifies names of sections that can be accessed via a 16-bit offset from r0; that is, in the low 32K or high 32K of the 32-bit address space. It is most useful in conjunction with section attributes on variable declarations and a custom linker script. The regexp is a POSIX Extended Regular Expression. In contrast to the use of GP-relative addressing for small data, zero-based addressing is never generated by default and there are no conventional section names used in standard linker scripts for sections in the low or high areas of memory.
-mel
-meb

Generate little-endian (default) or big-endian (experimental) code, respectively.

-march=arch
This specifies the name of the target Nios II architecture. GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. Permissible names are: r1, r2. The preprocessor macro _ _nios2_arch_ _ is available to programs, with value 1 or 2, indicating the targeted ISA level.
-mbypass-cache
-mno-bypass-cache

Force all load and store instructions to always bypass cache by using I/O variants of the instructions. The default is not to bypass the cache.

-mno-cache-volatile
-mcache-volatile

Volatile memory access bypass the cache using the I/O variants of the load and store instructions. The default is not to bypass the cache.

-mno-fast-sw-div
-mfast-sw-div

Do not use table-based fast divide for small numbers. The default is to use the fast divide at -O3 and above.

-mno-hw-mul
-mhw-mul
-mno-hw-mulx
-mhw-mulx
-mno-hw-div
-mhw-div

Enable or disable emitting mul, mulx and div family of instructions by the compiler. The default is to emit mul and not emit div and mulx.

-mbmx
-mno-bmx
-mcdx
-mno-cdx

Enable or disable generation of Nios II R2 BMX (bit manipulation) and CDX (code density) instructions. Enabling these instructions also requires -march=r2. Since these instructions are optional extensions to the R2 architecture, the default is not to emit them.

-mcustom-insn=N
-mno-custom-insn

Each -mcustom-*/insn/*=*/N/ option enables use of a custom instruction with encoding N when generating code that uses insn. For example, *-mcustom-fadds=253 generates custom instruction 253 for single-precision floating-point add operations instead of the default behavior of using a library call. The following values of insn are supported. Except as otherwise noted, floating-point operations are expected to be implemented with normal IEEE 754 semantics and correspond directly to the C operators or the equivalent GCC built-in functions. Single-precision floating point:

Binary arithmetic operations.
fnegs
Unary negation.
fabss
Unary absolute value.
fcmpeqs, fcmpges, fcmpgts, fcmples, fcmplts, fcmpnes
Comparison operations.
fmins, fmaxs
Floating-point minimum and maximum. These instructions are only generated if -ffinite-math-only is specified.
fsqrts
Unary square root operation.
fcoss, fsins, ftans, fatans, fexps, flogs
Floating-point trigonometric and exponential functions. These instructions are only generated if -funsafe-math-optimizations is also specified.

Double-precision floating point:

Binary arithmetic operations.
fnegd
Unary negation.
fabsd
Unary absolute value.
fcmpeqd, fcmpged, fcmpgtd, fcmpled, fcmpltd, fcmpned
Comparison operations.
fmind, fmaxd
Double-precision minimum and maximum. These instructions are only generated if -ffinite-math-only is specified.
fsqrtd
Unary square root operation.
fcosd, fsind, ftand, fatand, fexpd, flogd
Double-precision trigonometric and exponential functions. These instructions are only generated if -funsafe-math-optimizations is also specified.

Conversions:

fextsd
Conversion from single precision to double precision.
ftruncds
Conversion from double precision to single precision.
fixsi, fixsu, fixdi, fixdu
Conversion from floating point to signed or unsigned integer types, with truncation towards zero.
round
Conversion from single-precision floating point to signed integer, rounding to the nearest integer and ties away from zero. This corresponds to the _ _builtin_lroundf function when -fno-math-errno is used.
floatis, floatus, floatid, floatud
Conversion from signed or unsigned integer types to floating-point types.

In addition, all of the following transfer instructions for internal registers X and Y must be provided to use any of the double-precision floating-point instructions. Custom instructions taking two double-precision source operands expect the first operand in the 64-bit register X. The other operand (or only operand of a unary operation) is given to the custom arithmetic instruction with the least significant half in source register src1 and the most significant half in src2. A custom instruction that returns a double-precision result returns the most significant 32 bits in the destination register and the other half in 32-bit register Y. GCC automatically generates the necessary code sequences to write register X and/or read register Y when double-precision floating-point instructions are used.

fwrx
Write src1 into the least significant half of X and src2 into the most significant half of X.
fwry
Write src1 into Y.
frdxhi, frdxlo
Read the most or least (respectively) significant half of X and store it in dest.
frdy
Read the value of Y and store it into dest.

Note that you can gain more local control over generation of Nios II custom instructions by using the target("custom-=/=insn=/===/=N=/“)= and target("no-custom-=/=insn=/”)= function attributes or pragmas.

-mcustom-fpu-cfg=name
This option enables a predefined, named set of custom instruction encodings (see -mcustom-*/insn/ above). Currently, the following sets are defined: *-mcustom-fpu-cfg=60-1 is equivalent to: -mcustom-fmuls=252 * -mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254 -fsingle-precision-constant *-mcustom-fpu-cfg=60-2 is equivalent to: -mcustom-fmuls=252 * -mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254 -mcustom-fdivs=255 -fsingle-precision-constant *-mcustom-fpu-cfg=72-3 is equivalent to: -mcustom-floatus=243 * -mcustom-fixsi=244 -mcustom-floatis=245 -mcustom-fcmpgts=246 -mcustom-fcmples=249 -mcustom-fcmpeqs=250 -mcustom-fcmpnes=251 -mcustom-fmuls=252 -mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254 -mcustom-fdivs=255 -fsingle-precision-constant *-mcustom-fpu-cfg=fph2 is equivalent to: -mcustom-fabss=224 * -mcustom-fnegs=225 -mcustom-fcmpnes=226 -mcustom-fcmpeqs=227 -mcustom-fcmpges=228 -mcustom-fcmpgts=229 -mcustom-fcmples=230 -mcustom-fcmplts=231 -mcustom-fmaxs=232 -mcustom-fmins=233 -mcustom-round=248 -mcustom-fixsi=249 -mcustom-floatis=250 -mcustom-fsqrts=251 -mcustom-fmuls=252 -mcustom-fadds=253 -mcustom-fsubs=254 -mcustom-fdivs=255 Custom instruction assignments given by individual *-mcustom-*/insn/*= options override those given by -mcustom-fpu-cfg=, regardless of the order of the options on the command line. Note that you can gain more local control over selection of a FPU configuration by using the target("custom-fpu-cfg==/=name=/“)= function attribute or pragma. The name fph2 is an abbreviation for Nios II Floating Point Hardware 2 Component. Please note that the custom instructions enabled by -mcustom-fmins=233 and -mcustom-fmaxs=234 are only generated if -ffinite-math-only is specified. The custom instruction enabled by -mcustom-round=248 is only generated if -fno-math-errno is specified. In contrast to the other configurations, -fsingle-precision-constant is not set.

These additional -m options are available for the Altera Nios II ELF (bare-metal) target:

-mhal
Link with HAL BSP. This suppresses linking with the GCC-provided C runtime startup and termination code, and is typically used in conjunction with -msys-crt0= to specify the location of the alternate startup code provided by the HAL BSP.
-msmallc
Link with a limited version of the C library, -lsmallc, rather than Newlib.
-msys-crt0=startfile
startfile is the file name of the startfile (crt0) to use when linking. This option is only useful in conjunction with -mhal.
-msys-lib=systemlib
systemlib is the library name of the library that provides low-level system calls required by the C library, e.g. read and write. This option is typically used to link with a library provided by a HAL BSP.

Nvidia PTX Options

These options are defined for Nvidia PTX:

-m64
Ignored, but preserved for backward compatibility. Only 64-bit ABI is supported.
-misa=ISA-string
Generate code for given the specified PTX ISA (e.g. sm_35). ISA strings must be lower-case. Valid ISA strings include sm_30 and sm_35. The default ISA is sm_35.
-mmainkernel
-moptimize
Apply partitioned execution optimizations. This is the default when any level of optimization is selected.
-msoft-stack
Generate code that does not use .local memory directly for stack storage. Instead, a per-warp stack pointer is maintained explicitly. This enables variable-length stack allocation (with variable-length arrays or alloca), and when global memory is used for underlying storage, makes it possible to access automatic variables from other threads, or with atomic instructions. This code generation variant is used for OpenMP offloading, but the option is exposed on its own for the purpose of testing the compiler; to generate code suitable for linking into programs using OpenMP offloading, use option -mgomp.
-muniform-simt
Switch to code generation variant that allows to execute all threads in each warp, while maintaining memory state and side effects as if only one thread in each warp was active outside of OpenMP SIMD regions. All atomic operations and calls to runtime (malloc, free, vprintf) are conditionally executed (iff current lane index equals the master lane index), and the register being assigned is copied via a shuffle instruction from the master lane. Outside of SIMD regions lane 0 is the master; inside, each thread sees itself as the master. Shared memory array int _ _nvptx_uni[] stores all-zeros or all-ones bitmasks for each warp, indicating current mode (0 outside of SIMD regions). Each thread can bitwise-and the bitmask at position tid.y with current lane index to compute the master lane index.
-mgomp
Generate code for use in OpenMP offloading: enables -msoft-stack and -muniform-simt options, and selects corresponding multilib variant.

OpenRISC Options

These options are defined for OpenRISC:

-mboard=name
Configure a board specific runtime. This will be passed to the linker for newlib board library linking. The default is or1ksim.
-mnewlib
This option is ignored; it is for compatibility purposes only. This used to select linker and preprocessor options for use with newlib.
-msoft-div
-mhard-div

Select software or hardware divide (l.div, l.divu) instructions. This default is hardware divide.

-msoft-mul
-mhard-mul

Select software or hardware multiply (l.mul, l.muli) instructions. This default is hardware multiply.

-msoft-float
-mhard-float

Select software or hardware for floating point operations. The default is software.

-mdouble-float
When -mhard-float is selected, enables generation of double-precision floating point instructions. By default functions from libgcc are used to perform double-precision floating point operations.
-munordered-float
When -mhard-float is selected, enables generation of unordered floating point compare and set flag (lf.sfun*) instructions. By default functions from libgcc are used to perform unordered floating point compare and set flag operations.
-mcmov
Enable generation of conditional move (l.cmov) instructions. By default the equivalent will be generated using set and branch.
-mror
Enable generation of rotate right (l.ror) instructions. By default functions from libgcc are used to perform rotate right operations.
-mrori
Enable generation of rotate right with immediate (l.rori) instructions. By default functions from libgcc are used to perform rotate right with immediate operations.
-msext
Enable generation of sign extension (l.ext*) instructions. By default memory loads are used to perform sign extension.
-msfimm
Enable generation of compare and set flag with immediate (l.sf*i) instructions. By default extra instructions will be generated to store the immediate to a register first.
-mshftimm
Enable generation of shift with immediate (l.srai, l.srli, l.slli) instructions. By default extra instructions will be generated to store the immediate to a register first.

PDP-11 Options

These options are defined for the PDP-11:

-mfpu
Use hardware FPP floating point. This is the default. (FIS floating point on the PDP-11/40 is not supported.) Implies -m45.
-msoft-float
Do not use hardware floating point.
-mac0
Return floating-point results in ac0 (fr0 in Unix assembler syntax).
-mno-ac0
Return floating-point results in memory. This is the default.
-m40
Generate code for a PDP-11/40. Implies -msoft-float -mno-split.
-m45
Generate code for a PDP-11/45. This is the default.
-m10
Generate code for a PDP-11/10. Implies -msoft-float -mno-split.
-mint16
-mno-int32

Use 16-bit int. This is the default.

-mint32
-mno-int16

Use 32-bit int.

-msplit
Target has split instruction and data space. Implies -m45.
-munix-asm
Use Unix assembler syntax.
-mdec-asm
Use DEC assembler syntax.
-mgnu-asm
Use GNU assembler syntax. This is the default.
-mlra
Use the new LRA register allocator. By default, the old reload allocator is used.

picoChip Options

These -m options are defined for picoChip implementations:

-mae=ae_type
Set the instruction set, register set, and instruction scheduling parameters for array element type ae_type. Supported values for ae_type are ANY, MUL, and MAC. -mae=ANY selects a completely generic AE type. Code generated with this option runs on any of the other AE types. The code is not as efficient as it would be if compiled for a specific AE type, and some types of operation (e.g., multiplication) do not work properly on all types of AE. -mae=MUL selects a MUL AE type. This is the most useful AE type for compiled code, and is the default. -mae=MAC selects a DSP-style MAC AE. Code compiled with this option may suffer from poor performance of byte (char) manipulation, since the DSP AE does not provide hardware support for byte load/stores.
Enable the compiler to directly use a symbol name as an address in a load/store instruction, without first loading it into a register. Typically, the use of this option generates larger programs, which run faster than when the option isn’t used. However, the results vary from program to program, so it is left as a user option, rather than being permanently enabled.
-mno-inefficient-warnings
Disables warnings about the generation of inefficient code. These warnings can be generated, for example, when compiling code that performs byte-level memory operations on the MAC AE type. The MAC AE has no hardware support for byte-level memory operations, so all byte load/stores must be synthesized from word load/store operations. This is inefficient and a warning is generated to indicate that you should rewrite the code to avoid byte operations, or to target an AE type that has the necessary hardware support. This option disables these warnings.

PowerPC Options

These are listed under

PRU Options

These command-line options are defined for PRU target:

-minrt
Link with a minimum runtime environment, with no support for static initializers and constructors. Using this option can significantly reduce the size of the final ELF binary. Beware that the compiler could still generate code with static initializers and constructors. It is up to the programmer to ensure that the source program will not use those features.
-mmcu=mcu
Specify the PRU MCU variant to use. Check Newlib for the exact list of supported MCUs.
-mno-relax
Make GCC pass the –no-relax command-line option to the linker instead of the –relax option.
-mloop
Allow (or do not allow) GCC to use the LOOP instruction.
-mabi=variant

Specify the ABI variant to output code for. -mabi=ti selects the unmodified TI ABI while -mabi=gnu selects a GNU variant that copes more naturally with certain GCC assumptions. These are the differences:

Function Pointer Size
TI ABI specifies that function (code) pointers are 16-bit, whereas GNU supports only 32-bit data and code pointers.
Optional Return Value Pointer
Function return values larger than 64 bits are passed by using a hidden pointer as the first argument of the function. TI ABI, though, mandates that the pointer can be NULL in case the caller is not using the returned value. GNU always passes and expects a valid return value pointer.

The current -mabi=ti implementation simply raises a compile error when any of the above code constructs is detected. As a consequence the standard C library cannot be built and it is omitted when linking with -mabi=ti. Relaxation is a GNU feature and for safety reasons is disabled when using -mabi=ti. The TI toolchain does not emit relocations for QBBx instructions, so the GNU linker cannot adjust them when shortening adjacent LDI32 pseudo instructions.

RISC-V Options

These command-line options are defined for RISC-V targets:

-mbranch-cost=n
Set the cost of branches to roughly n instructions.
-mplt
-mno-plt

When generating PIC code, do or don’t allow the use of PLTs. Ignored for non-PIC. The default is -mplt.

-mabi=ABI-string
Specify integer and floating-point calling convention. ABI-string contains two parts: the size of integer types and the registers used for floating-point types. For example -march=rv64ifd -mabi=lp64d means that long and pointers are 64-bit (implicitly defining int to be 32-bit), and that floating-point values up to 64 bits wide are passed in F registers. Contrast this with -march=rv64ifd -mabi=lp64f, which still allows the compiler to generate code that uses the F and D extensions but only allows floating-point values up to 32 bits long to be passed in registers; or -march=rv64ifd -mabi=lp64, in which no floating-point arguments will be passed in registers. The default for this argument is system dependent, users who want a specific calling convention should specify one explicitly. The valid calling conventions are: ilp32, ilp32f, ilp32d, lp64, lp64f, and lp64d. Some calling conventions are impossible to implement on some ISAs: for example, -march=rv32if -mabi=ilp32d is invalid because the ABI requires 64-bit values be passed in F registers, but F registers are only 32 bits wide. There is also the ilp32e ABI that can only be used with the rv32e architecture. This ABI is not well specified at present, and is subject to change.
-mfdiv
-mno-fdiv

Do or don’t use hardware floating-point divide and square root instructions. This requires the F or D extensions for floating-point registers. The default is to use them if the specified architecture has these instructions.

-mdiv
-mno-div

Do or don’t use hardware instructions for integer division. This requires the M extension. The default is to use them if the specified architecture has these instructions.

-march=ISA-string
Generate code for given RISC-V ISA (e.g. rv64im). ISA strings must be lower-case. Examples include rv64i, rv32g, rv32e, and rv32imaf. When -march= is not specified, use the setting from -mcpu. If both -march and -mcpu= are not specified, the default for this argument is system dependent, users who want a specific architecture extensions should specify one explicitly.
-mcpu=processor-string
Use architecture of and optimize the output for the given processor, specified by particular CPU name. Permissible values for this option are: sifive-e20, sifive-e21, sifive-e24, sifive-e31, sifive-e34, sifive-e76, sifive-s21, sifive-s51, sifive-s54, sifive-s76, sifive-u54, and sifive-u74.
-mtune=processor-string
Optimize the output for the given processor, specified by microarchitecture or particular CPU name. Permissible values for this option are: rocket, sifive-3-series, sifive-5-series, sifive-7-series, size, and all valid options for -mcpu=. When -mtune= is not specified, use the setting from -mcpu, the default is rocket if both are not specified. The size choice is not intended for use by end-users. This is used when -Os is specified. It overrides the instruction cost info provided by -mtune=, but does not override the pipeline info. This helps reduce code size while still giving good performance.
-mpreferred-stack-boundary=num
Attempt to keep the stack boundary aligned to a 2 raised to num byte boundary. If -mpreferred-stack-boundary is not specified, the default is 4 (16 bytes or 128-bits). Warning: If you use this switch, then you must build all modules with the same value, including any libraries. This includes the system libraries and startup modules.
-msmall-data-limit=n
Put global and static data smaller than n bytes into a special section (on some targets).
-msave-restore
-mno-save-restore

Do or don’t use smaller but slower prologue and epilogue code that uses library function calls. The default is to use fast inline prologues and epilogues.

-mshorten-memrefs
-mno-shorten-memrefs

Do or do not attempt to make more use of compressed load/store instructions by replacing a load/store of ’base register + large offset’ with a new load/store of ’new base + small offset’. If the new base gets stored in a compressed register, then the new load/store can be compressed. Currently targets 32-bit integer load/stores only.

-mstrict-align
-mno-strict-align

Do not or do generate unaligned memory accesses. The default is set depending on whether the processor we are optimizing for supports fast unaligned access or not.

-mcmodel=medlow
Generate code for the medium-low code model. The program and its statically defined symbols must lie within a single 2 GiB address range and must lie between absolute addresses -2 GiB and +2 GiB. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked. This is the default code model.
-mcmodel=medany
Generate code for the medium-any code model. The program and its statically defined symbols must be within any single 2 GiB address range. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked.
-mexplicit-relocs
-mno-exlicit-relocs

Use or do not use assembler relocation operators when dealing with symbolic addresses. The alternative is to use assembler macros instead, which may limit optimization.

-mrelax
-mno-relax

-memit-attribute
-mno-emit-attribute

Emit (do not emit) RISC-V attribute to record extra information into ELF objects. This feature requires at least binutils 2.32.

-malign-data=type
Control how GCC aligns variables and constants of array, structure, or union types. Supported values for type are xlen which uses x register width as the alignment value, and natural which uses natural alignment. xlen is the default.
-mbig-endian
Generate big-endian code. This is the default when GCC is configured for a riscv64be--* or *riscv32be--** target.
-mlittle-endian
Generate little-endian code. This is the default when GCC is configured for a riscv64--* or *riscv32--* but not a *riscv64be--* or *riscv32be--** target.
-mstack-protector-guard=guard
-mstack-protector-guard-reg=reg
-mstack-protector-guard-offset=offset

Generate stack protection code using canary at guard. Supported locations are global for a global canary or tls for per-thread canary in the TLS block. With the latter choice the options *-mstack-protector-guard-reg=*/reg/ and *-mstack-protector-guard-offset=*/offset/ furthermore specify which register to use as base register for reading the canary, and from what offset from that base register. There is no default register or offset as this is entirely for use within the Linux kernel.

RL78 Options

-msim
-mmul=none
-mmul=g10
-mmul=g13
-mmul=g14
-mmul=rl78

Specifies the type of hardware multiplication and division support to be used. The simplest is none, which uses software for both multiplication and division. This is the default. The g13 value is for the hardware multiply/divide peripheral found on the RL78/G13 (S2 core) targets. The g14 value selects the use of the multiplication and division instructions supported by the RL78/G14 (S3 core) parts. The value rl78 is an alias for g14 and the value mg10 is an alias for none. In addition a C preprocessor macro is defined, based upon the setting of this option. Possible values are: _ _RL78_MUL_NONE_ _, _ _RL78_MUL_G13_ _ or _ _RL78_MUL_G14_ _.

-mcpu=g10
-mcpu=g13
-mcpu=g14
-mcpu=rl78

Specifies the RL78 core to target. The default is the G14 core, also known as an S3 core or just RL78. The G13 or S2 core does not have multiply or divide instructions, instead it uses a hardware peripheral for these operations. The G10 or S1 core does not have register banks, so it uses a different calling convention. If this option is set it also selects the type of hardware multiply support to use, unless this is overridden by an explicit -mmul=none option on the command line. Thus specifying -mcpu=g13 enables the use of the G13 hardware multiply peripheral and specifying -mcpu=g10 disables the use of hardware multiplications altogether. Note, although the RL78/G14 core is the default target, specifying -mcpu=g14 or -mcpu=rl78 on the command line does change the behavior of the toolchain since it also enables G14 hardware multiply support. If these options are not specified on the command line then software multiplication routines will be used even though the code targets the RL78 core. This is for backwards compatibility with older toolchains which did not have hardware multiply and divide support. In addition a C preprocessor macro is defined, based upon the setting of this option. Possible values are: _ _RL78_G10_ _, _ _RL78_G13_ _ or _ _RL78_G14_ _.

-mg10
-mg13
-mg14
-mrl78

These are aliases for the corresponding -mcpu= option. They are provided for backwards compatibility.

-mallregs
Allow the compiler to use all of the available registers. By default registers r24..r31 are reserved for use in interrupt handlers. With this option enabled these registers can be used in ordinary functions as well.
-m64bit-doubles
-m32bit-doubles

Make the double data type be 64 bits (-m64bit-doubles) or 32 bits (-m32bit-doubles) in size. The default is -m32bit-doubles.

-msave-mduc-in-interrupts
-mno-save-mduc-in-interrupts

Specifies that interrupt handler functions should preserve the MDUC registers. This is only necessary if normal code might use the MDUC registers, for example because it performs multiplication and division operations. The default is to ignore the MDUC registers as this makes the interrupt handlers faster. The target option -mg13 needs to be passed for this to work as this feature is only available on the G13 target (S2 core). The MDUC registers will only be saved if the interrupt handler performs a multiplication or division operation or it calls another function.

IBM RS/6000 and PowerPC Options

These -m options are defined for the IBM RS/6000 and PowerPC:

-mpowerpc-gpopt
-mno-powerpc-gpopt
-mpowerpc-gfxopt
-mno-powerpc-gfxopt
-mpowerpc64
-mno-powerpc64
-mmfcrf
-mno-mfcrf
-mpopcntb
-mno-popcntb
-mpopcntd
-mno-popcntd
-mfprnd
-mno-fprnd
-mcmpb
-mno-cmpb
-mhard-dfp
-mno-hard-dfp

You use these options to specify which instructions are available on the processor you are using. The default value of these options is determined when configuring GCC. Specifying the -mcpu=*/cpu_type/ overrides the specification of these options. We recommend you use the *-mcpu=*/cpu_type/ option rather than the options listed above. Specifying *-mpowerpc-gpopt allows GCC to use the optional PowerPC architecture instructions in the General Purpose group, including floating-point square root. Specifying -mpowerpc-gfxopt allows GCC to use the optional PowerPC architecture instructions in the Graphics group, including floating-point select. The -mmfcrf option allows GCC to generate the move from condition register field instruction implemented on the POWER4 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.01 architecture. The -mpopcntb option allows GCC to generate the popcount and double-precision FP reciprocal estimate instruction implemented on the POWER5 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.02 architecture. The -mpopcntd option allows GCC to generate the popcount instruction implemented on the POWER7 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.06 architecture. The -mfprnd option allows GCC to generate the FP round to integer instructions implemented on the POWER5+ processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.03 architecture. The -mcmpb option allows GCC to generate the compare bytes instruction implemented on the POWER6 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.05 architecture. The -mhard-dfp option allows GCC to generate the decimal floating-point instructions implemented on some POWER processors. The